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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 201 matches for " phytochemicals "
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paul john peter
International Journal of Phytopharmacy , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijpp.v2i3.418
Abstract: Medicinal plants, herbs, spices and herbal remedies are integral components of alternative system of medicine since times immemorial. Stylosanthes fruticosa. is a potential folklore medicinal plant (Fabacea) used for Aurveda and Siddha systems of medicine. In this study Alkaloid, Carbohydrate and Glycoside, Saponin, Protein & Amino acid, Phenolic compounds & Flavonoids and Phytosterols were identified as the major phytochemical constituents in the ethanol fractions of Stylosanthes fruticosa leaf extract. Their structures were elucidated, on the basis of GC-MS data . (2R,3R)-4-methyl-2,3-epoxypentan-1-ol(9.26%),1-Cyclohexyl-2,2-difluoro-4-(1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)-4-iodobutanone(9.26%),9-(Tetrahydropyran-2''-yl)-6-[2'-phenyl-',4',5',6''-tetrapropylphenyl]-9H-purine(9.26%) these different active phytochemicals have been found to possess a wide range of activities. In conclusion Stylosanthes fruticosa contains biologically active compounds that may serve as candidate for the discovery of new drugs in the treatment of antimicrobial activities.
Glutathione transferase-P1-1 binding with naturally occurring ligands: assessment by docking simulations  [PDF]
Anupam J. Das, Sreeda Chalil, Poonam Nigam, Pamela Magee, Omar Janneh, Richard Owusu-Apenten
Journal of Biophysical Chemistry (JBPC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbpc.2011.24046
Abstract: Glutathione transferase-P1-1 (hGSTP1-1), which is associated with acquired drug resistance in some tumour cells, requires two identical subunits for full activity. Naturally occurring inhibitors for GSTP1-1 quaternary structure could be interesting therapeutic agents. The aim of this study was to investigate potential binding sites for hGSTP1-1 interaction with ligands many of which occur naturally. Simulations were performed with commercial docking software and with GST monomer or dimer as template. Docking results using hGSTP1-1 dimer showed one binding site for most of the ligands tested. Lycopene, glutathione, ellagic acid, ethacrynic acid, quercetin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, porphyrin, curcumin, cinnamic acid, and also α-tocopherol bound at the enzyme dimer subunit-subunit interface. In contrast, investigations using hGSTP1-1 monomer revealed three additional sites for ligand binding. In conclusion, the docking simulations suggest that the enzyme subunit interface may be important for hGSTP1-1 interactions with ligands. These findings may provide valuable insights for further research to identify naturally occurring therapeutic agents.
Screening of antibacterial activity in marine green, red and brown macroalgae from the western coast of Libya  [PDF]
Rabia Alghazeer, Fauzi Whida, Entesar Abduelrhman, Fatiem Gammoudi, Salah Azwai
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.51002
Abstract: Marine macroalgae are considered as an excellent source of bioactive compounds which has a broad range of biological activities including antibacterial and antioxidant. Crude methanolic and water extracts of 19 marine algal species (6 Chlorophyta, 8 Phaeophyta and 5 Rhodophyta) collected from the western coast of Libya were evaluated for antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria (4 Gram-positive, 4 Gram-nega- tive). The extracts showed a significant antibacterial activity against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus epidermidis) as well as Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella spp.,
Dramatic Improvement in Physical Well-Being of Terminal AIDS Patients Following Administration of Phytochemicals  [PDF]
Maria de las Mercedes Lavandera Díaz, Felix Antonio Cruz Jiminian, Ruben Wernik, Walter Franklin Goldman, Gadi Borkow
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2013.33036

Phytochemicals (PHT) are biologically active chemicals produced by plants, non-essential nutrients, with medicinal properties. In this short communication we report the dramatic improvement in the physical and clinical well-being of 9 terminal AIDS patients that received Phyto V7, a PHT mix, for a period of 3 months. All patients living in the Dr. Cruz Jiminian Foundation (hospice) in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, were in an emaciated condition—most could not eat, sit down, shower, stand up or dress alone; all had high viremia (from ~50,000 to above 500,000; 243,816 ± 176,724 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml) and very low CD4+ T-cells counts (142 ± 51 counts/mm3). The clinical status of all patients was C3 according to the United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC) status index. As antiretroviral treatment was not available to the Foundation at the time of the study, the only treatment that they received was Phyto V7 supplementation. Each individual received 5 tablets 3 times a day, each tablet containing 750 mg of Phyto V7. At the end of the 3 months, Phyto V7 supplementation radically improved the well-being of all 9 patients. All patients could eat, sit down, shower, stand up and dress alone. This study supports the notion that PHT supplementation can improve significantly the well-being of terminally ill AIDS patients and is the foundation to conducting further control studies to substantiate this notion.

Documentation and Phytochemical Screening of Traditional Beauty Products Used in Missenyi District of Tanzania  [PDF]
Sheila M. Maregesi, Godeliver A. Kagashe, Fatuma Felix
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2014.45047
Abstract: Background Information: The concept of beauty and cosmetics is as old as mankind and civilization. Raw materials for beauty products are dominated by petroleum and synthetic products. In recent years, there has been an increase of natural product-based cosmetics along with creating beauty from the inside by consumption of nutraceuticals. Tanzania traditional beauty products are still in use especially rural areas, but the documentation is lacking. Objectives: This work aimed at documenting traditional beauty products in Kagera region as an effort to avoid loss of useful information and available useful traditional findings for safe utilization in beauty products. Meth-odology: Information was obtained from knowledgeable people in Missenyi district by focus group discussion. Collected materials were identified in Botany and Zoology Departments at the University of Dar es Salaam followed by literature search and phytochemical screening. Results: This study afforded to record 13 plants, 4 animal products, mineral and other organic products. Most products are used for skin care (57%) followed by hair care (22%). Literature search supported the use of some of the products and plants subjected to qualitative analysis showed presence of phytochemicals relevant to beautification. Discussion: Some of the recorded plant and animal products are incorporated in natural based cosmetic products. Hazardous practice of using skin lightening plant products and dry cell powders was noted. Conclusion: The use of products which are already incorporated in the cosmetic products especially in countries where these products are well regulated should be promoted. Products reported for the first time require scientific studies to establish their effectiveness and safety. Since this study recorded the use of some dangerous materials, people need to be educated through media.
Transgenic Vegetable Breeding for Nutritional Quality and Health Benefits  [PDF]
Jo?o Silva Dias, Rodomiro Ortiz
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.39159
Abstract: Vegetables are essential for well-balanced diets. About 3 billion people in the world are malnourished due to imbalanced diets. Vegetables can contribute to the prevention of malnutrition disorders. Genetic engineering enables vegetable breeders to incorporate desired transgenes into elite cultivars, thereby improving their value considerably. It further offers unique opportunities for improving nutritional quality and bringing other health benefits. Many vegetable crops have been genetically modified to improve traits such as higher nutritional status or better flavour, and to reduce bitterness or anti-nutritional factors. Transgenic vegetables can be also used for vaccine delivery. Consumers could benefit further from eating more nutritious transgenic vegetables, e.g. an increase of crop carotenoids by metabolic sink manipulation through genetic engineering appears feasible in some vegetables. Genetically engineering carrots containing increase Ca levels may boost Ca uptake, thereby reducing the incidence of Ca deficiencies such as osteoporosis. Fortified transgenic lettuce with zinc will overcome the deficiency of this micronutrient that severely impairs organ function. Folates deficiency, which is regarded as a global health problem, can also be overcomed with transgenic tomatoes with folate levels that provide a complete adult daily requirement. Transgenic lettuce with improved tocopherol and resveratrol composition may prevent coronary disease and arteriosclerosis and can contribute to cancer chemopreventative activity. Food safety and health benefits can also be enhanced through transgenic approaches, e.g. rural African resource-poor consumers will benefit eating cyanide-free cultivars of cassava. Biotechnology-derived vegetable crops will succed if clear advantages and safety are demonstrated to both growers and consumers.
Nutritional Quality and Health Benefits of Vegetables: A Review  [PDF]
Jo?o Silva Dias
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.310179
Abstract: Vegetables are considered essential for well-balanced diets since they supply vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and phytochemicals. Each vegetable group contains an unique combination and amount of these phytonutriceuticals, which distinguishes them from other groups and vegetables whithin their own group. In the daily diet vegetables have been strongly associated with improvement of gastrointestinal health, good vision, and reduced risk of heart disease, stroke, chronic diseases such as diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Some phytochemicals of vegetables are strong antioxidants and are thought to reduce the risk of chronic disease by protecting against free radical damage, by modifying metabolic activation and detoxification of carcinogens, or even by influencing processes that alter the course of tumor cells. All the vegetables may offer protection to humans against chronic diseases. Nutrition is both a quantity and a quality issue, and vegetables in all their many forms ensure an adequate intake of most vitamins and nutrients, dietary fibers, and phytochemicals which can bring a much-needed measure of balance back to diets contributing to solve many of these nutrition problems. The promotion of healthy vegetable products has coincided with a surging consumer interested in the healthy functionality of food. Because each vegetable contains a unique combination of phytonutriceuticals, a great diversity of vegetables should be eaten to ensure that individual’s diet includes a combination of phytonutriceuticals and to get all the health benefits. This article make a review and discusses the nutritional quality and health benefits of the major groups of vegetables. More interdisciplinary work is required that involves nutritional and food scientists as well as others from biomedical fields to ascertain the thrue function of specific phytonutriceuticals.
Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Some Nepalese Medicinal Plants  [PDF]
Bijaya Laxmi Maharjan, Bikash Baral
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.48200

Antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of medicinal plants namely Usnea longifolia, Cetraria nepalensis, Parmelia minarum, Everniastrum nepalense, Rhododendron anthopogon and Fritillaria delavayi were analyzed via Folin-Ciocaltau assay, Ferric reducing activity power assay and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. All the tested plants depicted the antioxidant activity with variation in extent of activity among the plants. The FRAP (F-value: 387.4), DPPH (F-value: 89.684) and TPC (F-value: 559.163) values between the extracts showed the highly significant differences (P < 0.01). This study indicated the strong antioxidant potential of R. anthopogon among the plants tested.

The Cardiovascular Benefits of Polyphenol Compounds  [PDF]
Anthony San Luis
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2013.34025

In comparison, polyphenols are one of the most diverse to most other groups of bioactive phytochemicals. Polyphenols can be found in a wide range of foods that are derived from plants. Polyphenols are made up of various subgroups, but it’s the phenolics, stillbenes, and flavonoids that engender positive impacts on cardiovascular health. These three phytochemical compounds can reduce cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension and coronary heart disease. Remarkably, polyphenols and its subgroups can be found ubiquitously in most human diets. As a result, many studies have effectively illustrated the positive impacts polyphenols can induce when processed by the human body. Furthermore, research efforts have shown that modern diets and more “traditional” diets have unknowingly promoted the consumption of foods rife with polyphenols. These findings are starting to be incorporated into the public health discipline as a more practical option for more sustainable nutritional interventions. In all, polyphenols can produce a myriad of positive developments on at the micro and macro level.

Antioxidant, Enzyme Inhibitory and Anti-Obesity Potential of Sorrel Calyx Extracts in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes  [PDF]
E. Mutai, Jorge Vizcarra, L. T. Walker, M. Verghese
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.65047
Abstract: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (sorrel) has been widely used in the development of tropical beverages and folk medicine. This study’s objective was to investigate the anti-obesity potential of sorrel calyx extracts (methanol and water) on 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells. Phytochemical content, antioxidant potential as DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and enzyme (α-glucosidase, α-amylase, and pancreatic lipase) inhibitory activities were determined in sorrel methanol extracts (SME) and sorrel water extracts (SWE). Effect of SWE and SME on lipid accumulation, lipolysis and apoptosis were tested in 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation and maintenance stage of cells at selected concentrations (200 - 1000 μg/ml) was studied. The total phenolic (GAE mg/100g dry weight) and total flavonoid (mg catechin equi/ 100g dry weight) contents in SME and SWE were 158.31 and 317.27 and 90.77 and 100.08. DPPH% inhibition (IC-50-mg/ml) and FRAP (mmol Fe [II]/100g dry weight) were 0.82 and 0.33 and 1799.13 and 2296.38 for SWE and SME, respectively. SME and SWE inhibited α-glucosidase, α-amylase, and pancreatic lipase activities by more than 40% at 4mg/ml. Significant (p < 0.05) reduction in lipid accumulation and increased glycerol release in 3T3-L1 cells was observed at concentrations ranged from 600 mg/ml of both extracts. Treating cells with SME-1000 μg/ml at differentiation resulted inhibition (p < 0.05) of lipid accumulation by 45% compared to untreated cells. Highest (p < 0.05) (35%) decrease in triglyceride content as well as higher glycerol release was seen in cells exposed to SME at the differentiation stage. Sorrel extracts induced apoptosis in adipocytes at higher concentrations with prominent effect of treating cells at differentiation stage. The results of this study showed effect of sorrel extracts in reduction of lipid accumulation and increase in lipolysis of 3T3-L1 cells.
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