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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3492 matches for " poverty areas "
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Altera??es da temperatura em ambientes externos de favela e desconforto térmico
Silva,Edelci Nunes da; Ribeiro,Helena;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102006000500016
Abstract: objective: to study aspects of the microclimate in a shantytown (favela), in order to understand the influence of the land occupation pattern on its climatic parameters. methods: the study was carried out in a shantytown located in the southwestern region of the city of s?o paulo, brazil, between february 19 and july 31, 2003, i.e. covering the whole autumn and parts of the summer and winter. the air temperatures were measured every hour on a microclimate scale, at four points within this densely populated shantytown and, as a control, on a tree-lined street nearby. results: in the summer, the average hourly temperatures in the shantytown were between 18.5°c and 29.5°c but, away from it, they were 2°c to 3°c lower at the hottest times of the day. in the autumn, the temperatures ranged from 15.5°c to 25.5°c and in the winter, 13.5°c to 25.5°c. the chilliest time in the shantytown was before dawn in the autumn and at 7 a.m. in the winter. the temperature variation was greater inside the shantytown than outside of it. the temperatures were within the comfort range for around 50% of the time. temperatures below the lower limit (18°c) were more frequent than those above the upper limit (24°c). temperatures above the upper limit were more frequent in the shantytown than outside of it. conclusions: the land occupation is a temperature differentiation factor. in the shantytown, the temperatures were higher during the daytime (by up to 3°c) and lower at nighttime (by 1°c on average). the shantytown environment accentuated the temperature extremes, while the temperatures in the control street were milder.
Desigualdad en mortalidad infantil entre las comunas de la provincia de Santiago
Donoso S,Enrique;
Revista médica de Chile , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872004000400008
Abstract: background: social and economical inequalities have an adverse effect on infant mortality. aim: to test if the poorest communities of santiago have the highest rates of infant mortalilty. material and methods: variables were obtained from the year 2000 vital statistics yearbook and the national socioeconomic characterization inquiry. infant mortality was correlated with the mean income of households, the population below the threshold of poverty and the unemployed population of the 32 municipalities of the santiago province. the ratio and the difference in mortality rates between the communities with the higher and lower incomes and the attributable population risk for infant mortality in the province of santiago was calculated. results: infant mortality was positively correlated with the population below the threshold of poverty (r=0.383; p=0.03) and the unemployed population (r=0.437; p=0.012) and inversely correlated with the mean household income (r=-0.522; p=0.002). infant mortality in the poorest community was 2.2 times higher than in the richest one. the difference in rates was 6.6/1000 live births. the attributable population risk determined that it is possible to reduce infant death by 57.8%. conclusions: in the province of santiago, the poorest communities have the highest infant mortality (rev méd chile 2004; 132: 461-6)
Desigualdad en mortalidad infantil entre las comunas de la provincia de Santiago Inequalities in infant mortality in Santiago
Enrique Donoso S
Revista médica de Chile , 2004,
Abstract: Background: Social and economical inequalities have an adverse effect on infant mortality. Aim: To test if the poorest communities of Santiago have the highest rates of infant mortalilty. Material and methods: Variables were obtained from the year 2000 Vital Statistics yearbook and the National Socioeconomic Characterization inquiry. Infant mortality was correlated with the mean income of households, the population below the threshold of poverty and the unemployed population of the 32 municipalities of the Santiago Province. The ratio and the difference in mortality rates between the communities with the higher and lower incomes and the attributable population risk for infant mortality in the Province of Santiago was calculated. Results: Infant mortality was positively correlated with the population below the threshold of poverty (r=0.383; p=0.03) and the unemployed population (r=0.437; p=0.012) and inversely correlated with the mean household income (r=-0.522; p=0.002). Infant mortality in the poorest community was 2.2 times higher than in the richest one. The difference in rates was 6.6/1000 live births. The attributable population risk determined that it is possible to reduce infant death by 57.8%. Conclusions: In the Province of Santiago, the poorest communities have the highest infant mortality (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 461-6)
O trabalho em espiral: uma análise do processo de trabalho dos educadores em saúde nas favelas do Rio de Janeiro
Cunha, Marize Bastos da;Frigotto, Gaudêncio;
Interface - Comunica??o, Saúde, Educa??o , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1414-32832010005000028
Abstract: this paper aims to contribute to the field of study of the community health agent in its relation to the education field. the study investigated the work process of community agents who live in shantytowns and work in public programs and also in non-governmental organizations, in the north zone of the municipality of rio de janeiro. the main results of the study are the determinations and characteristics of the community health agents' work process, from their insertion in the boundary and as subjects who have experiences, social relation networks and accumulated knowledge. with such focus, the intention is to enlarge the view about the role played by the agents so as to allow an advance in the debate about the possibilities and limits of such initiatives.
A retrospective study of the epidemiological aspects of tuberculosis in the Complexo de Manguinhos, an urban slum area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2000-2002
Mendes, Joycenea Matsuda;Fonseca, Leila de Souza;Louren?o, Maria Cristina;Ferreira, Rosa Maria Carvalho;Saad, Maria Helena Feres;
Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-37132007000400014
Abstract: to describe some aspects of tuberculosis in a low-income community (the complexo de manguinhos, in rio de janeiro, brazil), a retrospective study was carried out. of the 290 cases reported in the 2000-2002 period, 75.8% were new cases. the annual incidence rates were 157/100,000 (2000), 205/100,000 (2001), and 145/100,000 (2002). although there was a tendency toward a decrease in the number of cases over the period studied, the difference was not significant, suggesting that tuberculosis continues to be endemic in the area. therefore, despite the existence of local public health care services, more efficient strategies should be implemented in order to increase the effectiveness of tuberculosis control programs in the area.
Estudo do dengue em área urbana favelizada do Rio de Janeiro: considera??es iniciais
Lenzi, Márcia de Freitas;Camillo-Coura, Léa;Grault, Carlos Eduardo;Val, Margarida Barros do;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2000000300034
Abstract: this study is part of a program to control and prevent dengue in a slum bordering on the grounds of the oswaldo cruz foundation in rio de janeiro, brazil. the results obtained from a questionnaire and entomological survey called attention to problems pertaining to the information transmitted by public health campaigns and its interpretation, since many practices result from misunderstanding or forgetting preventive messages. dengue-related data include most frequent vector breeding sites, people's knowledge, and dengue-related habits. the study's conclusions in terms of dengue prevention point to the need for drafting messages not only about ideal preventive practices but also teaching possible solutions: disseminating frequent messages throughout the year and not only seasonally and planning health education to join health professionals and the population in the search for sustainable dengue control alternatives.
Enteroparasitoses em pré-escolares de comunidades favelizadas da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
Costa-Macedo, Lêda Maria da;Machado-Silva, José Roberto;Rodrigues-Silva, Rosangela;Oliveira, Lúcia Maria;Vianna, Maria Sylvia Ripper;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X1998000400027
Abstract: prevalence of intestinal parasites was investigated in 1381 low-income children under five years of age from march 1990 to october 1991 in the city of rio de janeiro, brazil. stool tests were run using the blagg et al method. observed prevalence of infection was 54.5%. the most frequent parasites were giardia lamblia and ascaris lumbricoides (25.0% of the children). a significant statistical difference (p<0.05) was demonstrated between age and infection according to the species of parasite studied. infection rates demonstrated the need for control of parasites in these children.
Chagas disease in an area of recent occupation in Cochabamba, Bolivia
Albarracin-Veizaga,Hugo; Carvalho,Maria Esther de; Nascimento,Elvira M M do; Rodrigues,Vera Lúcia C C; Casanova,Cláudio; Barata,José Maria S;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89101999000300003
Abstract: introduction: a descriptive, entomological and seroepidemiological study on chagas disease was conducted in a place of recent occupation on the outskirts of cochabamba, bolivia: avaroa/primer de mayo (population:3,000), where the socio-economic level is low and no control measures have been made available. methods: the immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat) was used for igg and igm anti-trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in filter paper bloodspot eluates from 128 subjects (73 females, 55 males) selected by systematic sampling. concerning each subject age, gender, birthplace, occupation, duration of residence and building materials used in their houses were recorded. vectors were captured both in domestic and peridomestic environments. results: seropositive, 12.5% (16/128): females, 15.1% (11/73); males, 9.1% (5/55). average time of residence: 6.1 years for the whole population sample and 7.4 years for the seropositive subjects. most houses had adobe walls (76.7% , n= 30), galvanized iron rooves (86.7%) and earthen floors (53.4%) 80% of the walls had crevices. one hundred forty seven specimens of triatoma infestans were captured, of which 104 (70.7%) were domestic, and 1 peridomestic triatoma sordida. precipitin host identification: birds, 67.5%; humans, 27.8%; rodents, 11.9%; dogs, 8.7%; cats, 1.6%. house infestation and density indices were 53.3 and 493.0 respectively. we found 21 (14.3%) specimens of t. infestans infected with trypanosomes, 18 (85.7%) of which in domestic environments. discussion: the elements for the vector transmission of chagas disease are present in avaroa/primer de mayo and the ancient custom of keeping guinea pigs indoors adds to the risk of human infection. in neighboring cochabamba, due to substandard quality control, contaminated blood transfusions are not infrequent, which further aggravates the spread of chagas disease. prompt action to check the transmission of this infection, involving additionally the congenital and transfusional modes of
Necesidades de salud en áreas urbanas marginadas de México
Reyes-Morales,Hortensia; Gómez-Dantés,Héctor; Torres-Arreola,Laura del Pilar; Tomé-Sandoval,Patricia; Galván-Flores,Gloria; González-Unzaga,Marco Aurelio; Gutiérrez-Trujillo,Gonzalo;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892009000400007
Abstract: objective: to understand the health needs of the population living in mexico's marginalized urban areas. methods: a population-based survey of families residing in poor, urban neighborhoods, in five geographic areas in mexico (northern, central, southern, south-east, and mexico city), selected through multistage sampling. interviews were conducted and anthropometric measurements were taken in the home, and included all members of the participating family. analysis was carried out on positive health factors, nutrition, reproductive health, health problems, and mental health, and results were disaggregated by age and sex. results: in all, 24 707 individuals participated. the interviewees were found to have minimal schooling (6 years or less). only 46.8% had health care coverage, be it public or private. among the children, 19.8% were malnourished; overweight was prevalent from adolescence onwards. of adolescents 12-19 years of age, 15.7% were sexually active, but only 57.7% of the males and 41.9% of the females in this age group were using some method of contraception. of the adults, 5.9% suffered from diabetes and 11.5%, from high blood pressure. in the sample of adolescents, adults, and elderly adults, tobacco use was 21.2%; alcohol consumption, 36.0%; illicit drug use, 9.5%; and depression, 20.2%. conclusions: the health needs of people living in mexico's marginalized urban areas proliferate in the context of a young population with weak ties and little support from family and health services. they face crisis and disease-infant malnutrition, high-risk pregnancy, and addictions-the byproducts of disparities in social progress. the rate of chronic conditions was similar to that of the general population of mexico.
Prevalência de anemia em crian?as brasileiras, segundo diferentes cenários epidemiológicos
Vieira, Regina Coeli da Silva;Ferreira, Haroldo da Silva;
Revista de Nutri??o , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-52732010000300011
Abstract: this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of anemia in brazilian children, according to different epidemiological scenarios. for this purpose, we carried out a systematic review with meta-analysis of the results of observational studies published in the last ten years. articles were searched in the scielo and pubmed databases using the keyword "anemia" combined with children and brazil. after establishing the exclusion criteria (review article, anemia not of a nutritional etiology, diagnosis not based upon the level of hemoglobin (hb<11g/dl), sample including children older than seven years, no prevalence data and no identification of study location, sample, age group and diagnostic method), 35 articles were selected, which were categorized according to the origin of their samples: daycare centers/schools n=8, health services n=12, populations subject to socioeconomic inequality n=6 and population-based studies n=9. a meta-analysis was used to estimate the prevalence of anemia weighted by the respective sample size, and odds ratio for a confidence interval of 95%, assuming the prevalence of population-based studies as reference (odds ratio = 1). the following results were obtained, respectively: centers/schools: 52.0%, 1.61 (1.5 to 1.8); health services: 60.2%, 2.26 (2.1 to 2.4); populations subject to injustice: 66.5%, 2.96 (2.6 to 3.4) and population-based studies: 40.1%, with p<0.0001 for all comparisons (χ2). anemia is still a serious public health problem in the different scenarios analyzed, justifying the fact that it is still considered a priority by managers of public health policies of different government levels in the country.
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