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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3789 matches for " multiresistant bacteria. "
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Antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) against bacterial multiresistant strains isolated from nosocomial patients
Costa, Adalberto Coelho da;Santos, Bernadete Helena Cavalcanti dos;Santos Filho, Lauro;Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2009000200010
Abstract: antibiotics are considered the main therapeutic option to treat bacterial infections; however, there is the disadvantage of increasing bacterial resistance. thus, the research of antimicrobials of plant origin has been an important alternative. this work aimed at determining the in vitro antibacterial activity of the essential oil of origanum vulgare l. (lamiaceae) on multiresistant bacteria isolated from biological materials. 24 strains of nosocomial bacteria were used and divided into six different species that were inhibited by the essential oil in the preliminary "screening" which was accomplished by the diffusion technique in agar. mic was determined by the microdilution method, beginning with solutions with the final concentrations: 8 up to 0.125% with the following results: the four samples (100%) of escherichia coli, enterococcus faecalis and mrsa were inhibited by the essential oil at the concentration of 0.125%. three samples (75%) of acinetobacter baumannii at 0.125% and a sample (25%) at 0.5%; klebsiella pneumoniae (75%) at 0.125% and 25% at 0.25%; pseudomonas aeruginosa (75%) at 0.5% and 25% at 0.25%. mic varied from 78 to 83%. it was concluded through the obtained data that there was not difference in the minimum bactericidal concentration (0.5%) of the referred oil for gram positive as well for gram negative microorganisms.
Actividad antimicrobiana de plantas medicinales argentinas sobre bacterias antibiótico-resistentes
Zampini,Iris Catiana; Cudmani,Norma; Isla,María Inés;
Acta bioqu?-mica cl?-nica latinoamericana , 2007,
Abstract: the present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial activity of alcoholic extracts of argentine medicinal plant species (dasyphyllum diacanthoides, erythrina cristagalli, larrea cuneifolia, larrea divaricata, phytolacca dioica, pithecoctenium cynanchoides, prosopanche americana, schinus molle, schkuhria pinnata, senna aphylla and solidago chilensis) against multidrug resistant human pathogen gram negative bacteria isolated from a hospital in tucumán, argentina. inhibition of bacterial growth was investigated using disc diffusion, agar macrodilution and broth microdilution methods against multiresistant clinical isolates of nine different specie of gram negative bacteria: escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus mirabilis, enterobacter cloacae, serratia marcescens, morganella morganii, acinetobacter baumannii, pseudomonas aeruginosa, stenotrophomonas maltophilia. a significant antimicrobial activity was found in three of the eleven plant species studied. based on minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) values, three plant species, l. divaricata, l. cuneifolia, and s. aphylla were the most potent ones with mic values between 25-200 μg/ml. overall, p. mirabilis, m. morganii and p. aeruginosa isolates were the most susceptible to these extracts with mic values of 25 to 50 μg/ml. all extracts showed significant inhibitory activities on bacteria growth in a dose phenolic compound-dependent fashion. the minimal bactericidal concentration (mbc) values were identical to the mic values or twofold higher than the corresponding mic. contact bioautography indicated that crude extracts possess several major antibacterial components. phytochemical screening showed that the bioactive compounds correspond to polyphenols. investigations are in progress to purify the bioactive principles.
Actividad antimicrobiana de plantas medicinales argentinas sobre bacterias antibiótico-resistentes Antimicrobial activity of Argentine medicinal plants on antibiotic-resistant bacteria
Iris Catiana Zampini,Norma Cudmani,María Inés Isla
Acta bioqu?-mica cl?-nica latinoamericana , 2007,
Abstract: El propósito del presente trabajo fue determinar la potencia antimicrobiana de extractos alcohólicos de plantas utilizadas popularmente en Argentina como antisépticos y antiinflamatorios: Dasyphyllum diaconthoides, Erythrina cristagalli, Larrea cuneifolia, Larrea divaricata, Phytolacca dioica, Pithecoctenium cynanchoides, Prosopanche americana, Schinus molle, Schkuhria pinnata, Senna aphylla y Solidago chilensis. La inhibición del crecimiento bacteriano se determinó a través de ensayos de difusión en agar, macrodilución en medio sólido y microdilución en medio líquido frente a 47 aislamientos clínicos multirresistentes a antibióticos, obtenidos de pacientes de un hospital de Tucumán, Argentina: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. De acuerdo con los valores de concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM), tres de las once especies ensayadas fueron las más activas: L. divaricata, L. cuneifolia, y S. aphylla (CIM de 25 a 200 μg/mL). P. mirabilis, A. baumanni y S. maltophilia fueron las cepas más susceptibles con valores de CIM entre 25 y 50 μg/mL seguido por P. aeruginosa con valores de CIM de 50 a 100 μg/mL. Los valores de concentración bactericida mínima (CBM) fueron semejantes o dos veces superiores a los valores de CIM. Mediante ensayos bioautográficos se comprobó que los extractos más activos presentaban al menos dos principios antimicrobianos. Análisis fitoquímicos indican que estos compuestos son de naturaleza fenólica. Los resultados obtenidos justificarían el uso de estos extractos para el tratamiento de infecciones bacterianas, especialmente aquellas de origen dérmico. The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial activity of alcoholic extracts of Argentine medicinal plant species (Dasyphyllum diacanthoides, Erythrina cristagalli, Larrea cuneifolia, Larrea divaricata, Phytolacca dioica, Pithecoctenium cynanchoides, Prosopanche americana, Schinus molle, Schkuhria pinnata, Senna aphylla and Solidago chilensis) against multidrug resistant human pathogen gram negative bacteria isolated from a Hospital in Tucumán, Argentina. Inhibition of bacterial growth was investigated using disc diffusion, agar macrodilution and broth microdilution methods against multiresistant clinical isolates of nine different specie of gram negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Acinetobacter baumannii
Epidemiología de la tuberculosis
Bermejo,M. C.; Clavera,I.; Michel de la Rosa,F. J.; Marín,B.;
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra , 2007, DOI: 10.4321/S1137-66272007000400002
Abstract: tuberculosis, that "old acquaintance of pneumology", is still a disease with a high morbidity and mortality in the world. this is why, in spite of our having entered the xxi century, it continues to demand our attention, great challenges continue to be faced, such as bringing it under control, and new problems continue to arise, such as the emergence of multiresistant tuberculosis. thus, for the world health organisation, it represents a disease of great importance that has led this body to develop a specific and ambitious program that aims at its eradication by the year 2050. in this article we detail some of the most interesting aspects of the epidemiology of this disease, with special attention paid to the problem of multiresistant tuberculosis, and we present up to date data on the morbidity and mortality of tuberculosis in the world.
Epidemiologically relevant antimicrobial resistance phenotypes in pathogens isolated from critically ill patients in a Brazilian Universitary Hospital
Carvalho, Rodolfo Henriques de;Gontijo Filho, Paulo P.;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822008000400005
Abstract: antimicrobial resistance is a threat to public health worldwide and is associated with higher mortality and morbidity. despite the extensive knowledge about this problem, drug resistance has continued to emerge, especially in intensive care units (icus). the objective of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of epidemiologically relevant resistance phenotypes in pathogens isolated from ventilator-associated pneumonia (vap), bloodstream infections (bsi) and urinary tract infections (uti) in patients admitted in the adult intensive care unit (aicu) of the clinical hospital of federal university of uberlandia, during an one year period. additionally, at the period of the study, the antibiotic consumption in aicu was verified. coagulase-negative staphylococci and s. aureus were the main agents of bsi (43.9%), with 60.0% of oxacilin-resistance for both microorganisms, klebsiella-enterobacter group predominated in uti (23.4%), with resistance to third generation cephalosporins in 58.0% of the isolates; and, pseudomonas aeruginosa in vap (42.0%), with 72.0% of resistance to imipenem. cephalosporins (49.6%), vancomycin (37.4%) and carbapenems (26.6%) were the most prescribed antibiotics in the unit. the comparison of the results with a publication of the nnis program evidenced a worse situation in the studied hospital, mainly between gram-negative, that had surpassed the percentile 90% elaborated by that system. based on these results a reconsideration on the empirical use of antibiotics and on prevention and control of nosocomial infections practices is recommended.
Investigation of the presence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in multiresistant strains of E. Coli and salmonella species originated from domestic animals
Filipovi? Irina,Mi?i? D.,A?anin Ru?ica
Acta Veterinaria , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/avb0704369f
Abstract: Bacterial strains which possess genes to produce ESBL most often are multiresistant and also carry genes responsible for the resistance to most other antibiotics, including aminoglycosides, sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim and fluoroquinolones. Therefore, practically the biggest contemporary clinical problem are infections of humans and animals caused by ESBL-producing strains of E. coli, Kleibsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Serratia, Citrobacter, Salmonella and Shigella species. The investigation of the ESBL presence was completed on multiresistant E. coli and Salmonella strains originating from dogs, cats, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry. The investigated strains were isolated from ear, skin, vaginal, faecal, urine, egg and eggshell swabs, from healthy and diseased individual animals of various ages and breed categories. The sum of 112 E. coli and 45 Salmonella strains was investigated. All strains resistant to 3 or more antibiotics were categorized as multiresistant, which led to a conclusion that 35 E. coli and 6 Salmonella strains out of all investigated were multiresistant to antibiotics. The largest number of multiresistant E. coli strains was discovered in cattle - 12 in total, and the minimal number in goats and sheep, with two strains each. All multiresistant Salmonella strains belonged to the Salmonella Enteritidis species (S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis). The sum of multiresistant Salmonella strains compared to all investigated strains was relatively low (13.3%), but the resistance prevalence for some antibiotics in these strains was extremely high, for ampicillin and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid as high as 100%, and for tetracycline 83.3%. For the control in this investigation were used ESBL positive E. coli strains originated in human urine specimens. No presence of positive ESBL strains was established. However, when the screening investigation was performed, almost all the strains were suspect, thus a confirmatory test had to be performed for all strains.
Infección nosocomial por gérmenes multirresistentes durante 1 a?o en un hospital de segundo nivel: análisis clínico y microbiológico
Jover-Sáenz,A.; Barcenilla Gaite,F.; Barbé Illa,E.; García González,M.; López Salcedo,R.; Castellana Perelló,D.; Garrido-Calvo,S.; Porcel-Pérez,J. M.;
Anales de Medicina Interna , 2005, DOI: 10.4321/S0212-71992005000200003
Abstract: background: currently growing medical and social significance of nosocomial infection by multiresistant pathogens (nimp) prompted us to establish its incidence, nosology, presenting forms in admission areas, and mortality in a secondary hospital, lleida (spain). method: for that purpose, we analyzed the first year experience of a unit for the control of nosocomial infection (ni) created in our hospital. from january to december 2000, 79 patients with a nimp admitted to the university hospital arnau de vilanova entered in this prospective, descriptive study. results: the overall annual incidence of nimp was 4.0 per 103 patients admitted. acinetobacter baumannii showed the highest individual rate of incidence, particularly, at the intensive care unit (15.4 per 103 patients admitted; p < 0.001). by nosologies, infection prevailed over colonization (69.6% vs 30.4%; p < 0.001). mean hospital stay length increased in colonized patients (38.9 days). finally, overall mortality was high (29.1%); again, a. baumannii was the agent most frequently detected in death cases (66.6%; p < 0.001). conclusions: surveillance and control measures are required for the prevention of nimp. incidence studies how this, can be useful to create a database to establish the distribution and occurrence of ni, including the detection of multiresistant pathogen outbreaks.
Atividade antimicrobiana de extratos hidroalcoólicos de Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Lythraceae, frente a bactérias multirresistentes de origem hospitalar
Porfírio, Zenaldo;Melo-Filho, Gildo C.;Alvino, Valter;Lima, Maria Raquel F.;Sant'Ana, Ant?nio E.G.;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2009000500023
Abstract: multiresistant pathogenic microorganisms are responsible for million of death all the world, mainly pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus that are responsible for great part of hospital infections. the concern with this species does new researches to find out alternatives to control these microorganisms in the way more efficient and more economic. the phytoterapic extracts are promissory alternatives for that purpose because they are an immense source of biological action. the objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of lafoensia pacari a. st.-hil., lythraceae, extract on multiresistant bacterial strains (p. aeruginosa, s. aureus) that have been isolated from patients with multiple infections occupying an emergency unit from maceió in brazil. the antibacterial activity experiments were evaluated by agar diffusion tests. agreeable us experiments in vitro, ascertain that 96,4% of bacterial strains utilized in this research have showed susceptible to the plant's leaf extract, it means an excellent antibacterial activity. halos of bacterial inhibition until 26 mm were observed. thus, it can be concluded that the lafoensia pacari extract has showed as an excellent product to combat multiresistant bacterial.
Doina Butcovan,Gr. Tinic?,L. Stoica,R. D?nil?
Jurnalul de Chirurgie , 2009,
Abstract: Mediastinitis is a rare infection following cardiac surgery and is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The reported rate of post-sternotomy mediastinitis is between 0.8 and 2.3%, with up to 79% of cases caused by staphylococci. Obesity and diabetes are the risk factors consistently involved. We present a case of staphylococcal mediastinitis diagnosed at Cardiovascular Disease Institute Ia i as a complication of cardiac surgery. We present the clinical and morphological picture of staphylococcal post-sternotomy mediastinitis; we also performed a review of the literature data about its management.
Identifying species-specific subsequences in bacteria transcription terminators-A machine learning approach  [PDF]
Bao-Hua Gu, Yi Sun
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2009.23031
Abstract: Transcription Terminators (TTs) play an impor-tant role in bacterial RNA transcription. Some bacteria are known to have Species-Specific Subsequences (SSS) in their TTs, which are be-lieved containing useful clues to bacterial evolu-tion. The SSS can be identified using biological methods which, however, tend to be costly and time-consuming due to the vast number of sub-sequences to experiment on. In this paper, we study the problem from a computational per-spective and propose a computing method to identify the SSS. Given DNA sequences of a tar-get species, some of which are known to contain a TT while others not, our method uses machine learning techniques and is done in three steps. First, we find all frequent subsequences from the given sequences, and show that this can be effi-ciently done using generalized suffix trees. Sec-ond, we use these subsequences as features to characterize the original DNA sequences and train a classification model using Support Vector Machines (SVM), one of the currently most effec-tive machine learning techniques. Using the pa-rameters of the resulting SVM model, we define a measure called subsequence specificity to rank the frequent subsequences, and output the one with the highest rank as the SSS. Our experi-ments show that the SSS found by the proposed method are very close to those determined by biological experiments. This suggests that our method, though purely computational, can help efficiently locate the SSS by effectively narrowing down the search space.
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