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Conteúdo de energia líquida para manten?a e ganho do capim-elefante e mudan?as na composi??o corporal de novilhos em pastejo, durante a esta??o chuvosa
Fontes, Carlos Augusto de Alencar;Oliveira, Rildon Carlos de;Erbesdobler, Eleonora D'ávila;Queiroz, Domingos Sávio de;Lombardi, Cláudio Teixeira;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982005000500033
Abstract: the net energy content for maintenance (nem) and gain (neg) of the napiergrass, under rotational grazing, as well as the changes on protein and fat concentrations in body and in weight gain of 36 ? gyr-holstein steers, grazing the forage, during the rainy season were determined. half of steers had grazing time restricted to four hours daily, to limit energy intake to a level close to the maintenance level, and half had free access to the pasture. six steers were slaughtered at begining of the trial, to determine initial body composition, and six (three from each treatment), at each subsequent 35 day. prediction equations of the changes of body composition, with increase of body weight, were fitted by regression of log10 body content of protein and fat on log10 empty body weight. by differentiation of those equations, the prediction equations of composition of weight gain were obtained. the energy concentrations were estimated from protein and fat content and respective calorie equivalents. by regression of retained energy (re) on metabolizable energy (me) intake, the efficiency of me utilization for gain, as the regression coeficient, and the me requirement for maintenance (level of me intake for re = 0) were estimated. the efficiency of utilization of me for maintenance (km) was obtained by the ratio: km = nem/mem. the nem and neg of napiergrass were determined, respectively, as the products of km and kg to me content of the forage, and the values 1.02 and 0.59 mcal/kg dry matter, respectively, were obtained. the protein concentrations in the body and in body weight gain remained in higher levels and the fat energy concentrations remained in lower levels than those reported, in brazil, for zebu and crossbred steers showing higher weight gains.
Grazing Adaptability of Beef Cattle on the Dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) Pasture
A. Ako
Media Peternakan , 2007,
Abstract: Grazing adaptability of beef cattle on dwarf variety of late-heading type (DL) napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) pasture was examined in summer season at Miyazaki, Japan in 2005. Five paddocks of DL napiergrass pasture with an area 2500 m2, (500 m2, per paddock) were established since May 2002. Three heads of raising beef cows (Japanese-Black) were rotationally grazed in a week with 4-weeks rest period from June to October. Forage dry yield at pre- and post-grazing averaged 238.6 – 582.6 g/m2 and 152.8 – 309.5 g/m2, respectively with percentage consumption averaged 42.5% – 71.6%. Forage consumption and dry matter intake averaged 14.5 – 50.9 g DM/m2/day and 2.42 – 8.48 kg DM/1 IU/day, respectively with average daily gain was 0,56 kg/day. Grazing adaptability of beef cattle on DL napiergrass needed time for about one week. Thus, the DL napiergrass pasture can be utilized under the rotational grazing at stocking rate of 12 head/ha (calculated 3600 kg LW/ha/day) in the summer season of subtropical area.
Confirmation of Pearl Millet-Napiergrass Hybrids Using EST-Derived Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers  [PDF]
Charlie D. Dowling, Byron L. Burson, Jamie L. Foster, Lee Tarpley, Russell W. Jessup
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.45124

Prospects for deploying perennial grasses that are currently considered leading candidates for dedicated energy crops over large acreages are debatable because of several limitations, including vegetative propagation or small seed size, low biomass production during the first growing season, and incomplete assessments of crop invasiveness risk. Pearl Millet-Napiergrass hybrids (PMN; Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br. × P. purpureum Schumach.), in contrast, are large-seeded, sterile feedstocks capable of high biomass production during establishment year. Novel methods are warranted for confirmation of PMN hybrids, as traditional morphological observations can be inconclusive and chromosome number determination using cytological methods is laborious and time consuming. Six putative PMN lines were produced in this study, and 10 progeny from each line were evaluated using morphological traits, seed fertility, flow cytometry, and expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers. All putative hybrid lines were sterile and failed to produce seed. The PMN hybrids could not be distinguished from either parent using flow cytometry due to highly similar nuclear genome DNA contents. A number of paternal napiergrass-specific EST-SSRs were identified for each PMN line, and four paternal-specific EST-SSRs conserved across all napiergrass accessions were selected to screen the putative PMN hybrids. These EST-SSRs confirmed that all F1 individuals analyzed were PMN hybrids. The use of paternal-specific markers therefore provides a valuable tool in the development of both

Functional characterization of cellulases identified from the cow rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum W5 by transcriptomic and secretomic analyses
Tzi-Yuan Wang, Hsin-Liang Chen, Mei-Yeh J Lu, Yo-Chia Chen, Huang-Mo Sung, Chi-Tang Mao, Hsing-Yi Cho, Huei-Mien Ke, Teh-Yang Hwa, Sz-Kai Ruan, Kuo-Yen Hung, Chih-Kuan Chen, Jeng-Yi Li, Yueh-Chin Wu, Yu-Hsiang Chen, Shao-Pei Chou, Ya-Wen Tsai, Te-Chin Chu, Chun-Chieh A Shih, Wen-Hsiung Li, Ming-Che Shih
Biotechnology for Biofuels , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1754-6834-4-24
Abstract: We have developed an efficient platform that uses a combination of transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to N. patriciarum to accelerate gene identification, enzyme classification and application in rice straw degradation. By conducting complementary studies of transcriptome (Roche 454 GS and Illumina GA IIx) and secretome (ESI-Trap LC-MS/MS), we identified 219 putative GH contigs and classified them into 25 GH families. The secretome analysis identified four major enzymes involved in rice straw degradation: β-glucosidase, endo-1,4-β-xylanase, xylanase B and Cel48A exoglucanase. From the sequences of assembled contigs, we cloned 19 putative cellulase genes, including the GH1, GH3, GH5, GH6, GH9, GH18, GH43 and GH48 gene families, which were highly expressed in N. patriciarum cultures grown on different feedstocks.These GH genes were expressed in Pichia pastoris and/or Saccharomyces cerevisiae for functional characterization. At least five novel cellulases displayed cellulytic activity for glucose production. One β-glucosidase (W5-16143) and one exocellulase (W5-CAT26) showed strong activities and could potentially be developed into commercial enzymes.Cellulosic ethanol produced by microbial fermentation from feedstocks has been proposed to replace fossil fuels in transportation. A key step in cellulosic ethanol production is to break down cellulose into glucose and hemicellulose into xylose, which can subsequently be converted into ethanol by fermentative microbes. Therefore, finding efficient cellulases is important to bioethanol production, as well as for hydrolyzing feedstocks into sugars in general. Neocallimastix species is one of the major anaerobic fungi in the rumen of water buffalo capable of efficiently digesting cellulosic biomass [1-4]. Such anaerobic fungi are potential sources for highly active cellulolytic enzymes that are useful for cellulose hydrolysis [5-7]. Plant cell wall degrading enzymes from rumen fungi such as Neocallimastix patriciarum may
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