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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1808 matches for " newborn "
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Selecting representative ages for developmental changes of respiratory irregularities and hypoxic ventilatory response in rats  [PDF]
Lalah M. Niane, Aida Bairam
Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology (OJMIP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojmip.2011.11001
Abstract: Apnea frequency and the weak ventilatory response to hypoxia are a major clinical correlates of the immaturity of respiratory control system in preterm neonates. Rats are frequently used as model to study the respiratory control during development. However, little is known about the postnatal ages that best represent these respiratory irregularities and the hypoxic ventilatory response. Using plethysmography, we assessed baseline minute ventilation, ventilatory response to moderate hypoxia (FiO2 = 12%, 20 min) and apnea frequency in awake and non-anesthetized rats at the postnatal ages of 1, 4, 7, 12, 21 and 90 days old (P1, P4, P7, P12, P21, and P90, respectively). Baseline minute ventilation slightly increased in P4 (~25% vs P1) then gradually decreased with age (age effect: p < 0.05). The lowest level of ventilation was observed in P90 (p < 0.01 vs all ages). Minute ventilation (% from baseline) in response to hypoxia showed the well-known biphasic pattern in all rats at 12 days old or less. Minute ventilation at the initial phase of the hypoxic response was not significantly different between P1, P4, between P7, P12 and between P21, P90. The late phase of the hypoxic response was similar between P1, P4, and between P21, P90, but was significantly different between P7 and P12 (p < 0.05). Under baseline or hypoxic condition, the higher number of apnea frequency (spontaneous and post- sigh) was observed in P1, it then decreased progressively with age (age effect: p < 0.01 for baseline; p < 0.001 for hypoxia). These results suggest that when P4, P7 and P12 are selected to represent the age-dependent changes of the hypoxic ventilatory response in rats, the P1 rats should be included to better describe the age-dependence of apnea frequency.
Newborn Cord Care Practices Amongst Mothers in Yenagoa Local Government Rea, Bayelsa State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Peace Ibo Opara, Tamunopriye Jaja, Doris Atibi Dotimi, Balafama Abinye Alex-Hart
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.31004
Abstract: Background: Clean cord care is one of the essential newborn care practices recommended by the World Health Organisation to reduce morbidity and mortality amongst the World’s newborns. Despite this, cord infections are still prevalent in developing countries because of the high rates of unhygienic cord care practices. The study aimed to explore cord care practices in our environment and identify areas for intervention. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out amongst mothers attending three primary health care facilities with their infants in Yenagoa Local Government Area of Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Simple structured questionnaires were used to obtain information concerning the ages and sexes of babies, place of antenatal care and birth, treatments applied to the umbilical cord stump and the socioeconomic status of the parents. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: Two hundred and twenty one mothers participated in the study. The infants were aged 0 - 6 months with a male to female ratio of 1:1. Fifty four (24.4%) of mothers were of high social class. Cord care was done by grandmothers in 107(48.4%) and mothers in 89(40.3%) of babies. Sixty four (29.0%) mothers had their babies cord cleaned with Methylated spirit alone while 138(62.4%) cleaned with Methylated spirit and then applied other substances including antibiotic ointments and herbs. Maternal education, social class of parents and place of delivery were significantly associated with application of potentially harmful substances to the cord, (p = 0.049, 0.010 and 0.030 respectively). The commonest sources of information on cord care were nurses in 99 (44.8%) and grandmothers in 44 (19.9%). Conclusion: There is still a high rate of use of potentially harmful substances for cord care. All heath workers should participate in educating, mothers and grandmothers about optimal cord care.
Does conventional phototherapy have any effect on platelet count in full term neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia?  [PDF]
Alireza Monsef, Fatemeh Eghbalian
Health (Health) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/health.2011.312119
Abstract: This study evaluates the platelet count changes in neonates with hyperbillirubinemia who received phototherapy. In this Prospective Descriptive-cross sectional study 144 full term newborns with indirect hyperbillirubinemia who received phototherapy in neonatal ward of Bessat hospital in Hamedan province of Iran were studied from September 2007 to February 2008 for evaluation the effect of phototherapy on platelet count. The platelet had counted by cell counter and it had controlled by slide platelet counting. The data were analyzed using spss version. 13 and compared with paired-samples T test. 58 neonates (40.3%) were boys and 86 (59.7%) were girls. The mean age of neonates was 7.04 +/– 5.49 days (2 - 29 days). The mean (± SD) platelet counts were 287833.3 + 92332.4 before and 299444.4 + 98565.2 after phototherapy. Analysis of data with paired T test showed significant difference in platelet count before and after phototherapy. Mean platelet count after phototherapy was higher than that before treatment. The study had propounded that mean platelet count increased with extended mean phototherapy time. This study had propounded this hypothesis that phototherapy in full term icteric newborns leads to increased platelet count. It may be due to accelerated platelet turnover in peripheral microvasculature with adequate platelet reserve.
Maintaining Neonatal Normothermia during WHO Rec-ommended Skin-to-Skin Contact in the Setting of Cesarean Section under Regional Anesthesia  [PDF]
Silvia Stirparo,Alessio Farcomeni,Alessandro Laudani,Giorgio Capogna
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2013.33043
Abstract: This study compared mothers’ and newborns’ temperatures (T) when the WHO recommended skin-to-skin contact (SSC) was practiced during cesarean section under regional anesthesia. 139 neonates were randomized to be left in their mothers’ arms warmed by a forced air warmer (SSC-FAW) or put in an incubator. Maternal and newborn rectal T was recorded immediately after birth, at 5, 10 and 15 minute intervals. Maternal and neonatal T was comparable between the groups. FAW is as effective as an incubator in preventing neonatal hypothermia while the mother is undergoing surgery in the operating room, while favouring SSC.
A special and rare case with osteomyelitis: A case report  [PDF]
Fuyong Jiao, Xianpeng Yan
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2013.33029
Abstract: Background: Neonatal acute hematogenous osteomyelitis is very rare in clinical research. Early diagnosis and treatment to reduce the sequelae is very important. The purpose is to introduce a rare and special case to medical workers, so that readers know how to diagnose and treat such special cases. Methods: Through the clinical manifestations, imaging studies and the results in blood culture. Results: There were no adverse sequelae after effective antibiotics, which were discharged. Conclusion: There is great importance in early diagnosis and treatment of neonatal osteomyelitis.
Maintaining Neonatal Normothermia during WHO Rec-ommended Skin-to-Skin Contact in the Setting of Cesarean Section under Regional Anesthesia  [PDF]
Silvia Stirparo, Alessio Farcomeni, Alessandro Laudani, Giorgio Capogna
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2013.33043
Abstract:

This study compared mothers’ and newborns’ temperatures (T) when the WHO recommended skin-to-skin contact (SSC) was practiced during cesarean section under regional anesthesia. 139 neonates were randomized to be left in their mothers’ arms warmed by a forced air warmer (SSC-FAW) or put in an incubator. Maternal and newborn rectal T was recorded immediately after birth, at 5, 10 and 15 minute intervals. Maternal and neonatal T was comparable between the groups. FAW is as effective as an incubator in preventing neonatal hypothermia while the mother is undergoing surgery in the operating room, while favouring SSC.

Induction of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Non-Premature Sprague-Dawley Rats and the Effect of Administering Breast Milk-Isolated Lactobacillus salivarius LPLM-O1  [PDF]
Erica Castro, Jaime Cofré, Juan P. Mellado, Karen Pardo, María J. Aguayo, Elizabeth Monsalvez, Hernán Montecinos, Margarita González
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.513136
Abstract:

Due to an increasing incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), as well as its associated mortality and long-term complications seen in surviving patients, the main focus of research in NEC has shifted to the prevention and treatment of the disease. The hypothesis of this work is that the strain Lactobacillus salivarius LPLM-O1 can decrease the intestinal injuries in a model of induced NEC. 26 newborn Sprague-Dawley pups were used in this study and randomized in three groups: control group (n = 6), which were fed with infant formula (Similac NeosureTM, Abbott); probiotic group (n = 10), which were fed with the same infant formula but fortified with 109 colony-forming units (CFU) of Lactobacillus salivarius LPLM-O1, and the NEC-induced group (n = 10). Each group was fed with 100 μl of food formula every three hours, using a modified syringe. The probiotic and NEC groups were exposed to asphyxia- and cold-induced stress to develop experimental NEC. At the end of the experiment (96 hrs), animals were sacrificed, and their small intestines were carefully removed and evaluated for typical signs of NEC, microbiological count and histological analyses. The histological analysis of the NEC-induced group showed transmural necrosis (grade 4); in the probiotic group, the grade was comparatively lower (grade 2). Survival ratewas higher in the probiotic group (83%) than in the NEC-induced group (46%); however, the difference in not statistically significant (p = 0.14). Lactic acid bacteria counts were higher in the probiotic group than in the NEC-induced group (8.4 × 108 and 6.1 × 107 CFU/intestine tissue gram, respectively). According to these results, the model of artificial induction of NEC was effectively establishedin all pups, and the probiotic strain slightly decreases the injuries’ grade in newborn pups.

Clinical and Epidemiological Features and Management of Neonatal Hypoglycemia at the University Teaching Hospital of Treichville (Abidjan-C?te d’Ivoire)  [PDF]
Gneneyeri Joseph Ouattara, Lassina Cissé, Gervais Koffi, Jean-Jacques Atteby Yao, Jacob Enoh, Corinne Sei, Soumahoro Oulai
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2017.74037
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence, the characteristics of hypoglycaemia in the newborn admitted to emergency departments of teaching Hospital of Treichville, Abidjan and to evaluate the relevance of capillary blood glucose in this diagnosis. Patients and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was held from 01 February to 25 June 2017 in the Pediatric Emergency Department. It involved 201 newborns under 24 hours of age who consulted in pediatric emergency for any reason. Data were collected from parent direct interviews, analysis of the follow-up record, physical examination of the newborn, results of glucose level in the capillary blood at heel and in venous blood. On dry tube and gray tube (containing sodium fluoride and potassium oxalate), the blood glucose on the latter tube constituting the reference blood glucose, with neonatal hypoglycaemia defined by a venous blood glucose less than or equal to 2.5 mmol/l (0.45 g/l). The statistical tests used were the frequency comparison, the Chi Square, the Fisher Test with a significance threshold p < 0.05 or the Odds-ratio with a confidence interval of 95% and a significance threshold of 5%, but also with the correlation coefficient. Results: Newborns of less than 3 hours of life (70.6%) were the most represented with a male predominance (sex ratio = 2.9). The reasons for consultation were dominated by neurological disorders (36.5%), prematurity (31.8%), and fever (22.2%). The av
Congenital Epulis of the Newborn: A Case Report  [PDF]
Zeynep Seda Pek?etin, Ay?egül Senemta??, Gizem Ecem Ko?ak, Selin Kumral, Mehmet Yaltirik, Meltem Koray
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2018.84011
Abstract: Background: Congenital epulis (CE) also known as congenital granuler cell tumor is a rarely encountered pathology the majority of which originates from the gingival mucosa, particularly the anterior portion of the maxillary alveolar ridge. CE mostly seen in girls. CE with unclear histogenesis and etiology is seen at birth as a solitary mass in oral cavity. Apart from non-congenital epulis, it contains granular cells. So lesion is named congenital granular cell tumor. CE has a benign histopathology and after surgery there is no recurrence reported in the literature. Aim: The purpose of this case report, is to present, 5 day-old female neonatal girl who was seen CE on the left maxillary alveolar ridge on the region of the future incisors. Case Presentation: The tumoral lesion was well-circumscribed and 10 mm in diameter, smooth surfaced and red in colour much like alveolar mucosal tissue. Tumoral lesion was affecting oral feeding due to obstruction. Excisional biopsy was performed under topical anesthesia. The histopathology was reported as congenital epulis. During the 4 months follow-up, we have seen no complication. Conclusion: CE is a neonatal congenital tumor which is very rare. The treatment of CE is surgical excision. Unless the early treatment is not executed, tumor may cause difficulties in oral feeding and respiration. Therefore it should be excised in an early period.
A Premature Baby’s Nursing Care Plan  [PDF]
Senay Cetinkaya, Sibelt Kusdemir
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2018.85050
Abstract: Introduction: Baby T, is in the 46th day of his life has a 26-year-old mother who has suffered from about hypotyroid and preeclampsia during her pregnancy was born as a preterm baby when he was in 27 weeks’ gestation age by CS. Purpose: This article aimed to introduce the Nursing care plan. Materials and Methods: Place of work: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit/Balcali Research and Education Hospital in Adana, Turkey. Nursing Care Plan for the clinical period from 23.02.2015 till 11.03.2015. Informed consent was obtained from the baby’s family. Results: In addition to this, parents have blood incompatibility, therefore, such combinations of diseases impacted baby in the uterus and delivery happened earlier than expected date. His birth weight was 820 gr (0% - 5% percentile), height 34 cm (10% - 25% percentile), head-circumference 24 cm (10% percentile). The following healthcare needs were identified upon assessment; intubation, oxygene and stimulant support, monitorization, taking blood samples. Apical pulse is rapid and irregular within normal range 148 bpm, weight is 1605 gr, body is long, thin, limp with a slight potbelly. Initially suck/swallow reflex was absent/uncoordinated that’s why he was taking expressed breastmilk throughout orogastric catheter, it has started also oral giving for the couple of days with the development of sucking and swallowing. Reflexes depend on gestational age; rooting well established by 32 weeks’ gestation; coordinated reflexes for sucking, swallowing, and breathing usually established by 32 weeks; first component of Moro’s reflex (lateral extension of upper extremities with opening of hands) appears at 28 weeks; second two components (anterior flexion and audiblecry) appear at 32 weeks. Dubowitz examination indicates gestational age between 24 and 37 weeks. Consequently, this infant shows, palmar grasp, plantar grasp, moro reflex; the only response is the opening of the hand due to 27 gestational age. Apgar score was 4 - 7 (average, need oxygene and stimulant). Respiration was shallow, maintain neutral thermal environment, prevent or reduce risk of potential irregular, diaphragmatic with intermittent breathing 58/min. Conclusion: Nursing priorities should be promote optimal respiratory functioning, complications, maintain homeostasis, foster development of healthy family unit.
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