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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2708 matches for " pathology "
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Dr. Dorfman legacy to pathology: beyond Rosai-Dorfman disease
Maria Claudia Nogueira Zerbini
Autopsy and Case Reports , 2013,
Abstract: Ronald F. Dorfman (1923-2012), an Emeritus Professor of Pathology at the Stanford University School of Medicine, had significant input in advancing the study of diseases of hematopoietic cells and the lymph nodes, which included identifying a disease that has been named after him. Dr. Dorfman was one of the founders of the field of Hematopathology, and, with Dr. Costan Berard, founded the Society of Hematopathology in 1981, serving as its president from 1982 through 1984, and published a classification of non-Hodgkin lymphomas in 1974, which was a variant of the Rappaport classification.
Latin American forensic pathology: scope and needs
Gabriel M. Fonseca
Medwave , 2012,
Abstract: Pathology pertains to the study of a disease; from ancient times it has sought to explain the cause of death through postmortem examination. The advancement of science and technology has led to a greater definition of roles and has favored its development through different subspecialties among which we stands out forensic pathology. This discipline has its own characteristics, scope, case series, procedures and terminology. Likewise, although forensic pathology does not differ substantially from clinical pathology, significant differences can be found between the Anglo American approach and the Latin American approach. Beyond semantics of these alleged differences, the article reviews the concepts involved and discusses the scope and requirements needed to qualify experts, in the understanding that globalizing criteria should establish new paradigms and define the specific roles of the specialty.
Solitary Retinal Astrocytoma: A Case Series  [PDF]
Takafumi Fuchino, Tomayoshi Hayashi, Kiyoshi Suzuma, Asuka Taneoka, Kuniko Abe, Naoe Kinoshita, Haruna Yasui, Takashi Kitaoka, Junya Fukuoka
Open Journal of Pathology (OJPathology) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpathology.2013.32011
Abstract:

Background: Astrocytic tumors of the retina are rare. We report and discuss the clinical features of two cases of retinal astrocytoma along with presenting a current literature review. Case Presentation: Case 1 was a 46-year-old Japanese female who became aware of her decreased visual acuity. A fundus photograph indicated the presence of a 5 mm hemispherical yellow-white tumor, retinal edema and hard exudate around the tumor. In case 2, a 36-year-old Japanese female became aware of her myodesopsia, and presented with a retinal tumor and vitreous hemorrhage in her right eye. Since the tumors occurred in the peripheral retina in both cases, endoresections were performed. Histological examination showed that the tumors were composed of spindle-shaped cells with small nuclei, which was consistent with astrocytes. Conclusion: Pathologically, it can be difficult to differentiate astrocytic tumors. Therefore, when making a diagnosis, it is important that comprehensive examinations be done in conjunction with the clinical findings. Since retinal astrocytoma has a favorable prognosis, provided proper treatment is administered, utilization of endoresection for peripheral astrocytoma may be advantageous in this patient group.

Variation of blood vessels in the cranial-cervical legion  [PDF]
Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Hayato Okunaga, Lisa Wingenfeld, Katsuji Nishi
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research (FMAR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fmar.2013.14016
Abstract: The blood vessels in the head and neck have several main roots for supplying blood to the brain and returning of blood to the heart. It was well known that each artery and vein in the head and neck has its variation. The variation of the vessels some times gives rise to unexpectable findings, which are not described in the textbook. In this study we like to show the morphological variations observed at routine autopsy cases and some forensic pathological findings caused by those variations.
Correlación clínico-histopatológicaen la enfermedad periodontal inflamatoriacrónica
Riesgo Lobaina,Nereyda; Rodríguez Méndez,Gladys; Urbizo Vélez,Joaquín; Martínez Naranjo,Teresa;
Revista Cubana de Estomatolog?-a , 1999,
Abstract: study of 40 selected biopsies was carried out in pathologic anatomy department of dentistry faculty of havana city, 20 ot them corresponding to patients with clinical diagnosis of chronic gingivitis, in order to know main changes produced in epithelium and lamina propria. these cases, when they were interviewed not refered systemic disease, which was verified by searching in medical records of selected patients. analysis of sample biopsies obtained demonstrate a high corrspondence between clinical diagnosis and histomorphologic findings, what corroborates a serie of studies carried out in our country and worldwide.
Pathological Influences of Twelve Months Vasectomy on the Reproductive Tissues in Rabbits  [PDF]
Xinggang Wang, Yuanfeng Zhang, Zonglin Chen, Xunbin Huang
Advances in Sexual Medicine (ASM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/asm.2012.21002
Abstract: Objective - The effects of vasectomy on testes and related structures are disputable. The aim of this study was to determine whether the reproductive organs of rabbits were influenced after 12 months vasectomy. Study design – Bilateral vasectomy was performed on 10 male adult New Zealand Big Eared White Rabbits (another 10 rabbits set as sham operated group) and tissue samples were examined by light microscopy after 12 months treatment. The histologic alterations were observed and analyzed by stereology method. Cell apoptosis by Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) assay were employed. Result - Bilateral vasectomy for 12 months affected the morphology of testis, epididymis and vas deferens tissues. Significant changes were noted in the histological stereology analysis. The apoptosis of the cells on the testis, epididymis and vas deferens increased compared with the sham operated group. Conclusion - Our findings suggest that the reproductive tissues of rabbits were influenced in a relatively longer term vasectomy.
An Alternative Approach to Sending All Gallbladders for Histology Following Cholecystectomy?  [PDF]
John-Patrick Devine Byars, Kishore Pursnani
Surgical Science (SS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2012.31003
Abstract: Background: The question of a selective approach to sending all gallbladders for histology following cholecystectomy has been postulated in many journals but as yet no guidelines have been published in light of such concern. This project will attempt to analyse and address the controversy surrounding sending all gallbladders for histology following cholecystectomy. Objective: To ascertain whether there is a feasible and safe alternative to sending all gallbladders to histology following cholecystectomy and to challenge such a hypothesis. Design: Retrospective study. Methods: Analysis of gallbladder pathology reports, patient medical records and computerised test results from cholecystectomies done in the last 5 years within the Lancashire Teaching Hospital Trust. Results: The alternative selective method based on pre-operative investigations and intra-operative macroscopic detail is shown to be significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results from this study show that there is safe and efficient way of selecting which gallbladders are sent for histology based on age, pre-surgical suspicion and intra-operative macroscopic abnormalities.
The Dog as a Risk Factor in Transmission of Visceral Leishmaniasis: A Review  [PDF]
Francisco Assis Lima Costa
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2012.22006
Abstract: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. Despite the euthanasia of dogs serologically positive, such action has not solved the endemic in Brazil. A risk area for VL involves the presence of the vector, the occurrence of canines and the record of human cases. The factors that have favored the persistence and spread of VL in Brazil are related to the predatory action of man on the environment, to the migratory movements and rural exodus, and a close coexistence of man and animals. Thus considering the epidemiological chain of VL, one fact seems clear: we do not know yet the true extent of the participation of the dog in the infectious cycle of VL. The clinical disease is an important indicator of the extent of the problem in an endemic area. The immunological events are complex and involve resistance and susceptibility to canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). One aspect in CVL is that many symptomatic dogs underwent xenodiagnosis not infect the vector. In such cases the pattern recognition receptors CD11b+, TLR2+, and NO present higher values for dogs with results in immunohistochemistry of skin and xenodiagnosis negative (IMH-/XENO-) than dogs with immunohistochemistry in skin and xenodiagnosis positive (IMH+/XENO+), suggesting that innate immunity modulates the competence of the dog to infect the vector. The organic response in CVL varies from individual to individual and within the same individual, with a strong evidence of being organ-specific. Only 20% of asymptomatic dogs have parasites in the skin and 15% are able to recover from clinical signs and eliminate the parasites spontaneously. In this review, we analyze the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis and clinical, immunological and pathological conditions that can contribute to understanding the role of dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis.
Histopathological Analysis about Autopsies from HIV/AIDS Patients—About Two Decades of Research Comparing Results before and after Antiretroviral Therapy Advent  [PDF]
Aline Domingos Pinto Ruppert, Alexandre de Matos Soeiro, Maria Carolina F. de Almeida, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Carlos V. Serrano Jr.
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2013.33028
Abstract:

Objectives: This study considers 489 autopsies of HIV/AIDS patients who died from acute respiratory failure and describes the demographic data, etiology, and histological pulmonary findings of HIV associated diseases, comparing results before and after introduction of antiretroviral therapy. Methods: The following data were obtained: age, sex, and major associated diseases (found at the autopsy). Pulmonary histopathology was categorized as: diffuse alveolar damage; pulmonary edema; alveolar hemorrhage; and acute interstitial pneumonia. Odds ratio of the HIV/AIDS-associated diseases developing a specific histopathological pattern was determined by logistic regression. Results: A total of 355 men were studied. The mean age was 37 years old. Bronchopneumonia presented in 43% and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in 38% of patients. Pulmonary histopathology showed diffuse alveolar damage in 31% and acute interstitial pneumonia in 23%. The multivariate analysis showed a significant and positive association between diffuse alveolar damage with disseminated tuberculosis, cirrhosis and sepsis; and acute interstitial pneumonia with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and cytomegalovirosis. After the introduction of antiretroviral therapy we observed an increase in the prevalence of bacterial bronchopneumonia, sepsis and cirrhosis; and a decrease in Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and cytomegalovirosis. Conclusions: Coherent to literature, this study showed a decrease of respiratory failure mortality associated with some opportunistic infections after antiretroviral therapy introduction. But an increased prevalence of sepsis, bronchopneumonia and sepsis was observed too. The most prevalent pulmonary histopathological pattern was diffuse alveolar damage, which suggested a positive association with disseminated tuberculosis, sepsis and cirrhosis.

Asymptomatic postmenopausal women with sonographically thickened endometrium. What do we do?  [PDF]
Sahathevan Sathiyathasan, K. Jeyanthan, C. L. Khoo
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2013.38114
Abstract:

Background: A thickened endometrium in the postmenopausal patient is a common reason for referral to gynaecology rapid access clinics under the cancer targets wait. This can often be an incidental finding in the asymptomatic patient. Investigation of this can be invasive, uncomfortable and carries significant surgical risk. Aims: This paper aims to summarise all the recent literature to see if there is any clear consensus on who should be further investigated in this select group of patients. Methods: Systematic literature review. Results: The studies varied greatly on the need for further investigation in asymptomatic women with endometrial thickness greater than 11 mm, with some deciding on careful case selection for further investigation, and others investigating every patient. The treatment of asymptomatic patients with endometrium classified as thickened, yet under 11 mm and no symptoms again varied in case selection and further investigation. Endometrial polyps were mentioned in 1 paper, suggesting that asymptomatic polyps need not be removed, which is contrary to current clinical practice. Conclusion: There is no overall opinion as to the exact treatment of women with thickened endometrium. Women should be carefully triaged and all other factors taken into account before further investigation are instigated.

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