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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1802 matches for " newborn "
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Selecting representative ages for developmental changes of respiratory irregularities and hypoxic ventilatory response in rats  [PDF]
Lalah M. Niane, Aida Bairam
Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology (OJMIP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojmip.2011.11001
Abstract: Apnea frequency and the weak ventilatory response to hypoxia are a major clinical correlates of the immaturity of respiratory control system in preterm neonates. Rats are frequently used as model to study the respiratory control during development. However, little is known about the postnatal ages that best represent these respiratory irregularities and the hypoxic ventilatory response. Using plethysmography, we assessed baseline minute ventilation, ventilatory response to moderate hypoxia (FiO2 = 12%, 20 min) and apnea frequency in awake and non-anesthetized rats at the postnatal ages of 1, 4, 7, 12, 21 and 90 days old (P1, P4, P7, P12, P21, and P90, respectively). Baseline minute ventilation slightly increased in P4 (~25% vs P1) then gradually decreased with age (age effect: p < 0.05). The lowest level of ventilation was observed in P90 (p < 0.01 vs all ages). Minute ventilation (% from baseline) in response to hypoxia showed the well-known biphasic pattern in all rats at 12 days old or less. Minute ventilation at the initial phase of the hypoxic response was not significantly different between P1, P4, between P7, P12 and between P21, P90. The late phase of the hypoxic response was similar between P1, P4, and between P21, P90, but was significantly different between P7 and P12 (p < 0.05). Under baseline or hypoxic condition, the higher number of apnea frequency (spontaneous and post- sigh) was observed in P1, it then decreased progressively with age (age effect: p < 0.01 for baseline; p < 0.001 for hypoxia). These results suggest that when P4, P7 and P12 are selected to represent the age-dependent changes of the hypoxic ventilatory response in rats, the P1 rats should be included to better describe the age-dependence of apnea frequency.
Newborn Cord Care Practices Amongst Mothers in Yenagoa Local Government Rea, Bayelsa State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Peace Ibo Opara, Tamunopriye Jaja, Doris Atibi Dotimi, Balafama Abinye Alex-Hart
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.31004
Abstract: Background: Clean cord care is one of the essential newborn care practices recommended by the World Health Organisation to reduce morbidity and mortality amongst the World’s newborns. Despite this, cord infections are still prevalent in developing countries because of the high rates of unhygienic cord care practices. The study aimed to explore cord care practices in our environment and identify areas for intervention. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out amongst mothers attending three primary health care facilities with their infants in Yenagoa Local Government Area of Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Simple structured questionnaires were used to obtain information concerning the ages and sexes of babies, place of antenatal care and birth, treatments applied to the umbilical cord stump and the socioeconomic status of the parents. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: Two hundred and twenty one mothers participated in the study. The infants were aged 0 - 6 months with a male to female ratio of 1:1. Fifty four (24.4%) of mothers were of high social class. Cord care was done by grandmothers in 107(48.4%) and mothers in 89(40.3%) of babies. Sixty four (29.0%) mothers had their babies cord cleaned with Methylated spirit alone while 138(62.4%) cleaned with Methylated spirit and then applied other substances including antibiotic ointments and herbs. Maternal education, social class of parents and place of delivery were significantly associated with application of potentially harmful substances to the cord, (p = 0.049, 0.010 and 0.030 respectively). The commonest sources of information on cord care were nurses in 99 (44.8%) and grandmothers in 44 (19.9%). Conclusion: There is still a high rate of use of potentially harmful substances for cord care. All heath workers should participate in educating, mothers and grandmothers about optimal cord care.
Does conventional phototherapy have any effect on platelet count in full term neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia?  [PDF]
Alireza Monsef, Fatemeh Eghbalian
Health (Health) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/health.2011.312119
Abstract: This study evaluates the platelet count changes in neonates with hyperbillirubinemia who received phototherapy. In this Prospective Descriptive-cross sectional study 144 full term newborns with indirect hyperbillirubinemia who received phototherapy in neonatal ward of Bessat hospital in Hamedan province of Iran were studied from September 2007 to February 2008 for evaluation the effect of phototherapy on platelet count. The platelet had counted by cell counter and it had controlled by slide platelet counting. The data were analyzed using spss version. 13 and compared with paired-samples T test. 58 neonates (40.3%) were boys and 86 (59.7%) were girls. The mean age of neonates was 7.04 +/– 5.49 days (2 - 29 days). The mean (± SD) platelet counts were 287833.3 + 92332.4 before and 299444.4 + 98565.2 after phototherapy. Analysis of data with paired T test showed significant difference in platelet count before and after phototherapy. Mean platelet count after phototherapy was higher than that before treatment. The study had propounded that mean platelet count increased with extended mean phototherapy time. This study had propounded this hypothesis that phototherapy in full term icteric newborns leads to increased platelet count. It may be due to accelerated platelet turnover in peripheral microvasculature with adequate platelet reserve.
Maintaining Neonatal Normothermia during WHO Rec-ommended Skin-to-Skin Contact in the Setting of Cesarean Section under Regional Anesthesia  [PDF]
Silvia Stirparo,Alessio Farcomeni,Alessandro Laudani,Giorgio Capogna
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2013.33043
Abstract: This study compared mothers’ and newborns’ temperatures (T) when the WHO recommended skin-to-skin contact (SSC) was practiced during cesarean section under regional anesthesia. 139 neonates were randomized to be left in their mothers’ arms warmed by a forced air warmer (SSC-FAW) or put in an incubator. Maternal and newborn rectal T was recorded immediately after birth, at 5, 10 and 15 minute intervals. Maternal and neonatal T was comparable between the groups. FAW is as effective as an incubator in preventing neonatal hypothermia while the mother is undergoing surgery in the operating room, while favouring SSC.
A special and rare case with osteomyelitis: A case report  [PDF]
Fuyong Jiao, Xianpeng Yan
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2013.33029
Abstract: Background: Neonatal acute hematogenous osteomyelitis is very rare in clinical research. Early diagnosis and treatment to reduce the sequelae is very important. The purpose is to introduce a rare and special case to medical workers, so that readers know how to diagnose and treat such special cases. Methods: Through the clinical manifestations, imaging studies and the results in blood culture. Results: There were no adverse sequelae after effective antibiotics, which were discharged. Conclusion: There is great importance in early diagnosis and treatment of neonatal osteomyelitis.
Maintaining Neonatal Normothermia during WHO Rec-ommended Skin-to-Skin Contact in the Setting of Cesarean Section under Regional Anesthesia  [PDF]
Silvia Stirparo, Alessio Farcomeni, Alessandro Laudani, Giorgio Capogna
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2013.33043
Abstract:

This study compared mothers’ and newborns’ temperatures (T) when the WHO recommended skin-to-skin contact (SSC) was practiced during cesarean section under regional anesthesia. 139 neonates were randomized to be left in their mothers’ arms warmed by a forced air warmer (SSC-FAW) or put in an incubator. Maternal and newborn rectal T was recorded immediately after birth, at 5, 10 and 15 minute intervals. Maternal and neonatal T was comparable between the groups. FAW is as effective as an incubator in preventing neonatal hypothermia while the mother is undergoing surgery in the operating room, while favouring SSC.

Induction of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Non-Premature Sprague-Dawley Rats and the Effect of Administering Breast Milk-Isolated Lactobacillus salivarius LPLM-O1  [PDF]
Erica Castro, Jaime Cofré, Juan P. Mellado, Karen Pardo, María J. Aguayo, Elizabeth Monsalvez, Hernán Montecinos, Margarita González
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.513136
Abstract:

Due to an increasing incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), as well as its associated mortality and long-term complications seen in surviving patients, the main focus of research in NEC has shifted to the prevention and treatment of the disease. The hypothesis of this work is that the strain Lactobacillus salivarius LPLM-O1 can decrease the intestinal injuries in a model of induced NEC. 26 newborn Sprague-Dawley pups were used in this study and randomized in three groups: control group (n = 6), which were fed with infant formula (Similac NeosureTM, Abbott); probiotic group (n = 10), which were fed with the same infant formula but fortified with 109 colony-forming units (CFU) of Lactobacillus salivarius LPLM-O1, and the NEC-induced group (n = 10). Each group was fed with 100 μl of food formula every three hours, using a modified syringe. The probiotic and NEC groups were exposed to asphyxia- and cold-induced stress to develop experimental NEC. At the end of the experiment (96 hrs), animals were sacrificed, and their small intestines were carefully removed and evaluated for typical signs of NEC, microbiological count and histological analyses. The histological analysis of the NEC-induced group showed transmural necrosis (grade 4); in the probiotic group, the grade was comparatively lower (grade 2). Survival ratewas higher in the probiotic group (83%) than in the NEC-induced group (46%); however, the difference in not statistically significant (p = 0.14). Lactic acid bacteria counts were higher in the probiotic group than in the NEC-induced group (8.4 × 108 and 6.1 × 107 CFU/intestine tissue gram, respectively). According to these results, the model of artificial induction of NEC was effectively establishedin all pups, and the probiotic strain slightly decreases the injuries’ grade in newborn pups.

Neonatal transports—risks and opportunities  [PDF]
Alf Meberg, Thor Willy Ruud Hansen
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2011.14013
Abstract: Aim: To assess the need for and quality of neonatal transports. Material and methods: Prospective observational study of consecutive transports from a level II neonatal unit. Results: 500 transports were undertaken 1982-2010 in 445 patients, representing 0.7% of liveborn infants (n = 61 450). Indications were congenital malformations in 223 (45%), prematurity/respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in 87 (17%), and other conditions in 190 (38%). For patients ventilated during transport (n = 121) mean pCO2 was improved at arrival, and for spontaneously breathing patients mean pH, pCO2, and base excess (p < 0.05). After establishing a local respirator programme from 1989, transports for prematurity/RDS declined from 3.4 per 1000 live born infants in 1982-88 to 0.8 per 1 000 in 1989-2010 (p < 0.0001), and night-time transports (departure between 22.00 pm - 06.00 am) declined from 24/119 (20%) to 38/381 (10%) (p = 0.003). Technical mishaps or severe clinical deterioration occurred in 16 (3%) of the transports. Conclusions: Neonatal transport carries risks, but also an opportunity for further stabilization and improvement. A local respirator programme reduced the need for transfer of premature infants with RDS as well as for transports during night-time.
Pre-lacteal feeding practices among newborn in urban slums of Lucknow city UP, India  [PDF]
Pratibha Gupta, Vinod K. Srivastava, Vishwajeet Kumar, Jyoti Prakash Srivastava
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.24070
Abstract: Aim: To study the Practices of Pre-lacteal feeding among Newborns in Urban slums of Lucknow city. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional study in Urban slums of Lucknow city, UP. Methods and Material: A cross-sectional study in Urban slums of Lucknow city, UP included 524 women who had a live birth during last one year preceding data collection. A pre-desined and pretested questionnaire was used for data collection. Statistical analysis used: The data was tabulated on Microsoft Excel sheet and analyzed using the software SPSS 10.0 for Windows and Discrete data were analyzed using the chisquare test. Results: Study findings showed that Half (50.6%) of the mothers had given pre-lacteal feedings to their newborn. Out of those who had given pre-lacteal feed, 55.1 percent had given mugli ghutti/griipe water and 49.4 percent had given boiled water as pre-lacteal feed Only mother’s education (p < 0.01), father’s education (p < 0.001) and socioeconomic status (p < 0.05) were statistically associated with the practice of giving prelecteal feeding. Conclusion: It was concluded that maternal knowledge and awareness of correct feeding practices is essential for the normal growth, health and well being of the children. We therefore suggested that the primary focus of various nutrition related national programs in India for children should aim at imparting nutrition and health education to the mothers.
Newborn Intramuscular Hemangioma Revealed by Forearm Compartment Syndrome: Difficult Diagnosis in Less Developing Country  [PDF]
Zavier Zomalheto, Michel Fiogbe, Michée Assogba
Open Journal of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases (OJRA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojra.2013.34034
Abstract: The forearm intramuscular hemangiomas are increasingly described in the literature. The most common variants are about old children and teenagers. We reported a case of a forearm intramuscular hemangioma at a newborn, revealed by a compartment syndrome, which diagnosis were hard in a developing country as ours.
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