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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9437 matches for " philosophy of science "
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Fuzzy Philosophy of Science
Zekai ?EN
Yüksek??retim ve Bilim Dergisi , 2012,
Abstract: Scientific consequences are dependent on premises that are logical proportions of the phenomena concerned. These proportions are verbal and linguistic statements, and therefore, at the initial philosophical thinking they all include vagueness and imprecision. As more and more scientific evidence becomes available either rationally or empirically the validity degree these statements increases, or vagueness proportion decreases. In the philosophy of science so far scientific statements are either assumed as absolutely correct but more often they are accepted with some probability. However, objective probability attachment to scientific statements is a difficult task, and therefore, subjective (Bayesian) proportions are attached to these statements in practice. After a detailed account of what were the advocators and opponents to scientific absolute correctness and probability, a fuzzy thinking and consequently membership degree attachments rather than probability are presented by considering fuzzy subsets in this paper.
Psychology as an Associational Science: A Methodological Viewpoint  [PDF]
Sam S. Rakover
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.22023
Abstract: Unlike the sciences (physics), psychology has not developed in any of its areas (such as perception, learning, cognition) a top-theory like Newtonian theory, the theory of relativity, or quantum theory in physics. This difference is explained by a methodological discrepancy between the sciences and psychology, which centers on the measurement procedure: in psychology, measurement units similar to those in physics have not been discovered. Based on the arguments supporting this claim, a methodological distinction is made between the sciences and psychology as an associational science. It is suggested that that these two kinds of science generate two different classes of technologies. The possibility that in psychology there is a connection between the issue of measurement and the unsolved consciousness/brain problem is discussed.
Natural Law as Subjective Dimension & Representative Form  [PDF]
Yifeng Wen
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2018.81001
Abstract: The aim of science is to discover natural law, or to explain the consistency of things that we know through our senses. Whereas the essence of sense and natural law themselves still remain many problems waited to explore clearly even in today. By logic analysis and review some theories, especially phenomenology, this paper reaches conclusion that natural law in essence is subject’s dimension and subjective logic form which can spread things out, objectively define things and represent them in mind. The scientific model is a logical metaphor that blends the concepts of common experience with priori form.
Interpretivism in Aiding Our Understanding of the Contemporary Social World  [PDF]
Muhammad Faisol Chowdhury
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2014.43047

The purpose of this paper is to critically discuss the extent of interpretivism to understand the contemporary social world. This paper firstly highlights the roots of interpretivism which can be traced back in the ancient history of philosophy. It then discusses the concept of interpretivism and gives a critical commentary on the Weber’s construction of ideal types to help explore the contemporary social world. The paper then further discusses the concept of “verstehen” and explains how it can add to our understanding of the social world phenomena. Following this analysis and tackling some philosophical debate, finally, this theoretical paper confirms that interpretivism has influenced the development of the social science and has helped our understanding of the contemporary social world to a great extent.

The re-appreciation of the humanities in contemporary philosophy of science: From recognition to exaggeration?
Renato Coletto
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/koers.v78i2.64
Abstract: In the course of the centuries, the ‘reputation’ and status attributed to the humanities underwent different phases. One of their lowest moments can be traced during the positivist period. This article explored the reasons underlying the gradual re-evaluation of the scientific status and relevance of the humanities in the philosophy of science of the 20th century. On the basis of a historical analysis it was argued that on the one hand such recognition is positive because it abolishes an unjustified prejudice that restricted the status of ‘science’ to the natural sciences. On the other hand it was argued that the reasons behind such recognition might not always be sound and may be inspired by (and lead to) a certain relativism harbouring undesired consequences. In the final part of this article (dedicated to Prof. J.J. [Ponti] Venter) a brief ‘postscript’ sketched his evaluation of the role of philosophy.
Can Learning about History of Science and Nature of Science in a Student-Centred Classroom Change Science Students’ Conception of Science?  [PDF]
Fereshte Heidari Khazaei, Baptiste Roucau, Calvin S. Kalman
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.915194
Abstract: Nature of Science (NOS) covers the aim, development, criticism and explanation of science. This study examines the impact that studying philosophy and history of science has on undergraduate students’ views about the NOS. Studying the NOS helps students to understand what science is, how to characterize the nature of its practitioners’ activities, and what is the significance of the whole enterprise.It is shown that having students study scientific concepts through the eyes of philosophers and historical scientists, actively engages them in the process of inquiry and challenges them to increase their understanding of the NOS. This study showed that studying philosophy and history of science in a student-centered classroom had a strong influence on students’ views about the NOS in that many students changed their views about the NOS. Students who did not change their over-all perception gave much clearer expositions of their views.
Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría , 2000,
Abstract: in antiquity philosophy was not a mere theoretical endeavour. it was a very practical affair that concerned itself with man's well being, for philosophy was conceived as therapy: psychotherapy. medicine took care of the health of the body, philosophy of that of the psyche, soul, or mind in modern parlance. this división of labor lasted through all antiquity and pagan times. but the scientific revolution which ushered in modernity shattered the ancient episteme and the divine soul, dependent on the traditional notion of god, was no longer a rationally acceptable entity. the french revolution made society an entirely human construction with no need to recur to otherworldy principies. but the political revolution also gave birth to modern psychiatry. the opus magnum of pinel can be recognized as the charter of this new foundation for the treatment of the mad: madness affects only a thinking subject, the subject made possible by science.
The Cognitive Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Hanne Andersen, Peter Barker, Xiang Chen
Ryan D. Tweney
Aestimatio : Critical Reviews in the History of Science , 2006,
Postmodern Science Edification Philosophy  [PDF]
Akbar Nikkhah
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2011.11007
Abstract: The objective is to introduce and describe a new philosophy for global science edification that will determine the extent and nature of humans’ accomplishments. These will affect life quality worldwide. Science as an ultimate essence encircles theoretical and applied findings and discoveries. These can only contribute to forming a trivial core, whilst the most crucial are insightful moral surroundings. Morality is most concerned with mentorship commitments. To sustain a dense and rigid shape that progressively improves science and life quality, imagination must be complemented with harmonizing approaches. Such perceptions become an obligation as growing knowledge creates novel questions and challenges. The upper tree of science glorified with blooming branches of knowledge, particularly over the last few centuries, is predicted to undergo progressive declines in the strength of its edification foundations unless the lower tree receives most-deserving mentorship contemplations. The upper tree describes tangible science products in routin life, and the lower tree represents sustainable mentorship. Mentors must replace teachers, by definition, and commit to generating more qualified educators than themselves. Mentors are expected to welcome and manage challenges from mentees. Challenges play crucial roles in granting mentees with integrated pathways of scientific development. The resulting pictures will be eagerly prone to revisions and elaborations as mentees themselves step into the pathway. This systematic edification will strengthen science roots in mentees’ minds and will uphold a sturdy science body for society. Science pictured as an integrated circle grants a prospect to envision where humans are and where not to end up. Maintaining a definitive shape for science in any major before and while enriching central cores with experimental novelties in minds and laboratories is crucial to improving man’s fulfillment of time in the third millennium. Such integrities are an obligation to optimally preserve and utilize what humans have achieved thus far and continue to accomplish.
Frontier Science Philosophies for Quality Lives  [PDF]
Akbar Nikkhah
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.22020
Abstract: The optimum science benefits to routine life have insufficiently been proved. Science progress is not merely reflected in machinery and technological breakthroughs. Subordinate impacts of science and scientists on global interactions are an evidence for the major deficiencies and futility of the many current science designations. A primary objective is to describe postmodern global interrelations of science mentoring policies and life quality. Also, global programs are proposed that will aid in the timely achievement of optimal real-life science goals. The global wholeness of science pictures should be visible, acknowledged, and educated. The wholeness of science, no matter how exposed or sophisticated, should never change. Definitive paths should be developed to bestow science with sufficiently empowered authorities to lead and optimize economics, politics, and international relations. Mentoring rather than teaching of science will be a main frontier for quality lives. Postmodern mentors will be cognizant of the science entirety. Mentors will create and designate definitive shapes from discoveries and findings that will grant human life with ongoing peace and ultimate satisfaction.
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