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Characterization of Allele Diversity in a Microsatellite Locus: A Registry for Solenopsis invicta  [PDF]
Rodrigo Fernando de Souza, Fernando Kamimura Cocchi, Cíntia Martins, Maria Santina de Castro Morini, Odair Correa Bueno
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2016.41005
Abstract: The genus Solenopsis includes more than 100 species in the New World. When introduced, some species cause serious harm to the native wildlife and agriculture. Two forms of social organization are known in the genus, namely, monogyne and polygyne. Here, we present the genetic profile of a Solenopsis invicta Buren 1972 colony recorded in the central region of the city of São Paulo, São Paulo state, Brazil (23°;33'37.18\"S; 46°;42'48.66\"W) to describe allele diversity. Eight microsatellite loci were used for the analysis of 30 worker ants. The results show the presence of seven alleles genotyped at the same microsatellite locus. Because this is an unusual finding, all of the alleles were sequenced, and surprisingly, an eighth allele was identified. These data suggest that the intracolonial genetic profile of fire ants must be investigated more frequently because there may be unexpected, albeit unknown, genetic patterns for S. invicta that can help inform better control and management programs.
New Interpretations about Clonal Architecture for the Sour Pitaya (Stenocereus gummosus, Cactaceae), Arising from Microsatellite Markers of de novo Isolation and Characterization  [PDF]
Oscar Adrián Lozano Garza, José L. León de la Luz, Susana Favela Lara, Francisco J. García de León
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2015.51001
Abstract: The use of molecular markers has improved the ecological and evolutionary research in the case of clonal reproduction species, allowing the identification of boundaries among clonal modules (ramets), genetic individuals (genets), and populations. Microsatellite markers were developed for Stenocereus gummosus, a columnar cactus with both sexual and clonal reproduction which is distributed in the Sonoran Desert, Mexico. 454-Pyrosequencing reads were analyzed to detect microsatellite markers. Forty primer pairs were screened to look for polymorphism. Nine loci were genotyped for two S. gummosus localities. Sampling strategy was intended to avoid collecting a genetic individual more than once, considering that clonal architecture for this cactus was previously deduced as clumped. Polymorphic loci exhibited low allele count, ranging from 2 - 7 (mean of 3.78 ± 0.62 SE); mean heterozygosity values were 0.221 and 0.234 HO and 0.408 and 0.306 HE, with FIS of 0.383 and 0.299, for peninsular and continental localities respectively. Unexpectedly, some multilocus genotypes were found repeated within locality, which were assumed as clones since data was evaluated as sufficient (clonal richness R of 0.966 and 0.897). These results were different from those previously reported: the distribution of clones might as well be intermingled, having a minimum ramet dispersion distance of 30 m. This characteristic was also consistent with the recent colonization proposed for this and other arid lands plants. A wider genetic neighborhood, due to clone dispersion might affect diversity indexes while increasing the chance of geitonogamy and mating among relatives. The markers isolation and its population characterization allowed addressing new questions about S. gummosus ecology, clonal reproduction and reproductive biology.
Disjunct Populations of a Locally Common North American Orchid Exhibit High Genetic Variation and Restricted Gene Flow  [PDF]
Madhav Pandey, Jyotsna Sharma
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2015.54012
Abstract: Whether the persistence of natural plant populations is limited by genetic diversity, gene flow, or other ecological and evolutionary factors is an important question in plant population genetics. An assessment of the distribution of genetic variation within and among populations is thus useful for understanding broad-scale gene flow patterns in plants with diverse pollination syndromes. We studied Pogonia ophioglossoides (L.) Ker Gawl., which is self-compatible but a primarily outcrossing species in the Tribe Pogonieae in the family Orchidaceae. Using three self-developed, highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite (simple sequence repeat, or SSR) markers and two chloroplast microsatellites, we assessed genetic variation in eight populations representing its natural distribution. Relatively high within-population genetic variation (mean An = 9.08, Ho = 0.44, and He = 0.71) was detected in P. ophioglossoides. Eleven different alleles and 13 unique haplotypes were detected for two cpDNA microsatellites. Genetic differentiation based on the hierarchical AMOVA showed that 21% (ФPT = 0.21, P = 0.000) and 63% (ФPT = 0.63, P = 0.000) of the nuclear and cpDNA microsatellite allelic diversity, respectively, was distributed among populations. Pairwise FST values ranged from 0.041 to 0.224 and each was statistically significant at P ≤ 0.05. The isolation by distance estimate did not show an association between genetic differentiation and geographic distance indicating that populations were diverging independently. We documented fine-scale spatial genetic structure (FSGS) up to 40 m distance in Texas. Overall, gene flow across the sampled populations of P. ophioglossoides appears restricted, and the short-distance SGS suggests localized seed dispersal in this locally common North American terrestrial orchid.
Acta Biológica Colombiana , 2010,
Abstract: the polymorphism of three microsatellite systems (bms527, bms4440 y bms 2113) was evaluated in 5 colombian creole breeds: rom (romosinuano), bon (blanco orejinegro), cas (casanare?o), sm (san martinero), ccc (coste?o con cuernos) and two foreign breeds: cebu and holstein . thirty eight alleles in 105 studied individuals were fouund and unique alleles are reported for bon, rom, ccc and cas. total expected heterocigocity which includes the two foreign breeds was 0.7228, where as observed heterocigocity varied between 0.3511 and 0.7787. hardy/weinberg desequilibrium was evident in some breeds in two microsatellite systems, as a result, probably of selection effects in creole and foreign breeds. the analysis of several genetic distances showed that the most distant breed was cebu compared to the colombian ones and to holstein , and a cluster that shows hol-rom-cas together. mixture analysis suggests that colombian creole breeds have a large genetic contribution from holstein (between 8 and 22%). finally we suggest that system bms2113, could be useful for paternity tests in colombian creole breeds.
A polymorphic microsatellite from the Squalius alburnoides complex (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae) cloned by serendipity can be useful in genetic analysis of polyploids
Boto, Luis;Cunha, Carina;Doadrio, Ignacio;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572011005000023
Abstract: a new microsatellite locus (sas1) for squalius alburnoides was obtained through cloning by serendipity. the possible usefulness of this new species-specific microsatellite in genetic studies of this hybrid-species complex, was explored. the polymorphism exhibited by sas1 microsatellite is an important addition to the set of microsatellites previously used in genetic studies in s. alburnoides complex, that mostly relied in markers described for other species. moreover, the sas1 microsatellite could be used to identify the parental genomes of the complex, complementing other methods recently described for the same purpose.
Evaluation of polymorphism in ten microsatellite loci in Uruguayan sheep flocks
Tomasco, Ivanna;Wlasiuk, G.;Lessa, E.P.;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572002000100008
Abstract: the allele frequencies of 10 microsatellite loci previously described for sheep as bm1314, bm6526, oarfcb128, oarhh64, oarcp20, oarhh47, oarfcb48, oarhh35, oarhh72 and bm2508 were estimated for the uruguayan flocks. a representative sample of 101 individuals composed by the two predominant breeds (76% corriedale and 24% australian merino) was used. the sample did not show a significant tendency towards substructuring, in spite of presenting some significantly different allele frequencies between races. the corriedale sample presents three loci in which the presence of null alleles is possible. the markers were highly variable, showing between 7 and 15 alleles each. the polymorphism information content index ranged from 0.63 to 0.87 and the exclusion probability from 0.39 to 0.75 for a cumulative exclusion probability of 99.98%. these results suggest the effectiveness of this set of loci for testing genetic relatedness. this is the first report of microsatellite variation in corriedale.
Caracterización genética del Caballo Monchino y su relación con otras razas autóctonas espa?olas
Tupac-Yupanqui,I.; Dunner,S.; Sa?udo,B.; González,A.; Argüello,S. de; Barquín,F.; Crespo,M.J.; Chomón,N.; Cimadevilla,C.; Calderón,L.A.; Fernández,L.A.; Ca?ón,J.;
Archivos de Zootecnia , 2011, DOI: 10.4321/S0004-05922011000300027
Abstract: in this study 12 microsatellite markers are used to characterize the caballo monchino horse breed and to known the genetic relationships with other spanish local horse breeds. the genetic diversity, allelic frequencies, heterozygosity, wright's f statistics (fis and fst) was calculated, and to establish the genetics relationship between mediterranean horse populations a correspondence analysis was carried out.
Caracterización genética del jabalí de la estación biológica de Do?ana
Landi,V.; Negro,J.J.; Vega-Pla,J.L.; Gortázar,C.; García-Aznar Navajas,J.M.; Delgado Bermejo,J.V.; Martínez Martínez,A.;
Archivos de Zootecnia , 2011, DOI: 10.4321/S0004-05922011000300014
Abstract: the wild boar, a cinegetic species of iberian peninsula, has numerous sub-populations ofsus scrofa mediterraneus. do?ana national park is the most important biological reserves in spain and the largest protected area with great ecological diversity, distributed on three basic types of ecosystems: sand dunes, beaches and marshes. here live together a variety of species: mammals, birds, reptiles, fishes... and, among them, the wild boar. in order to determine the genetic diversity, also in comparison with other spanish populations, we studied 25 microsatellite pigs markers and found genetic variation within and among populations by analysis of heterozygosity (0.53), number of alleles (5.60), deviation by hw equilibrium and fis index (0.02).
Estructura y relaciones genéticas de la raza bovina Serrana de Teruel con razas explotadas en Espa?a
Sanz,A.; Rodellar,C.; Martín-Burriel,I.; Sanz,A.; Cons,C.; Abril,F.; Azor,P.J.; Piedrafita,J.; Vijil,E.; Zaragoza,P.;
Archivos de Zootecnia , 2011, DOI: 10.4321/S0004-05922011000300013
Abstract: in this work we analyze by microsatellite markers the genetic diversity, structure and relationships of the indigenous endangered serrana de teruel cattle breed with different breeds reared in spain. all loci were polymorphic and a total of 198 alleles were observed across loci, with a mean of 6.79. observed and expected heterozygosities values shown the high variability of serrana de teruel breed with values of 0.67 and 0.68 respectively. the neighbour net based on reynolds distances shown the close genetic relationship among serrana de teruel and the mountain parda de monta?a and pirenaica breeds. structure results showed a 47.5% of correctly assigned individuals to serrana de teruel breed using a q>0.8 threshold. the admixed animals shown a clear influence of parda de monta?a breed.
Tecnologías actuales y emergentes para la identificación animal y su aplicación en la trazabilidad animal
Felmer,R; Chávez,R; Catrileo,A; Rojas,C;
Archivos de medicina veterinaria , 2006, DOI: 10.4067/S0301-732X2006000300002
Abstract: the use of labels for the identification of live animals and its products have been practiced for over 2000 years, being extensively used in europe with the appearance of the first epidemic diseases. at present, the advances on crops and livestock genetic engineering, the appearance of new diseases related with food consumption (i.e. mad cow disease, e. coli 0157, etc.), and the discovery of contaminants in the food chain have produced great concern among the consumers. this is why it is so important that producers provide consumers with a guarantee on the product quality, specially since they now demand to know origin and quality of the food. in international markets, new procedures based on the concept "from gate to plate" have been implemented through the food chain, in order to bring out trademarks and certified processes which guarantee the quality of the food that goes out in the market. as a result of this new consumer demand, the "traceability concept" in food has been gradually incorporated in our vocabulary and it is now one of the main concerns of the food industry. the traceability systems used to identify animals, monitor their movements and trace their products have considerably evolved over the last years. these systems must be convenient, easy to read, durable, and harmless. many devices have been used pursuing this objective, such as tattoos, ear-tags, electronic chips, iris and retina identification and more recently, dna fingerprinting and molecular markers. it has become important to harmonise approved systems in order to provide a better guarantee and to facilitate international trade of animals and their products. today, traceability is an esssential requirement in terms of exporting high-value products to the global food markets providing the producer with an opportunity to reach better prices for a differentiated product. thus, many meat industries have turned this concern in a great commercial opportunity.
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