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Yield and Quality of Forage Oat (Avena sativa L.) Cultivars as Affected by Seed Inoculation with Nitrogenous Strains  [PDF]
Muhammad Saleem, M. Shahid Ibni Zamir, Ihtishamul Haq, M. Zahid Irshad, M. Kamran Khan, M. Asim, Qamaruz Zaman, Ihtisham Ali, Aman Khan, Saeedur Rehman
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.619316
Abstract: Nitrogen availability can be enhanced with the application of nitrogen fixing bacteria and it may be helpful in increasing forage yield and improving quality of oat. Therefore, a field trial to evaluate the effect of seed inoculation with nitrogen fixing bacteria on forage yield and quality of oat was carried out at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during Rabi season 2013-14. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with factorial arrangements using three replications. The experiment was comprised of two integrated approaches. The first approach was oat cultivars consisting of four treatments, V1 (AVON), V2 (S-2000), V3 (S-2011) and V4 (PD2LV65) and the second approach was seed inoculation consisting of three treatments, S0 (control), S1 (Azotobacter spp.), S2 (Azospirillum spp.). Fisher’s analysis of variance technique was used for statistically interpretation of data by using least significant difference (LSD) test at 5% level of probability. Nitrogen fixing bacteria significantly affect the germination count (m2), plant height (cm), number of tillers (m2), number of leaves per tiller, leaf area per tiller (cm2), green forage yield (t·ha-1) and dry matter yield (t ha-1). The maximum green forage yield (85.2 t·ha-1), dry matter yield (14.1 t ·ha-1) and crude protein (11.5%) were recorded where Azotobacter inoculation was applied. The interaction between cultivars and nitrogenous strains was significant for green forage yield (t·ha-1), dry matter yield (t·ha-1) and crude protein (%). Conclusion showed that cultivar Sargodha-2011 which was inoculated with Azotobacter spp. gave higher forage yield of good quality.
The effects of steaming and roasting treatments on lipase activity and nutritional components of “oat rice” (OR): the peeled naked oat (Avena nuda) kernels  [PDF]
Xinzhong Hu, Jinting Yan, Xiaohui Xing
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/as.2011.22009
Abstract: Peeled naked oat kernels, named “oat rice” (OR) by Chinese food scientists and processors, are novel oat products in China. This study exam-ined the effects of steaming and roasting treat-ments on the enzyme activities, nutritional con-tents, and flour pasting properties of OR kernels. Results showed that a peeling time of 20 s caused 16.13% β-glucan loss, while a peeling time 25 s caused 34.29% β-glucan loss in the kernels. OR kernels with a 20 s peeling treatment demonstrated significantly higher starch levels and kernel whiteness compared with normal oat kernels (P<0.01). It was also found that normal pressure steaming, autoclaved steaming and infrared roasting treatments could exterminate lipase activities in the OR kernels, and provide the OR kernels with significantly lower final viscosities and setback values than normal kernels (P<0.01).
Estimativa da herdabilidade para os caracteres adaptativos ciclo e estatura de planta em aveia
Amaral, Adriane Leite do;Carvalho, Fernando Irajá Felix de;Federizzi, Luiz Carlos;Mittelmann, Andrea;Pandini, Fábio;
Ciência Rural , 1996, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84781996000100007
Abstract: field experiments were conducted in 1993 and 1994 in eldorado do sul, rs aiming to increment the efficiency of artificial selection in oat for the adaptative traits heading date and plantheight. the heritability (h2) was estimated for 19 segregating populations conducted by the pedigree method and using linear regression as proposed by lush (1940). measurements were taken weekly for heading date from 10 plants in each f3 segregant population during five subsequent weeks in 1993. plant height was mesured 15 days after anthesis. in 1994, the f4 populations were measured for plant height and heading date. different h2 values were obtained for each trait from the different segregating populations. the heritability values were from 0.19 to 0.59 for heading date and from 0.43 to 0.92 for plant height. the high h2 estimates as obtained for these two adaptative traits indicate that artificial selection can be succefully done in early generations.
KARAM, Laura Beatriz;GROSSMANN, Maria Victória E.;SILVA, Rui Sérgio S. F.;
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612001000200007
Abstract: the potential application of modified starch to enhance properties of oat flour extruded products was investigated. the process was performed using a single screw extruder, applying a 25 factorial design with 3 repetitions on the central point. the independent variables were: feed moisture, extrusion temperature, screw speed, die diameter and modified starch level and depended studied variables were: specific volume, hardness and fracturability. based on results of the experiments a new experimental design was proposed to optimize product characteristics. the best combination of variables to obtain snacks with good expansion and texture was: 17% feed moisture, 183°c temperature, 100rpm screw speed, 4mm die diameter and 30% waxy starch. the product obtained presented 7.2ml/g specific volume, 5.41n hardness and 2.02n fracturability, therefore their characteristics were similar to those of commercial corn products.
Comportamento de vacas em lacta??o em pastagem manejada sob princípios agroecológicos
Olivo, Clair Jorge;Char?o, Pablo Santini;Ziech, Magnos Fernando;Rossarolla, Grasiela;Moraes, Ricardo Silveira;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982006000800034
Abstract: the objective of this trial was to study the behavior of lactating holstein cows grazing pasture containing elephantgrass (pennisetum purpureum schum.) and a mixture of black oat (avena strigosa schreb.) plus ryegrass (lolium multiflorum lam.). data from six early to mid lactating cows were collected every 10 minutes interval by two observers (from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. and from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m.) at three grazing cycles: 06/17, 08/04, and 09/16 of 2004. the following variables were measured: elephantgrass grazing time, black oat plus ryegrass grazing time, total grazing time (sum of elephantgrass and oat plus ryegrass), rumination time, and idle time. initial herbage mass, chemical composition of ingested forage, and environmental conditions were also evaluated. cows spent more time grazing after each milking and decreased thereafter. diurnal grazing time was longer than nocturnal. black oat plus ryegrass grazing time was greatest when the percentage of leaf lamina was lowest in the elephantgrass. idle time decreased and rumination time increased during grazing cycles as a consequence of reduction in the proportion of leaf lamina and elevation on that of stems in the winter species (black oat plus ryegrass). elephantgrass was grazed at all three grazing cycles. availability of plant species with different growth cycles allowed animals to select a high quality forage diet.
Produ??o de forrageiras anuais de inverno em diferentes épocas de semeadura
Ferrazza, Jussara Maria;Soares, André Brugnara;Martin, Thomas Newton;Assmann, Alceu Luiz;Nicola, Vinicius;
Revista Ciência Agron?mica , 2013, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-66902013000200022
Abstract: this study was carried out in order to evaluate the productive characteristics of annual winter forages (avena strigosa schereb, lolium multiflorum lam, avena sativa, triticum aestivum, secale cereale and triticosecale wittmack), on four sowing dates (11 march, 8 april, 6 may and 3 june 2009). the work evaluated the number of days to first harvest, the number of harvests, days of pasture usage, plant and tiller density, total production, residual dry matter and production per harvest. there was significant interaction between forages and sowing dates for all the variables analysed, which makes possible altering forage planning, combining each forage type with its best sowing date and directing forage production in order to fill any gaps. one option is the sowing of oats at the beginning of march, more conveniently supplying fodder to animals in the autumn relative to its being sown in april, even though this represents greater total forage production. however, if the greatest need for forage is in the spring, the best combination would be ryegrass sown in june. white oats, ryegrass, and oats iapar 61, are materials which have a high capacity for fodder production and distribution, especially when sown by the beginning of may.
Paulo Santana Pacheco,Jo?o Restle,Fernando Kuss,Luis Fernando Glasenapp Menezes
Ciência Animal Brasileira , 2011,
Abstract: The effect of energetic supplementation, in the form of grounded oat grain (OT), associated with urea (OTU), with monensin (OTM), or with urea plus monensin (OTUM), on the performance of 116 Charolais (C), Nellore (N) and crossbreds with predominance of C (CN) or N (NC) heifers was evaluated during the end of summer (ES) and beginning of autumn (BA). The 15-month-old heifers, with initial weight of 243.1 kg, were kept on native pasture and supplemented with an amount of .7% of live weight. The average daily weight gain (ADG) was higher for heifers supplemented with the combination OTUM (538 g) in relation to OT (430 g) and OUT (380 g), however it was statistically similar to the combination OTM (488 g). Treatments that included monensin showed higher efficiency of converting the supplement into weight gain. During ES, the ADG was higher than during the BA (525 vs 394 g). For C, CN, N and NC heifers, the ADG during ES was 370, 517, 560 and 691 g and during BA it was 427, 398, 317 and 397 g, respectively. Nellore heifers showed lower live weight than the other genetic groups. Body condition score at the end of ES and BA was higher for CN heifers which did not differ from NC, with C showing intermediate score and N showing the lowest score. The monensin and urea association promotes weight gain of animals kept on native pastures and supplemented with oat grain.
Use of Oat Bran in Bread: Fiber and Oil Enrichment and Technological Performance  [PDF]
Sofia Beccerica, María A. de la Torre, Hugo D. Sanchez, Carlos A. Osella
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.26079
Abstract: The effect of different amounts of oat bran on breadmaking was studied using also additives in the formulation. The aim of this experimental work was to evaluate the technological performance of oat bran in bread and the nutritional improvement resulting from the increased content of fiber and oil. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and the results were compared by Duncan’s test at a significance level of 0.05. With the addition of oat bran, the specific volume varied in such a way that the greater the amount of bran in the mixture, the lower the specific volume of bread. The addition of the proposed additives, however, helped significantly increase the volume. Besides, a change in the fatty acid profile, with a higher content in unsaturated fatty acids, as well as larger amounts of dietary fiber, was observed.
Scientia Agricola , 1996, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90161996000100025
Abstract: the aim of this experiment was to perform a water balance for a forrage oat winter crop (variety s?o carlos) cultivated under sprinkler irrigation condition. the main objectives were to obtain basic information about the crop behavior under irrigation and the crop water requirement for the region of s?o carlos, sp, brazil. crop yield and water balance results under two soil water availability levels gave indications that the lower level of soil water availability, indicated by a minimum matric potential of -20kpa at the 20cm depth, is sufficient to provide conditions for highest yield under these soil and climate conditions.
The effect of different agrotechnical levels on weed infestation in crops of naked and husked varieties of oat (Avena sativa L.)
Sylwia Andruszczak,Ewa Kwiecińska-Poppe,Piotr Kraska,Edward Pa?ys
Acta Agrobotanica , 2010, DOI: 10.5586/aa.2010.048
Abstract: The present study was carried out in the period 2007- 2009 in the Experimental Farm in Bezek near the city of Che m. The aim of the investigation was to compare weed infestation of the husked (Krezus) and naked (Cacko) oat cultivars cultivated under conditions of different weed control treatments. The following weed control levels were compared: A - control object; B - harrowing twice; C - application of the herbicide Mustang 306 SE; D - herbicide Mustang 306 SE + foliar fertilizer Insol 3; E - herbicide Mustang 306 SE + two foliar fertilizers: Insol 3 and FoliCare 18:18:18. The husked oat cv. Krezus was more competitive against weeds. Number of dicotyledonous weeds and of monocotyledonous weeds, total weeds, and air-dry weight of above-ground parts of weeds in the crop of this cultivar were all significantly lower compared to the naked cv. Cacko. From the group of dicotyledonous species, Chenopodium album, Galinsoga parviflora, Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora, Polygonum aviculare, and Stellaria media were the dominant species in the crops of the oat varieties under investigation, whereas among the monocotyledonous species Echinochloa crus-galli, Setaria pumila, Apera spica-venti, and Elymus repens occurred in greatest numbers. The application of the herbicide Mustang 306 SE decreased the number of dicotyledonous weeds and air-dry weight of weeds, compared to the treatment in which mechanical weed control had been used.
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