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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 214 matches for " ontogeny. "
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Elevated Concentrations of Dietarily-Important Trace Elements and Macronutrients in Edible Leaves and Grain of 27 Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) Genotypes: Implications for Human Nutrition and Health  [PDF]
Alphonsus K. Belane, Felix D. Dakora
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.33054
Abstract: Legumes are a good source of calories, protein and mineral nutrients for human nutrition and health. In this study, the edible leaves and grain of 27 field-grown cowpea genotypes were assessed for trace elements and macronutrient den-sity at Manga in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Ghana in 2005 and 2006, using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The genotypes differed markedly in their accumulation of trace elements and major nutrients in edible leaves and grain. Except for P, the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, S and Na were much higher in edible cowpea leaves than grain in 2005. A similar pattern was observed for Ca, Mg, S, Na in 2006. However, more dramatic variations were found in the micronutrient concentrations between edible cowpea leaves and grain. The levels of the trace elements Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and B were sometimes 2- to 20-fold greater in leaves than grain of cowpea. Furthermore, there were strong genotypic differences in mineral density of cowpea leaves and grain. For the major nutrients, for example, IT93K-2045-29 and IT90K-59 accumulated greater concentrations of P, K, Ca, S and Na in both edible leaves and grain in 2006, while ITH98-46, which showed the least macronutrient density, exhibited the highest concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B in edible leaves, as well as Fe, Cu and Mn in grain. These results have implications for cowpea breeding, as well as for human nutrition and health.
From Phylogeny to Ontogeny of Longevity: Contributions of the Evolutionary Approach to Gerontology  [PDF]
Rodolfo Gomes do Nascimento, Jeisiane Lima Brito, Celina Maria Colino Magalh?es
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.610123
Abstract: This qualitative study aimed at performing a theoretical review and understanding the phylogenic aspects and the story of the ontogenic development of human longevity, in addition to proposing a brief reflection about the role of old age in an evolutionary perspective based on the theoretical references of Ethology, Evolutionary Developmental Psychology, and Gerontology. This is a narrative review based on national and international publications selected from journals and books indexed online which were accessed by the following database: Lilacs, Google Scholar, and Scielo, with a 55-year period range for the search (1957 to 2012) through the combined descriptors: longevity, aging, evolutionary psychology, phylogeny, and ontogeny. According to the inclusion criteria, 43 publications were analyzed through the Content Analysis and discusses in three categories: distal causal mechanism of human longevity, approaching the enlargement of the stages of life, and theories that discuss the reproductive role of the species; proximal causal mechanisms, built along life and the evolutionary role of aging with its importance for the species in the attempt to amplify the meanings of this stage of life in the Gerontology field. Faced with the discussion, we perceived that the study of the determinants of human longevity (in their phylogenetic and ontogenetic dimensions) is consistent and represents an important model for a broader and deeper understanding.
Morphogenesis of Kidney in Crossbred Pig (Sus scrofa) Foetii
Sarma,Kamal; Ahmed,Bilal;
International Journal of Morphology , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022007000100019
Abstract: twenty five numbers of crossbred pig foetii were selected based on their crown-rump length and subsequently divided into 5 age groups consisting of 5 animals in each group viz. group i (41-55 days), group ii (56-70 days), group iii (71-85 days), group iv (86-100 days) and groupv (101-114 days). no renal pelvis was evident in group i in all the kidneys under study. from group ii onwards, the renal pelvis was distinct and extensive with a well developed ureter that originated from the middle of the pelvis in both the kidneys
Varia??o morfométrica em Bothropoides jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae) no Rio Grande do Sul
Matias, Nathalia Rocha;Alves, Maria Lúcia Machado;Araujo, Moema Leit?o de;Jung, Diego Marques Henriques;
Iheringia. Série Zoologia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0073-47212011000300001
Abstract: although male and female snakes are born with the same size, growth rates and age of sexual maturation may be different, thus determining sexual dimorphism in the later stages of life. we evaluated the incidence of sexual and ontogenetic morphometric variation in bothropoides jararaca (wied, 1824), exploring relationships involving body size and sexual maturity through 14 morphometric variables. we analyzed 142 specimens from the state of rio grande do sul, southern brazil. morphometric data - head length, snout-vent length, tail length, total length; head width, ocular width, nasal-loreal width, tail width; nasal-ocular distance, ocular-loreal distance, loreal-nasal distance, ventral-sinfisal distance and rostral-labial distance - and length/diameter of ovarian follicles, were taken in millimeters by simple rule and analogical caliper, precision 0.05 mm. sex determination was performed by inspection of the gonads. age was associated to sexual maturity. for the statistical analysis the analysis of variance (anova) with tukey's post hoc test was used with, linear regression and canonical discriminant analysis (cda). most measures indicated sexual dimorphism (anova, p<0.05) only in adults (tukey, p<0.05). regression analysis showed that snout-vent length explains the behavior of other variables (p< 0.001) and in all measures, females grow more than males. the adc has been successful in separating the genders and age groups, with biological meaning, whereas 79.2% of cases were correctly classified.
Suárez,Andrea; Mustaca,Alba; Pautassi,Ricardo; Kamenetzky,Giselle;
Suma Psicológica , 2012,
Abstract: this study evaluated consummatory responses in infant rats exposed to different magnitude of reward, and after the devaluation (i.e., consummatory successive negative contrast) or omission (i.e., extinction) of reward. in experiment 1, 8-10 post-natal days (pnd) pups were intraorally infused with 12%, 10%, 5% or 2% sucrose (preshift phase, 2 daily trials). subsequently, all groups received 2% sucrose (postshift phase). in experiment 2, 10-14 day-old pups received 12% or 2% sucrose in 4 daily trials in the preshift phase, followed by 2% in a postshift trial. both experiments indicated that during preshift, animals exposed to 12% sucrose exhibited higher sucrose consumption than those receiving lower concentration solutions. this phenomenon, indicative of a magnitude of reinforcement effect was not accompanied by evidence of successive negative contrast. in experiment 3 we evaluated the magnitude of reinforcement extinction effect in 7-12 pnd rats. animals received 12% sucrose or water in preshift phase and both groups received a neutral solution (i.e., water) in the second phase. a magnitude of reinforcement acquisition effect was again observed, yet there were no differences between groups in extinction phase. in experiment 4 we used an anticipatory contrast procedure in 10-16 pnd pups. a magnitude of reinforcement, but not an anticipatory contrast effect was observed. overall the results indicate that: (a) rats from - at least- 8 pnd discriminate between different concentrations of sucrose, and (b) until the second week of life the response to rewards is mainly regulated by their absolute value and not by their relative value. results are discussed terms of the ontogeny of paradoxical effects of reward and its relationship to amsel's theory.
Ontogenetic changes in the fractal geometry of the bronchial tree in Rattus norvegicus
Biological Research , 2000, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-97602000000100010
Abstract: respiration and metabolism change dramatically over the course of the development of vertebrates. in mammals these changes may be ascribed to organogenesis and differentiation of structures involved in gas exchange and transport and the increase in size. since young as well as mature individuals must be well-designed if the species is to survive, the physiological changes during the development should be matched with geometrical or structural adjustments of the respiratory system. the aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the fractal geometry of the bronchial tree during the postnatal development of the rat. the average fractal dimension of the bronchial tree of the rats was 1.587, but that of juveniles was larger than that of the adults. we found a significant negative correlation between age and fractal dimension. this correlation could be considered be misleading because of the difficulty of separating age/body size effects. nevertheless, because fractal dimensions of the bronchial tree of rabbits and humans are known to be similar, 1.58 and 1.57 respectively, the body size effect may be nil. to our knowledge, this is the first report of ontogenetic changes in the fractal dimension of the bronchial tree in mammals
Ecologia e ontogenia da alimenta??o de Astyanax janeiroensis (Osteichthyes, Characidae) de um riacho costeiro do Sudeste do Brasil
Mazzoni, Rosana;Nery, Lívia Louren?o;Iglesias-Rios, Ricardo;
Biota Neotropica , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1676-06032010000300005
Abstract: in the present work we aimed to describe the spatio-temporal and ontogenetic variations of astyanax janeiroensis diet in ubatiba stream, a coastal fluvial system from serra do mar. we analyzed 540 specimens collected monthly during twelve months in six sites differing in the degree of vegetal cover (opened and closed sites). we verified that a. janeiroensis is an omnivorous species whose diet is largely based on autochthonous items. the estimated intestinal coefficient was 0.74 (+ 1.2), being compatible with an omnivorous behavior. we did not register differences in the diet from dry and rainy seasons. nonetheless, we found differences in the diet from opened and closed sites. we registered quite absolute predominance of autochthonous items in the diet from the closed sites, whereas, in the opened ones we found similar ingestion of alo and autochthonous items. concerning juveniles and adult specimens, we found differences in the consumption of animal and vegetal items with a relative reduction of animal ingestion among adult specimens. the intestinal coefficient of adult specimens was higher than that of juveniles, corroborating the diet results.
Morfoanatomia comparada dos frutos em desenvolvimento de Vernonia brevifolia Less. e V. herbacea (Vell.) Rusby (Asteraceae)
Martins, Marco Antonio Garcia;Oliveira, Denise Maria Trombert;
Brazilian Journal of Botany , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-84042007000100010
Abstract: in this work, the morphology, anatomy and ontogeny of the pericarp and pappus of vernonia herbacea and v. brevifolia were described. both species are very similar, possessing inferior, bicarpellate, syncarpous and unilocular ovary. in the pericarp formation, none region is multiplicative. the exocarp is uniseriate and recovered by thin cuticle. long, multicellular and bisseriate non-glandular trichomes were observed, which persisted until maturity; capitate glandular trichomes are caducous. the outer mesocarp is composed of two or three fiber layers in v. herbacea, and only one in v. brevifolia, in both it accumulates prismatic crystals. in both species, the inner mesocarp is parenchymatous. collateral vascular bundles occur immersed between outer and inner mesocarp. the endocarp is uniseriate, presenting two or three layers in the carpel fusing regions only. in the pericarp apical portion, there is a protuberance at the double pappus insertion, composed by lignified cells, some of them projected peripherally. at the fruit base, there is a carpopodium; in v. herbacea it is bigger and has druses and styloids; in v. brevifolia it is reduced and there is no crystals. at maturity, the pericarp of both species is dehydrated in such way that the cell layers are collapsed, and it is possible to distinguish only some exocarp cells and non-glandular trichomes, the outer mesocarpic fibers and crystals, and the xylem of vascular bundles.
Freud e a filogenia anímica
Winograd, Monah;
Revista do Departamento de Psicologia. UFF , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-80232007000100006
Abstract: this essay investigates the presence, in freud′s work, of the idea of an animic phylogeny parallel, concomitant and dependent of the somatic phylogeny that the theoreticians of evolution describe. our objective is to show how this neighborhood between psychoanalysis and evolutionary theory is formed. to do so, we stress that, in the phylogeny theory that freud sketches, typical psychic forms occurs in the history of the human kind in a way that each individual repeats it in its singular ontogeny. as it happens in the somatic level, time and form are intimately associated in the species and in the individuals. the presence of that idea in freud′s work has opened a debate about his darwinist or lamarckist inspiration.
Postlarval development of Nicolea uspiana (Polychaeta: Terebellidae)
Garraffoni, André R. S.;Amaral, A. Cecília Z.;
Zoologia (Curitiba) , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-46702009000100010
Abstract: the postlarval development of nicolea uspiana (nogueira, 2003), a small intertidal terebellid polychaete from rocky habitats on the southeastern and southern brazilian coast, was studied based on postlarval, juvenile and adult specimens. the specimens, ranging from 8 to 43 segments, were collected between may 2006 and may 2007. the youngest postlarval specimen was found crawling outside of the tube. in specimens at different stages of growth, the number of ocelli and tentacles increased; the first pair of nephridial papillae appeared early (before 8-segmented specimen), and the second and third pairs appeared later (31-segmented specimen); the circulatory system only developed when the first pair of branchial bulbs arose (32-segmented specimen), and the second branchial pair appeared later (40-segmented specimen); and the inversion of the uncini positions in some rows occurred in the transition from larva to juvenile (17-segmented specimen). in the course of development, segments 2-3 lost the notochaetae, and segments 3-4 lost the neurochaetae. the changes involved in the development from postlarval to adult animals are illustrated by sem micrographs and photographs.
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