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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2127 matches for " observer role "
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When Information Conveys Meaning
Anthony Reading
Information , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/info3040635
Abstract: While some information is clearly meaningful and some clearly is not, no one has been able to identify exactly what the difference is. The major obstacle has been the way information and meaning are conceptualized: the one in the physical realm of tangible, objective entities and the other in the mental world of intangible, subjective ones. This paper introduces an approach that incorporates both of them within a unified framework by defining them in terms of what they do, rather than what they are. Meaningful information is thus conceptualized here as patterns of matter and energy that have a tangible effect on the entities that detect them, either by changing their function, structure or behavior, while patterns of matter and energy that have no such effects are considered meaningless. The way that meaningful information can act as a causal agent in bio-behavioral systems enables us to move beyond dualistic concepts of ourselves as comprised of a material body that obeys the laws of physics and a non-material essence that is too elusive to study [1].
The Relationship among Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity, Role Overload and Job Stress of Chinese Middle-Level Cadres  [PDF]
Zhou Yongkang, Zeng Weixi, Hu Yalin, Xi Yipeng, Tan Liu
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2014.31003
Abstract: This research aims to explore the relationship among role conflict, role ambiguity, role overload and job stress of middle-level cadres in Chinese local government. Through a questionnaire survey of 220 cadres, the results showed that time pressure was significantly correlated with role conflict and role overload; job anxiety and job stress were significantly and positively correlated with role ambiguity, role conflict and role overload; role ambiguity had a significant and positive effect on job anxiety and job stress; role conflict and role overload had a significant and positive effect on time stress, job anxiety and job stress.
Role Expansion: Implications of the Security Role Expanding into the EHS Function  [PDF]
Wanda D. Minnick, Jonathan D. Cunkelman
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology (OJSST) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2015.53010
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the perception of safety professionals regarding the expansion of their role into security functions. One hundred eleven returned surveys from practicing safety professionals in the manufacturing, oil and gas, and construction industries were examined. Fifty seven percent of respondents agree with role expansion into security and twenty three percent of participants do not. Thematic patterns emerged from their comments and are provided. The remaining twenty percent of respondents fell into a category of “it depends” and the provided reasons suggest other variables that could have influence. A Chi square test for independence indicated that role expansion is independent of industry type; suggesting there is agreement for role expansion into security functions regardless of industry type. Another primary finding is that although the majority of safety professionals agree with role expansion, security coursework is currently not required in a review of accredited occupational safety and health program curricula. This suggests recent graduates may not be formerly prepared for the security elements of their role and should seek or be offered additional training.
Conventional and Added-Order Proportional Nonlinear Integral Observers  [PDF]
Baishun Liu, Xiangqian Luo, Jianhui Li
International Journal of Modern Nonlinear Theory and Application (IJMNTA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijmnta.2014.35023
Abstract: In this paper, a kind of fire new nonlinear integrator and integral action is proposed. Consequently, a conventional Proportional Nonlinear Integral (P_NI) observer and two kinds of added-order P_NI observers are developed to deal with the uncertain nonlinear system. The conditions on the observer gains to ensure the estimated error to be ultimate boundness, which shrinks to zero as the states and control inputs converge to the equilibrium point, are provided. This means that if the observed system is asymptotically stable, the estimated error dynamics is asymptotically stable, too. Moreover, the highlight point of this paper is that the design of nonlinear integral observer is achieved by linear system theory. Simulation results showed that under the normal and perturbed cases, the pure added-order P_NI observer can effectively deal with the uncertain nonlinearities on both the system dynamics and measured outputs.
The Role of the Pharmacist in Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis  [PDF]
Celia Moffat Joel Matyanga
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.53029

Pre-exposure prophylaxis is a new HIV prevention method that has shown to be effective in HIV uninfected persons at very high risk of HIV infection. It involves daily use of truvada in combination with other proven methods of HIV prevention. The aim of this paper is to discuss the various roles that pharmacists play in pre-exposure prophylaxis to maximize therapy.

The Impact of Micro-Lecture on College English Teachers’ Niche  [PDF]
Junhong Tang, Jing Chen
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.73054
Abstract: In order to widen college English teachers’ ecological niche and promote their teaching ability, we make an empirical study on college English teachers’ teaching ability and ecological niche on the basis of Ecological Niche Theory. The paper shows how to take advantage of micro-lectures, make full use of 5C teaching strategies and form multiple teaching and learning evaluation and online teaching and learning community to improve discourse power between students and teacher, to change the role of students and teacher. In this way, college English teachers’ teaching ability will be improved greatly.
The Schrödinger Equation of the Hilbert Hyper Space  [PDF]
Yehuda Roth
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.42023

Quantum measurement requires an observer to prepare a specific macroscopic measuring device from various options. In previous papers we redefined this observer role through a new concept: the observer determination, that is, the observers unique selection between the various measurement-devices. Unlike the measurement itself that is rationalized as dictated by nature, we presented the observer determination as a selection that cannot be disputed since it can neither be measured nor proven to be true or false. In general, we suggest that every action or decision made by the observer is eventually an output of some measurement. The apparently contradiction between the observer free determination and the deterministic measurement output was solved by extending the Hilbert space into a Hyper Hilbert space that is a space with hierarchy. In that frame the so called free selection of the observer determination in a certain level turns out to be a deterministic measurement output in the next higher level of the hierarchy. An important role of the conventional Hilbert space is played by the Schr?dinger equation. It determines a basis of stationary states. In this paper we define the Schr?dinger equation that corresponds with the various levels and we show that each level can be characterized by a unique time scale. We also show how various levels can be synchronized. We believe that this hyperspace level represents a certain level in the physics of consciousness and therefore a level unique time scale can contribute to the time perception of the mind.

A Coherent View on Entropy  [PDF]
Won-Young Hwang
Natural Science (NS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.67053

Informational entropy is often identified as physical entropy. This is surprising because the two quantities are differently defined and furthermore the former is a subjective quantity while the latter is an objective one. We describe the problems and then present a possible view that reconciles the two entropies. Informational entropy of a system is interpreted as physical entropy of a whole composed of both the system and “memories” containing information about the system.

An Extended Sliding Mode Observer for Speed, Position and Torque Sensorless Control for PMSM Drive Based Stator Resistance Estimator  [PDF]
Pierre Tety, Adama Konaté, Olivier Asseu, Etienne Soro, Pamela Yoboué
Intelligent Control and Automation (ICA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ica.2016.71001
Abstract: This paper presents a robust sixth-order Discrete-time Extended Sliding Mode Observer (DESMO) for sensorless control of PMSM in order to estimate the currents, speed, rotor position, load torque and stator resistance. The satisfying simulation results on Simulink/Matlab environment for a 1.6 kW PMSM demonstrate the good performance and stability of the proposed ESMO algorithm against parameter variation, modeling uncertainty, measurement and system noises.
Nurse Managers Stress and Coping  [PDF]
AChiharu Miyata, Hidenori Arai, Sawako Suga
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.511101
Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this study was to gain insight into nurse managers’ stress experiences and coping strategies in order to better support them. Design: A qualitative exploratory descriptive research design was used in this study. Subject: Fifteen nurse managers participated in this study. Results: Three descriptive themes related to nurse managers’ occupational stress were identified: role overload, loneliness, and role conflict. We also identified three descriptive themes that contributed to their stress management: sufficient support and advice, taking mental breaks while off duty, and individual coping strategies. Conclusions: Our study proposes two recommendations to reduce nurse managers’ stress. First, for nurse managers who experience work overload, hospitals should support them in learning how to work efficiently and how to manage their response to work demands. Second, nurse managers’ primary stressors were loneliness and role conflict. Nurse managers are known to juggle multiple demands from the hospital nursing director and staff nurses. Although it is difficult to eliminate the role conflict, nurse managers should be guided on how to manage conflicting demands, the hospital nursing director and staff nurses.
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