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The Effects of Different Titanium Surfaces on the Behaviour of Osteoblast-Like Cells  [PDF]
Fabiano Ribeiro Cirano, Adriane Yaeko Togashi, Márcia Martins Marques, Francisco Emílio Pustiglioni, Luiz Ant?nio Pugliesi Alves Lima
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2015.86036
Abstract: This study investigated the influence of different titanium surfaces on the differentiation of rat osteoblast-like cells (osteo-1). Osteo-1 cells were cultured on the following titanium surfaces: 1) pretreated, smooth surface (PT); 2) sandblasted and acid etched surface (SLA); and 3) sandblasted and acid-etched surface rinsed under nitrogen protection to prevent exposure to air and preserved in isotonic saline solution (modSLA). Cell metabolism, total protein content, collagen content and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and the formation of calcified nodules were analyzed. The titanium surface did not influence cell metabolism, total protein content and collagen content. The SLA surface influenced cell differentiation, with the observation of a significant reduction of AP activity and formation of calcified nodules after 21 days compared to the PT surface. No difference was observed between the PT and modSLA surfaces. All titanium surfaces tested permitted the full expression of the osteoblast phenotype by osteo-1 cells, including matrix mineralization.
Development of an Artificial Finger-Like Knee Loading Device to Promote Bone Health  [PDF]
Sandeep Korupolu, Stanley Chien, Hiroki Yokota, Sohel Anwar
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2017.1011041
Abstract: This study presents the development of an innovative artificial finger-like device that provides position specific mechanical loads at the end of the long bone and induces mechanotransduction in bone. Bone cells such as osteoblasts are the mechanosensitive cells that regulate bone remodelling. When they receive gentle, periodic mechanical loads, new bone formation is promoted. The proposed device is an under-actuated multi-fingered artificial hand with 4 fingers, each having two phalanges. These fingers are connected by mechanical linkages and operated by a worm gearing mechanism. With the help of 3D printing technology, a prototype device was built mostly using plastic materials. The experimental validation results show that the device is capable of generating necessary forces at the desired frequencies, which are suitable for the stimulation of bone cells and the promotion of bone formation. It is recommended that the device be tested in a clinical study for confirming its safety and efficacy with patients.
Anodizing color coded anodized Ti6Al4V medical devices for increasing bone cell functions
Ross AP, Webster TJ
International Journal of Nanomedicine , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S36203
Abstract: nodizing color coded anodized Ti6Al4V medical devices for increasing bone cell functions Original Research (879) Total Article Views Authors: Ross AP, Webster TJ Published Date January 2013 Volume 2013:8 Pages 109 - 117 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S36203 Received: 21 July 2012 Accepted: 17 September 2012 Published: 04 January 2013 Alexandra P Ross, Thomas J Webster School of Engineering and Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: Current titanium-based implants are often anodized in sulfuric acid (H2SO4) for color coding purposes. However, a crucial parameter in selecting the material for an orthopedic implant is the degree to which it will integrate into the surrounding bone. Loosening at the bone–implant interface can cause catastrophic failure when motion occurs between the implant and the surrounding bone. Recently, a different anodization process using hydrofluoric acid has been shown to increase bone growth on commercially pure titanium and titanium alloys through the creation of nanotubes. The objective of this study was to compare, for the first time, the influence of anodizing a titanium alloy medical device in sulfuric acid for color coding purposes, as is done in the orthopedic implant industry, followed by anodizing the device in hydrofluoric acid to implement nanotubes. Specifically, Ti6Al4V model implant samples were anodized first with sulfuric acid to create color-coding features, and then with hydrofluoric acid to implement surface features to enhance osteoblast functions. The material surfaces were characterized by visual inspection, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Human osteoblasts were seeded onto the samples for a series of time points and were measured for adhesion and proliferation. After 1 and 2 weeks, the levels of alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition were measured to assess the long-term differentiation of osteoblasts into the calcium depositing cells. The results showed that anodizing in hydrofluoric acid after anodizing in sulfuric acid partially retains color coding and creates unique surface features to increase osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium deposition. In this manner, this study provides a viable method to anodize an already color coded, anodized titanium alloy to potentially increase bone growth for numerous implant applications.
A critical role for suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 in regulating LPS-induced transcriptional activation of matrix metalloproteinase-13 in osteoblasts
Anqi Gao,Alpdogan Kantarci,Bruno Schneider Herrera,Hongwei Gao
PeerJ , 2013, DOI: 10.7717/peerj.51
Abstract: Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is a key regulator of cytokine signaling in macrophages and T cells. Although SOCS3 seems to contribute to the balance between the pro-inflammatory actions of IL-6 family of cytokines and anti-inflammatory signaling of IL-10 by negatively regulating gp130/Jak/Stat3 signal transduction, how and the molecular mechanisms whereby SOCS3 controls the downstream impact of TLR4 are largely unknown and current data are controversial. Furthermore, very little is known regarding SOCS3 function in cells other than myeloid cells and T cells. Our previous study demonstrates that SOCS3 is expressed in osteoblasts and functions as a critical inhibitor of LPS-induced IL-6 expression. However, the function of SOCS3 in osteoblasts remains largely unknown. In the current study, we report for the first time that LPS stimulation of osteoblasts induces the transcriptional activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, a central regulator of bone resorption. Importantly, we demonstrate that SOCS3 overexpression leads to a significant decrease of LPS-induced MMP-13 expression in both primary murine calvariae osteoblasts and a mouse osteoblast-like cell line, MC3T3-E1. Our findings implicate SOCS3 as an important regulatory mediator in bone inflammatory diseases by targeting MMP-13.
Effects of sophoricoside and genistein on biological characteristics of osteoblasts
Yong XU,Ning DU
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2009,
Abstract: Objective: To observe the effects of sophoricoside and genistein on the biological characteristics of osteoblasts.Methods: Osteoblasts were isolated from parietal bone of the newborn SD rats (less than 24 hours) and cultured in minimum essential medium (MEM). The effects of different concentrations of sophoricoside and genistein (10, 1 and 0.1 μmol/L) on the bone formation of osteoblasts in vitro were observed by cell proliferation rate. Differentiation of osteoblasts was evaluated by detecting the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) using 4-nitrophenyl phosphate disodium salt (PNPP) method and by measuring the mineralized nodiform dyed by alizarin bordeaux. And the activity of osteoprotegerin (OPG) promoters of human beings was tested by using gene cloning and reporter gene.Results: Sophoricoside at 1 and 0.1 μmol/L could promote the proliferation of osteoblasts (vs control group, P<0.05). Genistein at 10 μmol/L could inhibit the cell proliferation, while genistein at 0.1 μmol/L showed promotion to cell proliferation (vs control group, P<0.05). The activity of ALP of osteoblasts was increased by sophoricoside at concentrations from 0.1 μmol/L to 10 μmol/L, but genistein only at concentration of 0.1 μmol/L could make it. The total areas of mineralization of the osteoblasts in 10, 1 and 0.1 μmol/L sophoricoside groups increased by 73%, 138.6% and 114.3% as compared with the control group, respectively, but those in different concentrations of genistein groups decreased. The activity of LacZ was increased by sophoricoside at concentrations from 0.1 μmol/L to 10 μmol/L, as well as by genistein at concentration of 0.1 μmol/L.Conclusion: Sophoricoside can stimulate the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts. And it shows no inhibition to bone formation of osteoblasts compared with genistein. Sophoricoside can also increase the activity of osteoprotegerin promoter and is more effective than genistein.
N-acetylcyteine and flavonoid rich diet: The protective effect of 15 different antioxidants on cigarette smoke-damaged primary human osteoblasts  [PDF]
Sabrina Ehnert, Stefan D?bele, Karl Friedrich Braun, Britta Burkhardt, Valeska Hofmann, Mario Hausmann, José Tomás Ega?a, Ulrich St?ckle, Thomas Freude, Andreas Klaus Nussler
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2012.38139
Abstract: Cigarette consumption increases oxidative stress in many organs. Increased oxidative stress harms bone cells, which negatively affects bone-matter and -stability. This leads to an increased fracture risk and delayed fracture healing in smokers. A supporting therapy with antioxidants could be of great benefit for surgeons dealing with delayed fracture healing due to increased oxidative stress. In this article we complement and compare our published data with hitherto unpublished data and show the protective effect of 15 different antioxidants on cigarette smoke induced damage in primary human osteoblasts. Exposure to cigarette smoke medium (CSM) rapidly induces formation of ROS in osteoblasts in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Massive cell damage is seen already after 4 h (EC50 ≈ 0.75 OD320). Pre-, co- and post-incubation with the different antioxidants reduces the formation of ROS and consequently improves the viability of the CSM exposed osteoblasts. Small compounds, e.g. N-acetylcysteine, proved highly effective if pre- or co-incubated before exposure to the CSM. Thus, they are good candidates for acute therapy support as they can be administered in high doses. However, our data suggest that a balanced daily diet could lead to an accumulation of various natural antioxidants (flavonoids) that effectively protect osteoblasts from oxidative stress-induced damage in all three settings investigated. Together with their partly phytoestrogenic properties this may even abate alterations in bone and thus reduce fracture risk on the long run.
Comparative Response of CRL-11372 Cells to Surface Roughness and Crystalline Structure of the Surfaces Developed by Sandblasting, Etching, and TiO2 Coating on Commercially Pure Ti Discs  [PDF]
Sinem Yeniyol, Bahad?r Kepenek, Ayhan Bilir, Ali Fuat ?ak?r, Nilüfer B?lükba??, Mefail Yeniyol, Tayfun ?zdemir
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2014.55029
Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the adhesion of human fetal osteoblast cells (CRL-11372) in vitro at 24 h on commercially pure titanium (cp Ti) metal surfaces’ crystalline structure and surface roughnesses that are modified by polishing, sand blasting (with alumina (Al2O3)), sand blasting and coating (with titanium oxide (TiO2)), and sand blasting and etching (with oxalic acid). Modified surfaces were characterized quantitatively by a non-contacting optical profilometer in terms of their Rz and Ra values and surface profile diagrams were obtained. These surfaces were characterized qualitatively by scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs. The crystalline structures of the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). CRL-11372 cells were cultured for 24 h and evaluated for their mean total cell counts. Cell morphologies were examined by SEM micrographs. Data were compared by Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Post Hoc LSD test comparisons. SEM micrographs showed variations among the topographies of the surfaces and the morphologies of the cells adhered to these four different surfaces. Cell adhesion was affected by neither Ti chemical composition nor surface roughness within the Ra and Rz parameters used.

 

Biocompatibility of Niobium Coatings
René Olivares-Navarrete,Jhon Jairo Olaya,Claudia Ramírez,Sandra Elizabeth Rodil
Coatings , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/coatings1010072
Abstract: Niobium coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering were evaluated as a possible surface modification for stainless steel (SS) substrates in biomedical implants. The Nb coatings were deposited on 15 mm diameter stainless steel substrates having an average surface roughness of 2 mm. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the coatings three different in vitro tests, using human alveolar bone derived cells, were performed: cellular adhesion, proliferation and viability. Stainless steel substrates and tissue culture plastic were also studied, in order to give comparative information. No toxic response was observed for any of the surfaces, indicating that the Nb coatings act as a biocompatible, bioinert material. Cell morphology was also studied by immune-fluorescence and the results confirmed the healthy state of the cells on the Nb surface. X-ray diffraction analysis of the coating shows that the film is polycrystalline with a body centered cubic structure. The surface composition and corrosion resistance of both the substrate and the Nb coating were also studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and potentiodynamic tests. Water contact angle measurements showed that the Nb surface is more hydrophobic than the SS substrate.
Management of glucocorticoids-induced osteoporosis: role of teriparatide
Silvia Migliaccio, Marina Brama, Nazzarena Malavolta
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S3940
Abstract: nagement of glucocorticoids-induced osteoporosis: role of teriparatide Review (4280) Total Article Views Authors: Silvia Migliaccio, Marina Brama, Nazzarena Malavolta Published Date April 2009 Volume 2009:5 Pages 305 - 310 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S3940 Silvia Migliaccio1, Marina Brama1, Nazzarena Malavolta2 1Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Medica, Policlinico Umberto I, Università degli Studi Sapienza di Roma, Italy; 2Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, Policlinico S Orsola Malpighi, Bologna, Italy Abstract: Glucocorticoids (GC)-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is the most common cause of secondary osteoporosis, which leads to an increased fracture risk in patients. The normal bone turnover depends on a balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts activity and GC can cause a rapid bone loss, decreasing bone formation and increasing bone resorption. The decreased bone formation is mainly due to the GC-induced apoptosis of both osteoblasts and osteocytes, while the increased bone resorption is due to the increased life-span of pre-existing osteoclasts. Bisphosphonates are clearly effective in preventing and treating GIOP but anabolic therapeutic strategies are the new promising therapeutic alternative. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that teriparatide, the active (1–34) parathyroid hormone (PTH) molecule, is efficacious for the treatment of GIOP, being able to induce an increase in bone mass in these patients. Intermittent administration of human PTH (1–34) stimulates bone formation by increasing osteoblast number. Additionally, human PTH (1–34) modulates the level and/or activity of locally produced growth factors and cytokines. Teriparatide has been demonstrated in several clinical studies to significantly decrease the incidence of fractures in patients affected by GIOP. It has recently received an indication for GIOP and its label indication has also been expanded.
Nanofunctionalized zirconia and barium sulfate particles as bone cement additives
Riaz Gillani, Batur Ercan, Alex Qiao, et al
International Journal of Nanomedicine , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S7603
Abstract: nofunctionalized zirconia and barium sulfate particles as bone cement additives Original Research (6165) Total Article Views Authors: Riaz Gillani, Batur Ercan, Alex Qiao, et al Published Date December 2009 Volume 2010:5 Pages 1 - 11 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S7603 Riaz Gillani1, Batur Ercan1, Alex Qiao3, Thomas J Webster1,2 1Division of Engineering, 2Department of Orthopaedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 3G3 Technology Innovations, LLC, Pittsford, NY, USA Abstract: Zirconia (ZrO2) and barium sulfate (BaSO4) particles were introduced into a methyl methacrylate monomer (MMA) solution with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) beads during polymerization to develop the following novel bone cements: bone cements with unfunctionalized ZrO2 micron particles, bone cements with unfunctionalized ZrO2 nanoparticles, bone cements with ZrO2 nanoparticles functionalized with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMS), bone cements with unfunctionalized BaSO4 micron particles, bone cements with unfunctionalized BaSO4 nanoparticles, and bone cements with BaSO4 nanoparticles functionalized with TMS. Results demonstrated that in vitro osteoblast (bone-forming cell) densities were greater on bone cements containing BaSO4 ceramic particles after four hours compared to control unmodified bone cements. Osteoblast densities were also greater on bone cements containing all of the ceramic particles after 24 hours compared to unmodified bone cements, particularly those bone cements containing nanofunctionalized ceramic particles. Bone cements containing ceramic particles demonstrated significantly altered mechanical properties; specifically, under tensile loading, plain bone cements and bone cements containing unfunctionalized ceramic particles exhibited brittle failure modes whereas bone cements containing nanofunctionalized ceramic particles exhibited plastic failure modes. Finally, all bone cements containing ceramic particles possessed greater radio-opacity than unmodified bone cements. In summary, the results of this study demonstrated a positive impact on the properties of traditional bone cements for orthopedic applications with the addition of unfunctionalized and TMS functionalized ceramic nanoparticles.
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