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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9916 matches for " natural products "
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Natural Products for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  [PDF]
Rupal Patel Mansukhani, Lucio R. Volino, Rozena Varghese
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.55059

In the past decade, there has been an increase in the use of natural products in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several agents, such as guar gum, magnesium, oat bran, blond psyllium, and soy, have shown efficacy for treatment of T2DM. Objective: To review the scientific literature to identify effects of natural products (i.e., dietary supplements) for the treatment of T2DM. Methods: A search of Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database was performed to identify natural products advocated for the treatment of T2DM. Natural products categorized as both “possibly effective” and “likely safe” (guar gum, magnesium, oat bran, blond psyllium, and soy) were selected for review. A MEDLINE (1950-March 2013) literature review was performed. Articles published within the last ten years (January 2003-March 2013) and pertinent articles published prior to 2003 were included in this review. Diabetes prevention studies were not selected for this review. Conclusions: Based on the published information, there is little evidence to support the use of herbal products for the treatment of T2DM. Some agents may be useful as adjunctive therapy; however, patients should be encouraged to speak with their health care practitioner before starting or stopping any herbal products.

Characterization of the Biological Potential of the Essential Oils from Five Species of Medicinal Plants  [PDF]
Danubia Aparecida Carvalho Selvati Rezende, Rafaela Vieira Souza, Maisa Lamounier Magalh?es, Alex Rodrigues Silva Caetano, Marcos Schleiden Sousa Carvalho, Ellen Cristina de Souza, Luiz Gustavo de Lima Guimar?es, David Lee Nelson, Luís Roberto Batista, Maria das Gra?as Cardoso
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.82012
Abstract: Essential oils from Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon citratus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Peumus boldus and Foeniculum vulgare were extracted by hydrodistillation, chemically characterized and quantified by GC/MS and GC/FID. The principal componentes in the essential oil of M. piperita (carvone and limonene), C. citratus (geranial, neral and myrcene), R. officinalis (1,8-cineole, camphor and α-pinene), P. boldus (α-terpinyl formate, p-cymene and 1,8-cineole) and F. vulgare (methyl chavicol, limonene and fenchone) were identified. The oils were tested for antioxidant activity employing the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl) radical-capture method, the oxidation of the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, and the ABTS radical-capture method. The essential oils were not effective. The antioxidant activities of the oils were determined by the hydroxyl method, and the highest activity (62.80%) was observed with the essential oil from M. piperita. Activities of 1.54 and 1.82 μg μg-1
Screening Test for Antibiotics in Medicinal Plants (STAMP): Using Powdered Plant Materials Instead of Extracts  [PDF]
Marielle Cascaes Inácio, Fabio Carmona, Tiago Antunes Paz, Maysa Furlan, Fernando Arcanjo da Silva, Bianca Waléria Bertoni, Suzelei de Castro Fran?a, Ana Maria Soares Pereira
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.412290

Plants are a rich source of antibiotics, but screening all the existing plant species for biological activity using current methods can be time and resource consuming. The present study is to investigate whether powdered plant materials would perform as well as plant extracts in the screening of plants with antimicrobial activity. In the new method proposed (STAMP), we compared in vitro antimicrobial activity of powdered plant materials from 12 species against bacteria and fungi. We confirmed these results with their corresponding aqueous (wet) and hydro-alcoholic extracts and one species testing the antimicrobial activity of two isolated compounds. Compared with hydro-alcoholic extracts, screening using the powdered plant materials correctly identified the majority of the species with antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans (sensitivity 91%, specificity 86%), C. parapsilosis (sensitivity 100%, specificity 67%), and Staphylococcus aureus (sensitivity 64%, specificity 86%). For bacteria, the method performed better in a pH of 9.0. The antimicrobial activity of two compounds isolated from one species (maytenin and netzahualcoyone) confirmed the results. In conclusion, the use of powdered plant materials for screening plants with antimicrobial properties is a cheap, widely available, technically easy, time sparing, reproducible, and sensitive method and can significantly shorten the time and money spent during drug development.

Chemical Characterization and Application of the Essential Oils from Chenopodium ambrosioides and Philodendron bipinnatifidum in the Control of Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)  [PDF]
Juliana de Andrade Santiago, Maria das Gra?as Cardoso, Ana Cristina da Silva Figueiredo, Jair Campos de Moraes, Franscinely Aparecida de Assis, Maria Luisa Teixeira, Wilder Douglas Santiago, Thaís Aparecida Sales, Karen Caroline Camargo, David Lee Nelson
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.526417
Abstract: The compositions of essential oils from Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and Philodendron bipinnatifidum Schott were determined, and the their potential effects on the nutrition and mortality of Diabrotica speciosa were studied. The extraction of the oils was performed by hydrodistillation (2 h) using a modified Clevenger apparatus and the oils were subsequently subjected to analysis by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (CG/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications was adopted. The bean plants were sprayed with solutions of the oils dissolved in aqueous Tween 80 solutions at concentrations of 0 (water + Tween 80), 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% and then furnished to the insects with no choice available. Seven days after the application, the percentage of leaves with injury, degree of defoliation, the preference index for consumption and the percent of mortality of insects were evaluated. Neither of the essential oils caused a reduction in foliar injury, but antifeeding activity was observed, causing reduced feeding and increasing the mortality of adult D. speciosa insects.
Essential Oils from Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon citratus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Peumus boldus and Foeniculum vulgare: Inhibition of Phospholipase A2 and Cytotoxicity to Human Erythrocytes  [PDF]
Danubia Aparecida de Carvalho Selvati Rezende, Maria das Gra?as Cardoso, Rafaela Vieira Souza, Maria Luisa Teixeira, Rafaela Magalh?es Brand?o, Vanuzia Rodrigues Fernandes Ferreira, Jéssica Oliveira e Nogueira, Maisa Lamounier Magalh?es, Silvana Marcussi, David Lee Nelson
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.89147
Abstract: The essential oils from Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon citratus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Peumus boldus and Foeniculum vulgare were extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized and quantified by GC-MS and GC-DIC. The oils induced hemolysis with all the doses evaluated (0.6 to 1.8 μL), and the diameters of the halos varied between 9 and 15 mm. Pre-incubation of P. boldus oil with Bothrops jararacussu venom resulted in potentiation of venom-induced hemolysis (30%) (proteases and phospholipases A2). The essential oil from M. piperita (0.6 μL) inhibited venom-induced hemolysis by 45%, whereas 0.6
Estimation of Economic Value of Agroforestry Systems at the Local Scale in Eastern Sudan  [PDF]
Bashir Awad El Tahir, Akshay Vishwanath
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2015.39005
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to institute farmers’ own perceptions of the on-and off-farm benefits of agroforestry systems (AFS). Using use value approach, this paper presents empirical evidence on the use values of three types of AFS practiced by the refugees and their hosting communities in Eastern Sudan. The total economic value (TEV) was applied as a framework to estimate the ecosystem values of AFS under study. Goods values were estimated using specific market values, while the services values were qualitatively described according to local perceived values of the local communities. Perceived TEV of AFS includes marketable and non-marketable goods and services. The main direct marketable and sustainable high value products include: food, cash crops, firewood, gum, fodder, NTFPs medicine, fodder, and honey. The valuation results reveal that AFS in the project sites have significantly contributed to the livelihoods of the local communities. Overall, the average net direct-use value of marketable products across all sites was estimated at 7,346,000.0 SDG (1,335,636.36 US$) HH/annum. Gum Arabic alone accounted for 38%, followed by sorghum grain and fodder 35%, and cash crops (sesame) 18%. This value would be many time higher if other indirect values (non-marketable) services such as shade, aesthetic and recreation, environmental protection, biodiversity and carbon sequestration are quantified. The goods and services mentioned above provide sustainable income to the farmer directly and viable benefits to the region indirectly. Hence, AFS in the study sites shows the way to reconcile two conflicting goals: short-term food and livelihood needs with long-term environmental conservation and improvement. The study provides evidence that the high local perceived values of AFS in the study sites constitute a central means of livelihood, whereas its contribution to the local economy. The study stresses the need to quantify the monetary values of non-marketed products to consistently account for resource availability and usage to further sound policy decisions. Tenure security, farmer support services and human capital development were major areas identified for policy development.
Antitumor activity of chemical modified natural compounds
Oliveira, Marilda Meirelles de;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1991, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761991000600016
Abstract: search of new activity substances starting from chemotherapeutic agents, continously appears in international literature. perhaps this search has been done more frequently in the field of anti-tumor chemotherapy on account of the unsuccess in saving advanced stage patients. the new point in this matter during the last decade was computer aid in planning more rational drugs. in near future "the accessibility of supercomputers and emergence of computer net systems, willopen new avenues to rational drug design" (portoghese, p. s. j. med. chem. 1989, 32, 1). unknown pharmacological active compounds synthetized by plants can be found even without this eletronic devices, as tradicional medicine has pointed out in many contries, and give rise to a new drug. these compounds used as found in nature or after chemical modifications have produced successful experimental medicaments as faa, "flavone acetic acid" with good results as inibitors of slow growing animal tumors currently in preclinical evaluation for human treatment. in this lecture some international contributions in the field of chemical modified compounds as antineoplasic drugs will be examined, particularly those done by brazilian researches.
Antimalarial chemotherapy with natural products and chemically defined molecules
Carvalho, Luzia Helena;Krettli, Antoniana U.;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1991, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761991000600041
Abstract: in the present work we have described the in vivo antimalarial actrivity of six different plants. two of them (verninia brasiliana and eupatorium squalidum) were tested in a randomic approach among 273 crude extracts from plants; four (acanhospermum australe, esenbeckia febrifuga, lisianthus specious and tachia guianensis) were selected after screening 22 crude extracts from different medicinal and some of them showed antimalarial activity in vitro. some aspects of recent research with natural products aiming to produce drugs are discussed.
HIV: mecanismo de replica??o, alvos farmacológicos e inibi??o por produtos derivados de plantas
Ferreira, Roberta Costa Santos;Riffel, Alessandro;Sant'Ana, Ant?nio Euzébio Goulart;
Química Nova , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-40422010000800023
Abstract: the aids epidemy has spread out and led to the diversification on the research for new antiviral drugs. natural products, especially those derived from plants, are well-recognized as excellent sources of new drugs. several of them have inhibitory activity against hiv replication, and some have been already clinically tested, with favorable results. this review presents the biochemical basis of the viral cycle and the research up to date on the identification, determination of the mechanism of biological action together with the therapeutical potential of plants-derived natural products, in the inhibition of hiv.
Novos produtos naturais capazes de atuar na estabiliza??o de microtúbulos, um importante alvo no combate ao cancer
Souza, Marcus Vinícius Nora de;
Química Nova , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-40422004000200022
Abstract: microtubules are involved in many aspects of cellular biology and represent an important target of anticancer chemotherapeutics. in the past five years, novel natural products such as epothilones, discodermolide, sarcodictyin, eleutherobin, and laulimalide, all of which have biological activities similar to those of paclitaxel (taxola), have been discovered. taxola is an important antitumor drug approved by the fda for the treatment of ovarian, breast and non-small-cell lung carcinomas and became the first natural product described that stabilized microtubules avoiding the cellular replication. the present article reports new natural products that are able to act on the stabilization of microtubules.
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