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Background: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the correct
interpretation by university students of internationally available pictograms
and to assess the ability of the pictograms to convey the intended messages.
Aim: To compare the ability of pharmacy and non-pharmacy students to comprehend
pharmaceutical pictograms. Method: Twenty eight internationally available
(United States Pharmacopoeial Convention Inc. USP) pictograms were used
throughout this study, which was conducted with 300 pharmacy and non-pharmacy
students. Questionnaires included relevant questions, and participants were
instructed to study the pictograms and write their interpretations. The
American National Standards Institute requirement of 85% correctness criterion
was used for correct interpretation. Differences between responses of the two
groups were calculated using SPSS version 18 and p < 0.05 was considered
significant. Results: The majority of pharmacy (98%) and non-pharmacy (86%)
students stated that pictograms should be included in medicine leaflet and they
were helpful for all patients. Out of the 28 pictograms 7 (25%) and 2 (7.1%) of
them achieved the ANSI requirement of 85% correctness criterion by pharmacy and
non-pharmacy students respectively. Conclusion: Interventions to increase
public awareness of the usefulness of pharmaceutical pictograms are needed.
This study investigates the extent of mathematical
creativity among 57 eight-grade talented students in the Mathematically Talented
Youth Program. We examine the reasoning these students applied in solving a problem;
the degree of mathematical creativity and aesthetic in their approach in solving
a non-routine mathematical problem; and explore whether the students’ mathematical
thinking is dependent solely upon previous mathematical knowledge and skills. We
found that majority of the students relied on technical algorithm to solve the problem.
Although talented students coped well with the thinking challenge, most of them
operated at the basic level of creativity. One implication drawn from this study
is the need to broaden and develop mathematical-logical thinking both as specific
lessons and also as an integral part of other lessons in the program.