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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6351 matches for " multiple myeloma "
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Multiple Myeloma in Unusually Young Patient: A Case Report  [PDF]
Fatima Ez-Zahra El Mangad, Imane El Bouchti
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.515119

Multiple myeloma, a disease of elderly, is extremely rare in those about 30 years of age. A patient with MM diagnosed at age 27 is described. He was a male with a four-month history of back pain and later, hemurus and tibia pain persisting despite NSAIDS. X-rays had shown lytic lesions on lateral radiograph of the skull and the humerus. His ESR was 120 mm. Serum calcium was 125 mg/l and glomerular filtration rate at 25 ml/min. There was a beta2 peak in the serum protein electrophoresis. The Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated a strong reaction for the Lambda light chain in all tumor cells. Bence Jones protein was present in urine. Bone marrow biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Our patient was treated with dexamethasone, zoledronic acid, cyclophosphamide and thalidomide with good evolution. Actually, he was proposed for stem cell transplantation. This report illustrated that multiple myeloma should be even evoked in young patients.

Fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma  [PDF]
Luiz Antonio Guimar?es Cabral, Andrea Silveira Penteado, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck Brand?o, Janete Dias Almeida
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.48075
Abstract: Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a disseminated plasma cell tumor caused by the proliferation of a single plasma cell clone which results from the production of monoclonal immunoglobulin, most commonly class G (IgG). MM is a cancer of the elderly, with a mean age at diagnosis of 68 years. A 79-year-old white patient sought the outpatient clinic of the Discipline of Stomatology, S?o José dos Campos Dental School, UNESP, because of a fracture associated with an osteolytic lesion in the right ascending ramus of the mandible. In view of the clinical-radiographic findings, exploratory fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the lesion was performed and the sanguinolent material obtained was submitted to the preparations of smears for cytology analysis. The diagnosis of MM was based on laboratory and radiographic findings. FNA cytology analysis of the lesion permitted a diagnostic hypothesis of MM.
Intracranial Epidural Plasmacytoma Presenting as a Neurosurgical Emergency: Case Report  [PDF]
Atef Ben Nsir, Mehdi Darmoul, Rim Hadhri, Hattab Nejib
Open Journal of Modern Neurosurgery (OJMN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmn.2013.33009

Intracranial plasmacytomas are infrequently encountered in neurosurgical practice, and the literature consists predominantly of isolated case reports. We present the first English medical literature case of intracranial epidural plasmacytoma with no calvarial lytic changes masquerading as an extradural hematoma in a 60 year-old-man. In addition, we discuss the pathogenesis of this unusual tumor location with brief review of the relevant literature concerning its treatment and outcome.

The Efficacy and Safety of a 1.6 mg/m2 Increase in a Bortezomib Regimen  [PDF]
Sohsuke Meshitsuka, Kenshi Suzuki
Open Journal of Blood Diseases (OJBD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojbd.2015.51001
Abstract: We conducted a single-center, prospective clinical trial in which a subcutaneous bortezomib (Bor) regimen [1.6 mg/m2 per month (BD 1.6 mg/m2 therapy)] was administered to 22 multiple myeloma patients. All patients had been treated sufficiently with once-monthly subcutaneous Bor injections (BD 1.3 mg/m2therapy). Of the 22 patients, 13 had IgG-, 2 had IgA-, and 7 had Bence-Jones protein (BJP)-type multiple myeloma. The observation period for therapeutic effect determination ranged from 84 to 412 days (median: 400 days). Therapeutic effects were investigated in 15 patients during the increase in Bor from 1.3 to 1.6 mg/m2, and none achieved complete remission (CR), very good partial remission (VGPR), or partial remission (PR). Given the small number of patients, a significant conclusion must be reached carefully. However, the chance of stronger success with increases in Bor is low for patients who have already undergone long-term 1.3 mg/m2 Bor treatment. Furthermore, non-hematological toxicity was seen in 12 of 22 patients, so increasing Bor to 1.6 mg/m2 should be considered carefully. However, the statuses of patients in this study suggest that once-monthly Bor could inhibit disease progression. In future we should investigate low-frequency Bor maintenance therapy.
Multiple Myeloma Secondary to HIV Infection, Revealed by Renal Failure: About a Case  [PDF]
Mbengue Mansour, Cissé Mouhamadou Moustapha, Faye Maria, Lemrabott Tall Ahmed, Fall Khodia, Keita Alex, Faye Moustapha, Ba Bakary, Diagne Seynabou, Keita Niakhaleen, Ba Mamadou Aw, Dieng Ameth, Niang Abdou, Ka El Hadji Fary, Diouf Boucar
Open Journal of Nephrology (OJNeph) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojneph.2019.91002
Abstract: Multiple myeloma is on the list of neoplasia that may be associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. It is an affection that aggravates the prognosis in these particular patients. We present the case of a patient with multiple myeloma and HIV infection, revealed by renal failure. This was a 59-year-old patient who was received to the Department of nephrology for renal failure associated with severe aregenerative pancytopenia. In etiological investigations, multiple myeloma associated with HIV1 infection was found. The evolution was unfavorable, marked by the death of the patient caused by digestive haemorrhage before the start of antiretroviral treatment and chemotherapy.
Utility of Flow Cytometry to Classify Abnormal Plasma Cell Populations in Marrow Samples Collected from Patients with Putative Plasma Cell Neoplasms  [PDF]
Charanjeet Singh, Sophia Yohe, Linda B. Baughn, Michael A. Linden
Open Journal of Blood Diseases (OJBD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojbd.2012.23008
Abstract: Plasma cell neoplasms comprise a spectrum of diseases that include monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined signi-ficance (MGUS) and multiple myeloma (MM). Flow cytometric immunophenotyping has become an invaluable tool as an ancillary and diagnostic test for hematologic malignancies and is being used with increasing frequency in the diag-nosis and monitoring of plasma cell neoplasms. As multiparameter flow cytometry has evolved, faster fluidics and detection systems facilitate the screening of a large number of events and the detection of multiple antigens simultaneously. This review addresses the approaches used to evaluate clonal plasma cell neoplasms and describes different surface and cytoplasmic markers and techniques that are important for the study of these diseases.
Biology and Treatment of Skeletal Manifestations in Multiple Myeloma  [PDF]
Nikolaos A. Stavropoulos, Argyro Papadoyiannis, Dimitris Maltezas, Petros Stavrou, George C. Babis, Panayiotis J. Papagelopoulos, Gerasimos A. Pangalis, Marie-Christine Kyrtsonis
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2014.54045
Abstract:  MM is frequently associated with the development of osteolytic bone lesions, osteoporosis and pathological fractures. Bone destruction in MM is caused by osteoclasts recruited in areas adjacent to myeloma plasma cells; their contact triggers both cell types to secrete soluble factors sustaining one each other’s activation and proliferation. Osteoclasts differentiate and maturate upon binding of the receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), secreted by bone marrow microenvironmental cells, to its receptor (RANK) on osteoclast progenitors, while osteoprotegerin (OPG), a natural decoy receptor, can block the aforementioned ligation. At the same time osteoblasts are inactivated by the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway inhibitor, Dickkopf-1 protein (DKK-1), secreted by malignant plasma cells. Furthermore, DKK-1 deregulates the OPG/RANKL equilibrium, promoting osteoclastogenesis. Myeloma bone disease (MBD) can be treated with myeloma-directed chemotherapy and agents inhibiting bone resorption such as aminobisphosphonates, although new promising biology driven monoclonal antibodies targeting osteoclastogenesis mechanisms are emerging. Palliative MBD treatment includes analgesics, orthotics, radiation therapy, vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. In case of spinal cord compression, radiation therapy or surgical decompression, should be instantly performed, along with steroid administration. Surgery may also be an option especially in case of weight-bearing bone fractures. MBD is a morbid complication and should be carefully managed because it deteriorates patients’ quality of life and worsens disease outcome. 
Pulmonary Hypertension Induced by Thalidomide (and Derivatives) in Patients with Multiple Myeloma: A Systematic Review  [PDF]
Abdulqadir J. Nashwan, Nader I. Al-Dewik, Hisham M. Al Sabah, Mohamed A. Yassin, Shehab F. Mohamed, Nabil H. Omar, Dana B. Mansour
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2016.713094
Abstract: Thalidomide is widely used in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). In recent years, several cases of pulmonary hypertension have been reported following treatment with thalidomide. The aim of this review was to evaluate the published literature on multiple myeloma patients with pulmonary hypertension following thalidomide treatment. A literature search was performed between 2000 and 2016. A total of 7 eligible studies were identified and deemed eligible, including 11 cases—approximately 37% (4 cases) with IgA (k), 27% (3 cases) with IgG (λ) MM, 27% (3 cases) with IgG (k) MM, and one case (9%) with primary plasma cell leukemia (PPCL). The vast majority of cases—82% (9 cases)—are associated with thalidomide, while only 18% (2 cases) are related to thalidomide derivatives (lenalidomide and pomalidomide). In conclusion, pulmonary hypertension induced by thalidomide or derivatives in multiple myeloma (MM) patients is related to a multifactorial etiology including the pathophysiology of the disease, thromboembolic events, preexisted cardiovascular conditions, comorbidities, and combination with other chemo- or bio-therapeutic agents. MM patients should be evaluated for signs and symptoms underlying cardiopulmonary disease before initiating, and during treatment with thalidomide.
Familial Multiple Myeloma: Report on Two Families and Discussion of Screening Options
Erica H Gerkes, Mirjam M de Jong, Rolf H Sijmons, Edo Vellenga
Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1897-4287-5-2-72
Abstract: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a haematological malignancy characterised by a malignant proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow producing monoclonal immunoglobulins and by the formation of focal osteolytic lesions in the skeleton. The disorder might evolve from a common pre-malignant condition called monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). However, the factors driving the malignant transformation of MGUS are as yet unknown. The clinical manifestations of MM include bone pains caused by lytic bone lesions, anaemia, hypercalcaemia, immunodefi-ciency and renal failure [1,2]. The incidence of the disease is about 3 to 4 per 100,000 in the Netherlands and mortality rates are only slightly lower [3]. Although the disorder is not curable in most cases, the overall survival varies depending on the age of onset and other prognostic features. The five-year survival rate is approximately 30% [1,3,4].MM usually occurs incidentally within a family. However, several families have been described with multiple cases of MM, suggesting there may be a genetic predisposition [5-11]. Since no causative germline gene mutations have been identified, diagnostic DNA testing of families with an inherited type of MM and presymptomatic genetic screening for unaffected relatives are unavailable.Here we report on two families with familial clustering of MM, we review the literature on familial MM, and we discuss the options for screening healthy relatives for MM in these familial cases.Two unrelated families were referred to our clinic asking about the possible heritability of MM in their family and the options for screening of healthy relatives. The patients' medical records were reviewed.Family 1 had three first-degree relatives affected by MM (Figure 1). The index patient (III-2) was a 65-year old female who was diagnosed with MM after presenting with pain in the shoulder region and fatigue. She had an IgG paraproteinaemia of 32 g/l, which later rose to 53 g/l
Diffuse plane xanthomatosis associated with monoclonal gammopathy
Rosmaninho, Aristóteles;Fernandes, Iolanda;Guimas, Arlindo;Amorim, Isabel;Selores, Manuela;
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0365-05962011000700012
Abstract: diffuse plane normolipemic xanthomatosis (dpnx) is a rare, non-inherited disease that is often associated with systemic diseases, mainly malignant hematological (especially multiple myeloma) or lymph proliferative disorders. the dpnx can precede the appearance of such conditions by several years, so careful follow-up and periodic laboratory examinations are recommended even for patients that seemed to have no underlying disease. we describe a case associated with monoclonal gammopathy. this case shows that dermatological lesions can be the first manifestation of important hematological diseases and so physicians should be familiarized with this entity
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