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Serum Adiponectin levels in Different Phenotypes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  [PDF]
Carolina Fux Otta, Paula Szafryk de Mereshian, Raquel Kaplan, Gabriel Santino Iraci, Silvia Ojeda, José Ochoa, Andrés Albrecht, Natalia Filipone, Marta Fiol de Cuneo
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases (OJEMD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojemd.2012.24019
Abstract: Objectives: to evaluate and compare serum adiponectin levels in different phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to investigate their correlation with endocrine and metabolic parameters. Material and methods: we studied 5 groups of patients: A (n = 20): H (hyperandrogenism) + O (oligoanovulation) + P (polycystic ovary) [classic phenotype]; B (n = 17): H + O [classic phenotype but normal ovaries]; C (n = 15): H + P [Ovulatory phenotype]; D (n = 17): O + P [Normoandrogenic phenotype]; and E (n = 16) control group. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure and hirsutism were evaluated. Serum concentrations of adiponectin, insulin, Creactive protein, SHBG, androgens and lipids were measured. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Results: there were no differences between the groups in terms of age and BMI. Total cholesterol, LDL-C and triglyceride levels were higher in phenotype A than in C (P < 0.05); HDL-C was slightly lower in phenotype D compared to E (P = 0.03). HOMA-IR, insulin and glucose/insulin ratio were significantly higher in phenotypes A and D vs C and E (P < 0.05). Serum adiponectin levels were lower in phenotype A (11.6 ± 8 ug/mL) than in the rest of the groups (B: 12.5 ± 8 ug/mL; C: 20.5 ± 8 ug/mL; D: 17.4 ± 4 ug/mL; E: 20 ± 6 ug/mL). This diference reached statistical significance when comparing group A with groups C and E (P < 0.05). Adiponectin levels were significant and negatively correlated with total testosterone, free androgen index, androstenedione, DHEAS, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, LH/FSH, insulin, HOMA-IR, Creactive protein, LDL-C, triglycerides, and waist/hip ratio. A positive correlation was found with glucose/insulin ratio and HDL-C (P < 0.05). Conclusions: adiponectin serum concentrations vary according to the phenotypic expression of PCOS. Our results suggest that adiponectin could be used as a biochemical marker to identify phenotypes at increased metabolic risk.
Phenotyping of Hybrid Maize (Zea mays L.) at Seedling Stage under Drought Condition  [PDF]
Shirin Aktar, Nilima Hossain, Mohammad Golam Azam, Masum Billah, Priya Lal Biswas, Mohammad Abdul Latif, Motiar Rohman, Shamim Ara Bagum, Mohammad Shalim Uddin
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.911156
Abstract: Drought is envisaged as the greatest demolishing natural impacts throughout the world since it has observed extensive place of agronomical land sterile almost the world. It’s the significant crop output-limiting producer, and elaborated learning of its result on plant enhancement dictation is diametrical. At present, drought tolerant hybrid maize has been trying to induce Bangladesh especially drought affected zone to identify the drought endurance maize genotypes. Consequently, a feasible pot study of 49 hybrid maize genotypes were directed to determine an adequate drought level to promote aliment and promotion of maize plant below the water stress conditions with treatment (control and drought) and three replications. The data were received after 35 days of sowing using appropriate procedures. Specially, the stomata were collected by the white transparent nail polish from the lower part of leaves. Descriptive statistic of the all traits like percentage of SPAD, leaf rolling (LR), maximum root length (MRL), maximum shoot length (MSL), root dry matter (RDM), shoot dry matter (SDM), length of
Targeted treatment in COPD: a multi-system approach for a multi-system disease
David Anderson, William MacNee
International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S2999
Abstract: rgeted treatment in COPD: a multi-system approach for a multi-system disease Review (6940) Total Article Views Authors: David Anderson, William MacNee Published Date August 2009 Volume 2009:4 Pages 321 - 335 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S2999 David Anderson1, William MacNee2 1South Glasgow University NHS Trust, Glasgow, UK; 2University of Edinburgh, UK Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a varied condition when examined from a number of different perspectives including factors which influence disease development, pathological process and clinical features. There may be a complex interaction between the degree by which each of these processes influences the development of COPD and the subsequent clinical phenotype with which the patient presents. The varied host response and subsequent clinical phenotype has generated much interest in recent years. It is possible that failure of treatment to impact on mortality and reverse the disease process is because of the heterogeneous nature of the condition. Identification and targeted treatment of clinical and pathological phenotypes within the broad spectrum of COPD may therefore improve outcome. This article will review previous work which has attempted to phenotype COPD and identify if specific treatment for these phenotypes has been shown to be of benefit. It will examine the work on pathological processes and clinical manifestations, both pulmonary and systemic, and will focus on pharmacological therapies.
Fenotipo de asma en obesidad
Miranda-Machado Pablo Andrés,Hoyos-Sánchez Bautista de la cruz
Revista Ciencias Biomédicas , 2010,
Abstract: La obesidad y el asma son enfermedades prevalentes a nivel mundial y el aumento de la prevalencia de ambas, constituye un reto en salud pública. Diversos estudios sugieren una asociación en la obesidad y el asma. El objetivo de los autores fue realizar una revisión de la literatura de la evidencia que permita describir el fenotipo de asma en Obesidad. Los estudios sugieren un fenotipo de asma asociado a la obesidad, caracterizado por antecedentes de bajo peso al nacer, inactividad física en la infancia y en los adultos con incremento del IMC con el consecuente establecimiento del sobrepeso u obesidad, incrementando el riesgo de asma incidente y alterando el control clínico del Asma prevalente, reduciendo la respuesta a los esteroides y con respuesta estable a los antileucotrienos.
Severe Asthma: Definitions, risk factors and phenotype characterization
Penny Moraitaki,Despina Papamichail,Niki Georgatou
Pneumon , 2010,
Abstract: SUMMARY. The correct diagnosis of asthma is usually made easily and most patients with asthma respond to therapy. Approximately 5-10% of patients with asthma, however, have disease that is difficult to control despite administration of maximal doses of inhaled medications. It appears that asthma is a heterogeneous disorder which presents not as a single disease but rather as a complex of multiple, separate syndromes that overlap. Although the various different phenotypes of asthma have been long recognized, they are still poorly characterized. Improved phenotypical characterization and understanding of the underlying pathobiology are necessary for linkage of specific genotypes with clinical disease manifestations, for possible development of biomarkers and for devising advanced, phenotype-targeted asthma treatment. This review reports on the asthma phenotypes that have been best described and analyses the methods used to define them. Pneumon 2010, 23(3):260-292.
Distribution profile of paraoxonase phenotypes among the Gujaratis
Patel A,Pal R,Dewan A
Indian Journal of Human Genetics , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Paraoxonase (PON1) can hydrolyze organophosphate pesticides (OP) and has a key role in the susceptibility of human in OP toxicity. The human-enzyme shows polymorphism and variations in the distribution profile of its phenotypes among different ethnic groups have been observed. Aims: To see the distribution pattern of total PON1 activity in 45 healthy attendants of poisoning cases; 121 healthy unrelated farm-labours and 59 normal subjects of trauma. Materials and Methods: The PON1 activities from serum/plasma samples of these healthy normal individuals were estimated with/without addition of 1M NaCl in order to determine salt-stimulated and basal activity. The PON 1 phenotypes were determined on the basis of percent activation of enzyme activity. Results: Tri-modal distribution of basal PON1 activity was observed among all these individuals. 52.0% of the individuals belonged to Phenotype A, 46.6% to phenotype AB while 1.4% to Phenotype B with gene frequency of allele-A and allele-B being 0.753 and 0.247 respectively in excellent agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Conclusion: Maximum number of individuals belonged to phenotype-A (low PON1 activity) showing potential vulnerability towards Op-poisoning.
Multivariate Asthma Phenotypes in Adults: The Quebec City Case-Control Asthma Cohort  [PDF]
émilie Lavoie-Charland, Jean-Christophe Bérubé, Michel Laviolette, Louis-Philippe Boulet, Yohan Bossé
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2013.34021

Background and Objectives: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease where patient severity can be classified according to various models based on numerous variables. Large collections of well-phenotyped subjects are needed to find distinct clusters of patients for personalized medicine and future genetic studies. The objective of this study is to describe the collection of the Quebec City Case-Control Asthma Cohort and to identify homogeneous subgroups of asthma patients based on clinical characteristics. Methods: This cohort is part of an ongoing project initiated in 2007 to elucidate the genetic basis of asthma. All subjects are randomly recruited at the same site following advertisements. Subjects are unrelated French Canadian white adults 18 years of age or older. Each participant underwent a spirometry, methacholine challenge, and allergy skin-prick tests. Blood was collected for DNA, cell counts and total serum IgE measurements. So far, 982 subjects have been recruited and classified as cases (n = 566) or controls (n = 416). We performed factor and cluster analyses on collected phenotypes from this set to identify subgroups of phenotypically similar asthmatic patients. Results: Factor analysis with 13 variables led to the selection of five factors: lung function, numbers of allergens, blood eosinophil percentage, smoking status and age. K-means cluster analysis on the reduced dataset produced four

Low Prevalence of Campylobacteriosis in the Northern Region of India  [PDF]
Chetana Vaishnavi, Meenakshi Singh, Jarnail Singh Thakur, Babu Ram Thapa
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2015.53015
Abstract: Campylobacter is one of the most common bacterial enteropathogens of food borne origin in industrialized countries with C. jejuni being the most common species followed by C. coli. The prevalence of Campylobacters in and around Chandigarh, India was studied by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Fecal samples from 1145 diarrheal patients and 102 healthy subjects from hospital and community were cultured on Campylobacter media and identified by Gram stain, biochemical investigations and serotyping. Molecular identification of Campylobacter isolates was done using specific primers to unique regions of 16S rRNA, Campylobacter jejuni (hipO), Campylobacter coli (aspK), Campylobacter lari (glyA) and Campylobacter upsaliensis (lpxA) genes. Identification of specific genes to look for resistance to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, tetracyclin and streptomycin was also done. Campylobacters were isolated from 2.6% of patients with diarrhea. Campylobacteriosis was more prevalent in children ≤5 years old and during summer season. The most frequent serotypes were S:27, B:2, Z5:52 and V:32. All the Campylobacters isolated by culture were confirmed genotypically by identification of 16S rRNA, hipO and aspK genes. Of the 30 isolates, 27 were C. jejuni and 3 were C. coli. No C. lari or C. upsaliensis were detected. Antibiotic resistance was 40% for nalidixic acid, 23.3% for ciprofloxacin, 50% for tetracyclin and 20% for streptomycin. Campylobacter prevalence is low in the region with C. jejuni being the most common species. A high degree of resistance was found for nalidixic acid and tetracyclin but moderate for ciprofloxacin and streptomycin.
Endothelial cell phenotypes in the rheumatoid synovium: activated, angiogenic, apoptotic and leaky
Jim Middleton, Laure Americh, Regis Gayon, Denis Julien, Luc Aguilar, Francois Amalric, Jean-Philippe Girard
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/ar1156
Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disease affecting the joints, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality [1-3]. The synovium or synovial membrane, which surrounds the joint cavity, becomes massively hypertrophied in RA. This tissue, known as pannus, can become invasive, penetrating and degrading the cartilage and bone, resulting in joint deformities, in functional deterioration and in profound disability.The lining layer, or intima, of the synovium is normally one to three cells thick and it comprises macrophage-like cells and fibroblast-like cells [4]. This layer undergoes thickening and hypertrophy in RA, largely due to the increased recruitment of monocytes from the blood supply in the deeper layer, or subintima, of the tissue [5,6]. Other inflammatory cells such as T cells (mainly CD45RO) and B lymphocytes migrate from the blood into the synovium and can form ectopic lymphoid follicles around blood vessels. These structures resemble the lymphoid follicles of lymph nodes. In addition, neutrophils migrate into the synovium and end up in large numbers in the synovial joint fluid.Endothelial cells are active participants in the inflammatory process. They are involved in diverse activities including the regulation of leukocyte extravasation, angiogenesis, cytokine production, protease and extracellular matrix synthesis, vasodilation and blood vessel permeability, and antigen presentation [7].In RA, endothelial cells in the synovium are generally held to play a central role in the pathophysiology. The cells achieve this in several ways. First, as a component of blood vessels in the subintima, endothelial cells allow the migration of leukocytes such as T cells, B cells, monocytes, neutrophils and dendritic cells into the joint tissues and fluid. Endothelial cells undergo activation, expressing adhesion molecules and presenting chemokines, leading to leukocyte migration from the blood into the tissue. Second, the permeability
The changing phenotype of microglia from homeostasis to disease
Xiao-Guang Luo, Sheng-Di Chen
Translational Neurodegeneration , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2047-9158-1-9
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