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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 428 matches for " prescription "
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Community Pharmacy Prescription Screening in the UAE  [PDF]
Muaed Alomar
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.51013
Abstract:

This study was designed to investigate and to evaluate pharmacists in the United Arab Emirates-Fujairah-Dibba-Sharjah-Abu Dhabi. The study is concerned with how pharmacists deal with prescriptions (OTC-Ethical) and their behavior with their patients in comparison to standards. Objectives: The study’s objective is to evaluate current pharmacists, who deal with a large number of patients and affect their lives. Methodology: A descriptive and comparative prospective prescription screening study, which evaluates data in OTC and ethical prescriptions.1000 prescriptions (including OTC and ethical) were collected randomly from community and hospital pharmacies (Fujairah, Dibba, Sharjah and Abu-Dhabi) in the United Arab Emirates. Data collection was carried out within a 3-month time period. SPSS (version 16) was used for data entry and analysis in which each prescription was evaluated using certain parameters. Results: One thousand prescriptions were collected, of which 10.6% were OTC and 89.4% were ethical, which were included in the analysis. Analysis was carried out to obtain percentages, frequencies and general cross tabs. Conclusion: Our study showed that most patients received no oral or written information about how to use the medication, how to manage adverse effects, what precautions to take,

Access to Antibiotics through Prescription and Non-Prescription Media in Private Pharmacies in Lomé, Togo  [PDF]
Yao Potchoo, Salou Mounerou, Rasak Soukouratou, Dossim Sika, Koumavi D. Ekouevi, Yerima Mouhoudine, Prince-David Mireille, Anoumou Y. Dagnra
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2019.101004
Abstract:
Objectives: The present study was conducted to describe and analyze antibiotic demands via prescription and non-prescription media received in private pharmacies in Lomé. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 26 private pharmacies in Lomé (Togo) from August to October 2013. The study was based on a survey conducted with a standardized questionnaire to collect data representing the daily activity of the pharmacies. Data on prescription documents, non-prescription media, patients’ and prescribers’ identification, and antibiotics requested were collected and analyzed. Key findings: During the study period, 596 antibiotic prescriptions were collected. Various prescription and non-prescription media permitted available antibiotic access in private pharmacies. Seventy-nine percent (79%) of the received orders contained one antibiotic. All categories of health care professionals were found among antibiotic prescribers. Prescribers were not identifiable in 40.2% of all prescription tools received for antibiotics demand. Forty-four percent (44%) of antibiotic orders were supported by a prescription. The study found that many people ordering antibiotic (61%) were not the direct users. Some elements of prescription compliance were mentioned at the rate of 82%, 44.7% and 59% (date, prescribers’ identity and qualification), 3/4 of the prescription material (patients’ identity and sex), more than 87% (accuracy of the dosage), 79.7% (oral route of administration) and less than 1/3 (duration of treatment). The results also indicated that Beta-lactams (41%), quinolones (17%), and 5-nitroimidazoles (15%) were the most prescribed classes of antibiotics. Conclusions: The study revealed that more than half of the antibiotics orders, received in pharmacies were non-compliant. This calls for an awareness of healthcare workers
Caracterización del patrón de prescripción de carbamazepina: provincias seleccionadas de Cuba, a?o 2005
Rodríguez Ganen,Odalis; Alonso Carbonell,Liuba; Yera Alós,Isis Belkis; García Milián,Ana Julia;
Revista Cubana de Farmacia , 2006,
Abstract: with the objective of characterizing the prescription of carbamazepine, an observational study of use of drugs under prescription-indication was made, with elements of therapeutic scheme and factors that conditioned the prescription in april, 2005. information was gathered from medical certificates of patients under carbamazepine treatment, which were kept in the main municipal drugstores of 6 cuban provinces that have been previously selected according to expert criteria. the analyzed variables were diagnosis, age, sex, daily dose, pharmaceuticals affecting the action of carbamazepine, medical specialty issuing the certificate and level of care. epilepsy is the main cause for prescription of this drug (61,3%). the recommended dose was written in 99,6% of medical certificates. few patients took drugs that affected carbamazepine metabolism. the certificates were mainly given by family physicians (62%), neurologists (13%) and psychiatrists (13%) and they were issued at primary health care level (7%). generally speaking, the prescription pattern is in line with the recommendations made by the medical literature
Physical Fitness Characterization by Obesity Level in Young Males with Poor Physical Fitness  [PDF]
Tamotsu Kitabayashi, Shin-ichi Demura, Takanori Noguchi
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2013.32012
Abstract:

Lack of physical fitness in obese people, recent decline in physical fitness of young people, and physical fitness problems of thin people are a concern. We investigated the physical fitness characteristics of different obese groups comprising young males with poor physical fitness. Technical college students (144 males; age, 15.9 ± 1.1 y; height, 169.1 ±5.9 cm; weight, 60.0 ±13.3 kg) took the physical fitness test of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) and were judged to have lower than normal physical fitness in a comprehensive evaluation of the MEXT physical test. Three groups with different obesity levels were formed according to their percent body fat (%BF): thin (<15%), normal (15% - 25%), and obese (>25%). The obese group had stronger grip than the thin and normal groups but was inferior to the thin group in 20-m shuttle run, standing broad jump, 50-m run, and total score. The test requiring large physical movements revealed that the obese group was inferior in power and endurance. Therefore, among young males with poor physical fitness, obese individuals have different physical fitness characteristics than thin and normal individuals; they are inferior to normal and thin individuals in running- and jumping-related power and endurance but superior in muscle strength.

Prescription of intermittent preventive therapy (IPTp) among doctors practicing in an army hospital in Lagos, Nigeria  [PDF]
Nkechinyere E. Harrison, Tolulope F. Olufunlayo, Nkiru N. Odunukwe
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.32035
Abstract:

Background: Malaria infestation in pregnancy is a major public health concern and ranks amongst the commonest complications of pregnancy in Nigeria. Approximately 50,000 Nigerian women die each year from largely preventable pregnancy related complications. Intermittent preventive therapy for malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is a key recommendation in the National guideline for malaria treatment in Nigeria. This study assessed the prescription pattern of intermittent preventive therapy with Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine for pregnant women among doctors practicing in 68 Nigerian Army Reference Hospital, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: This was a retrospective study using case notes of pregnant women seen at antenatal clinic of 68 Nigerian Army Reference Hospital, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria from January, 2008 to December, 2008. A total of 336 case notes were reviewed. The findings were precoded, data entry and analysis was done using EPI INFO 2002. Results: A good proportion of the women (82.9%) booked for antenatal clinic within the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Most commonly prescribed by doctors was the weekly pyrimethamine (daraprim) for malaria prophylaxis in pregnancy (100.0%). Very few doctors prescribed intermittent preventive therapy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, and the few who did prescribed just one dose. Conclusion: The study showed a very low level of prescription of IPTp among doctors practicing at 68 Nigerian Army Reference Hospital, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria. There is a great need for training of these doctors and other health professionals on the recommendations of the current National Antimalarial Treatment Guidelines.

Anti-Malarial Targeting and Dosing Practices among Health Workers at Lower Level Health Facilities in Uganda  [PDF]
Stella Kakeeto, Humphrey Wanzira, Gerald Kagambirwe Karyeija, Moses Kamya, Hasifa Bukirwa
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.616250
Abstract: Background: Health worker shortages remain a significant challenge to delivery of health care services globally. Moving tasks, where appropriate, to less specialized health workers is recommended by the World Health Organization as a strategy to address this challenge. However, this concept is feared to raise specific quality concerns. This research aimed at assessing the performance of health workers to correctly prescribe (target) appropriate antimalarial treatment. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study at three public health centre IVs in Uganda, with varying malaria transmission intensities (Kihihi-low, Kasambya-medium and Nagongera-high). We categorized prescribers into two groups: specialized prescribers (doctors and clinical officers) and less specialized prescribers (nurses and midwives). At each site, 100 records of patients seen between September and November 2011 and prescribed an antimalarial were retrieved for each group of prescribers. Correctness of the antimalarial drug prescribed and dose given were assessed for each group and compared to the 2005 Uganda national malaria treatment guidelines which recommend Artemether Lumefantrine (AL) for treatment of uncomplicated malaria and Quinine for complicated malaria. Results: Findings of the study showed that specialized health workers were more likely to target correctly as compared to the less specialized health workers [OR = 1.49 (1.00 - 2.22), p = 0.046]. Appropriateness of dosing was higher among specialized prescribers compared to less specialized prescribers however this was not significant [OR = 1.58 (0.77 - 3.25), p = 0.206]. Age of the participants, history of fever, diagnosis of malaria and prescription experience were not associated with correct targeting. Conclusion: This study shows that task shifting at the targeting level is not suitable; however, there is inadequate evidence to show that this also applies to anti-malarial dosing. Task shifting for the treatment of Malaria in Uganda should be investigated further using larger studies if it is to be considered as an option for solving the health worker shortages especially in regions with few specialized health workers but high malaria burden.
Awareness, Knowledge, Perception and Attitude towards Prescription Medicines Abuse among Medicines Prescribers and Dispensers in Nnewi Nigeria  [PDF]
Prosper Obunikem Uchechukwu Adogu, Ifeoma A. Njelita, Nonye Bibiana Egenti, Chika Florence Ubajaka, Ifeoma A. Modebe
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2015.65028
Abstract: Background: Abuse of medicines is becoming a serious problem in many parts of the world, with negative consequences ranging from addiction, psychosis, cardiovascular complications, and premature deaths from unintentional overdose. Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess awareness, knowledge, perception and attitudes toward the abuse of prescription medicines (PM) among medicines prescribers and dispensers in Nigeria. Design and Participants: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among pharmacists, other pharmacy staff in retail pharmacies, licensed patent medicines vendors (chemical sellers), and medical doctors in Nnewi, Nigeria. Data were collected through self-completed questionnaire supervised by trained research assistants, between December 2013 and April 2014. Three hundred and seventy-five participants were recruited for this study. Data Analysis: The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 for windows was used for data analysis. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to evaluate differences and associations based on selected variables. Results: The perception was high 294 (78.4%) among respondents that PM abuse was a problem in the community. Knowledge of health problems associated with PM abuse was also high at 226 (60.3%). However the attitude of the respondents towards early detection of PM abuse among their patients/clients was discouraging. Education, educational status, work status and gender significantly predict good knowledge and positive attitude about PM abuse. Conclusion: Findings from this study will assist health authorities to formulate appropriate health promotion interventions to control and prevent abuse of prescription medicines. Actions directed at early intervention, capacity building, education, public health initiatives and law enforcements will hopefully curb the menace of PM abuse in Nnewi, Nigeria.
Drug Prescribing Trends among Consultants and General Practitioners in Sharjah-UAE  [PDF]
Suleiman I. Sharif, Hoda Fazli, Yasami Tajrobehkar, Zeinab Namvar, Laila M. T. Bugaighis
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2015.68038
Abstract: Background: Inappropriate prescribing can lead to errors in dispensing medications and serious problems for patients. Objectives: Prescription analysis can identify such drawbacks of prescribing, increase awareness of prescribers of rational prescribing and consequently lead to proper delivery of pharmaceutical care and enhance therapeutic outcomes. Methods: In the present study, prescriptions issued by consultants from a hospital and by general practitioners from private practice in Sharjah-United Arab Emirates were analyzed using indicators suggested by World Health Organizations. These include information with regard to prescriber, patient and the medication prescribed. We also determined the average number of drugs/encounter and % of prescriptions with antibiotics and those with injections. Data were collected and analyzed using Microsoft Excel and expressed in terms of both counts and percentages. Results: Almost all prescriptions were handwritten with easily readable ones being 65% for consultants and 46% for general practitioners. Average number of drugs/encounter was 2.1 and 2.8 for consultants and general practitioners, respectively. Antibiotics were prescribed in 27% and 44%; generic prescribing was 5% and 10% by consultants and general practitioners respectively and 8% of prescriptions by consultants contained injections. Variable results were obtained on information regarding the patient but consultants seem to be better in documenting patient’s age and gender. Consultants and general practitioners tend to prescribe 3 drugs and more in 35% and 25% respectively. The most commonly prescribed therapeutic classes for both groups of prescribers were NSAIDs and antibiotics with ibuprofen and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination being the most commonly prescribed drugs of each class. Conclusion: To improve prescription writing, interventions must include, among others, incorporation of topics on prescription writing in medical curriculum and programs of continuing medical education.
Compliance of Computed Tomography Scan Requests in Sub-Saharan Africa  [PDF]
Zakari Nikièma, Kofi-Mensa Savi de Tové, Issiaka Sombié, San Désiré Constantin Barro, Ziemlé Clément Méda, Rabiou Cissé
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2016.62019
Abstract: >Objective: To investigate the compliance of computed tomography (CT) scan requests in the X-ray units of Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Multi-centric, exhaustive, descriptive and cross-sectional study (Burkina Faso and Benin) focused on CT scan requests implemented and interpreted from May 1 to July 31, 2014. Request compliance was assessed according to the criteria of the French High Authority for Health to which was added a criterion for fulfillment of description of patient clinical information. An exam was deemed compliant when all criteria were met. Ratios were compared by means of Chi2 test at 0.05% significance level. Results: Among the 426 colligated computed tomography prescriptions, the least filled fields were allergy concept (0%), creatinine-mia (0.3%), examination purpose (50.2%). The overall compliance rate was 35%. The requests made by medical specialists were more compliant than those made by general practitioners and students (p = 0.003). Fulfillment of clinical information description was also better among medical specialists compared to the other prescribers (p = 0.002). Conclusion: It is important to improve the quality of computed tomography (CT) scan requests in the hospitals of Bobo-Dioulasso (Bur-kina Faso) and Parakou (Benin).
Prescribing Pattern for Skin Diseases in Dermatology OPD at Borumeda Hospital, North East, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Abebaw Tegegne, Fentaw Bialfew
Pain Studies and Treatment (PST) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/pst.2018.61001
Abstract:

Introduction: Skin diseases are the major contributors of disease burden in society. Dermatological therapy ultimate goal is achieved by administering the safest and least number of drugs. The problem gets compounded with the inappropriate and irrational use of medicines. Therefore, periodic prescription audit in the form of prescribing patterns is away to improve irrational prescription. The objective of this study to assess the prescription patterns of dermatological agents in Borumeda hospital. Method: Hospital based retrospective cross sectional study in which prescribing patterns of dermatological agents are assessed. A total of 385 samples of patient record prescription from November/1/2016 to December/30/2016, and the sample were selected by systematic random sampling technique. Sample prescriptions were reviewed using structural data collection format. The Collected data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Result: Regarding rout of administration, the maximum number of drugs was prescribed topically (66.2%). Topical steroids were the most commonly prescribed drugs (25.3%). Use of generic prescribing in single drug prescribing was 81.7%. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis was higher (26.3%, 20.8%) in both male and female respectively followed by scabies in male with 12.2% and Acne vulgaris (12.9%) in female. Number of drugs per prescription was higher (2.46) than WHO standard (<2). Conclusion: The current study reveals that topical corticosteroids were commonly prescribed drugs in the dermatology unit and the prescribing practice imitates incidence of polypharmacy.

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