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The Differentiation of Phonological and Morphological Intrusion for the Two-Dimensional Orthography  [PDF]
Yang Lee, Claudia Carello
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.79123
Abstract: The writing systems have been developed by regard that how sound is written to express phonology in letters. So to interpret the written words, the phonological orthography is deemed to have serious contribution. In researches, the decoding processes of phonology have been concerned, proposing some theories as orthographic depth hypothesis, and phonological primary principle. However the other aspect of orthography has been raised with regard of how to reserve morphology in writing. Also to understand the written words, the analysis of the morphological orthography is viewed to help readers. So in researches, some of morphological effects have been analyzed. This study presupposed two-dimensional category of phonology and morphology to set various writing systems. Attempting to confirm the two dimensions, an experiment was designed to analyze both of phonological and morphological effect. For the purposes, the intrusion effect of phonology or morphology was proposed as what is sensitive to working of the two dimensions. This study observed the intrusion of phonology which influenced on the semantic task which required judging whether same or different in meaning between prime and target. And also the intrusion of morphology was observed when judging sounds between prime and target was required. This study sampled Korean and Chinese words both of which belong to Korean language, and each of which is posited by this study to be distributed differently in the two dimensions of phonology and morphology. The analysis of the results showed both of the sound and meaning intrusion, concluding that Korean writing system kept the two-dimensional category of phonology and morphology. Therefore this study pointed out the limit of one-dimensional category hitherto accepted, where each of the phonological and morphological orthography is posed at each of the two extremes in one-dimension, requiring the further tests on the other languages to make generalization of the two-dimensional category of phonology and morphology proposed and supported by this study.
Arabic Emphatics: Phonetic and Phonological Remarks  [PDF]
Majed Al-Solami
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2013.34040
Abstract: Arabic has a set of complex coronals, /s/, /d/, \"\" and /t/, which are the emphatic sounds of their plain counterparts /s/, /d/, \"\", and /t/. These emphatic sounds in Arabic are problematic both phonetically and phonologically. Phonetically, the secondary articulation of these sounds is disputed. Phonologically, they are grouped with the rest of Arabic guttural class in some studies while excluded by others. This paper touches on these arguments and argues that phonologically, these sounds are not part of the Arabic guttural class.
O prefixo no português brasileiro: análise prosódica e lexical
SCHWINDT, Luiz Carlos;
DELTA: Documenta??o de Estudos em Lingüística Teórica e Aplicada , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-44502001000200001
Abstract: this article synthetizes my study of brazilian portuguese (bp) prefixes, in light of prosodic phonology (pp) and lexical phonology (lp). as to the prosodic status, it has been proposed that bp prefixes are separated in two groups: compositional prefixes (cps) and true prefixes (tps). the first group behaves like independent phonological words, while the second one plays the role of unstressed syllable affixed to the left side of a base. regarding the lexical status of prefixes, it has been assumed, based on a two-level lexical proposal (root and word), that cps behave as independent phonological words until postlexical level, undergoing prefixation process in the level 2. tps, on the other hand, are lexically attached as pretonic syllables, and they are divided in two classes that affix to a stem, respectively, in the levels 1 and 2.
The Discrimination of English Vowels by Cantonese ESL Learners in Hong Kong: A Test of the Perceptual Assimilation Model  [PDF]
Alice Y. W. Chan
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2013.33025

This article discusses the results of a study which investigated Cantonese ESL learners’ perception of English vowels and their perceived similarity between similar L1 and L2 vowels in an attempt to test the prediction of the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM). Forty university English majors participated in three L2 perception tasks, which aimed at discerning their perception of English vowels spoken in different contexts, and one L1 L2 speech perception task, which aimed at discerning their classification of L2 vowels into native vowel categories and their perceived similarity between similar L1 and L2 vowels. It was found that their classifications of English vowels into Cantonese vowels and their perception of the corresponding English vowels did not provide strong support for the prediction of the model. The effects and extent of native language phonological influence are yet to be determined.

How Does Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) Correlate with Measures of Reading Fluency in Arabic  [PDF]
Raphiq Ibrahim
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.63027
Abstract: The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between naming speed and reading in Arabic language. For this purpose, Arabic-speaking children of third and fifth grades were given a battery of tests including two measures of naming speed and a test of pseudo-word reading and single word reading. Correlations analyses were carried out to explore this relationship. The result of this study revealed a significant relationship between naming speed measures and fluency. This suggests that naming speed ability is a key component in reading acquisition in Arabic and this was discussed with regard to the cross-linguistic research literature as well as the specific features of Arabic language.
Performing Speaking “Ungrammatical” American English: A Kuwaiti Linguistic Phenomenon  [PDF]
Nada A. Algharabali, Hanan A. Taqi
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2018.86021
Abstract: Language attitudes have been addressed by many studies, and the importance of accent choice is one of the attitudes investigated, yet scarcely by EFL educationists. The current study investigates the conscious choice of the American accent by Kuwaiti speakers of English as a foreign language and the importance of accent over other language aspects such as grammar, vocabulary and style as perceived by students. 67 female informants from the College of Basic Education, who are to become potential English teachers and speak with an American-like accent, participated in this study. The informants were given a questionnaire, and after obtaining their consent, their speech was recorded during in-class presentations. Some of the informants were interviewed to elaborate further on the importance of acquiring an American accent. The data was analyzed quantitatively through SPSS (mean and frequency) and qualitatively (through general sociolinguistic and phonetic analysis), and it suggests that most participants believe that achieving an American accent is prestigious and “cool” and more important than developing grammatical and lexical skills.
A investiga??o em fonologia do português
Mateus, Maria Helena Mira;
DELTA: Documenta??o de Estudos em Lingüística Teórica e Aplicada , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-44502001000300005
Abstract: this paper is an overview of the phonological studies in portuguese starting with the formal analyses developed in portugal after the publication of the sound pattern of english (1968). the relevant works on european portuguese published before chomsky & halle are included in the introduction: the most important dialectal and philological works, phonetic studies as well as structural descriptions. formal analyses are divided in two parts: those that follow standard generative phonology and those oriented by subsequent theories. the annex includes a comprehensive bibliography of all phonological books and papers published in portugal after the seventies.
Speech Assessment for UIDE EFL Students: The IPA Case
—General-American English IPA Transcription to Assess Universidad Internacional del Ecuador EFL Students

Jorge Romero
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2016.62005
Abstract: This Teaching English as the target second language involves several considerations which have to do with both the source language of speakers and the kind of training these students go through. In this particular case study, I have considered native speakers of Spanish who study English as a second language and identified, through two vowel sounds forming a minimal pair, that phonemes of General American English which are more likely to be mispronounced, is not only due to the fact that the English vowel system is more complex than that of Spanish, but also, and most important for this particular case study, that training is not consistent in contrastive exercising as it is in distribution exercising. In fact the English system has 20 vowel phonemes in Received Pronunciation, from 14 to 16 vowel phonemes in General American English and even 20 to 21 vowel phonemes in Australian English, while Spanish has only 5 vowel phonemes. The findings of this research account for the conclusion that exercising reinforcement need to be addressed and focused not only on the phonemes of the English vowel system which native speakers of Spanish have more trouble with, but also and more relevant in this research, that new and creative distribution exercising must be included in textbooks to help students master the English vowel sounds in order to avoid accent due to Spanish interference through quality English teaching.
O fen?meno da focaliza??o e a interface fonologia-sintaxe
GON?ALVES, Carlos Alexandre;
DELTA: Documenta??o de Estudos em Lingüística Teórica e Aplicada , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-44501999000200005
Abstract: the aim of this paper is to describe the strategies of focalization in brazilian portuguese, observing the syntax-phonology interface. i defend the independence of prosody in the materialization of the phenomenon and, for this, i suggest a 'bilateral moderate dissocicionist' connection beetween this two subsystems of grammar.
Remarques Comparatives Sur Le Consonantisme Entre Le Bidiya Et Le Dangaléat
Khalil Alio
Lingua Posnaniensis , 2009, DOI: 10.2478/v10122-009-0001-2
Abstract: The present paper aims at comparing the consonant system of Bidiya and Dangaléat, two languages of the East-Chadic branch spoken in Central Chad Republic. The two languages are neighbours and closely related linguistically speaking. The study is of a comparative nature. It is based on the regular sound correspondences that are intended to bring to light the changes which occurred. These changes are observed first within each language and then between the two languages. It follows that the changes occurring within individual languages and between the two languages are not regular as such, in the sense that there are no rules per se that govern the occurrences of the various sounds. In short, they are not predictable. In conclusion, the significant variation between Dangaléat and Bidiya that deserves further study concerns more the tonal aspect, than the consonantal one.
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