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Bacterial Community Associated with Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Cultures of Medicinal Plant Smallanthus sonchifolius (Yacon)  [PDF]
Rita M. Moraes, Itamar S. Melo, Joko Sumyanto, Suman Chandra, Vaishali Joshi
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.310167
Abstract: Several unfruitful attempts to grow axenic shoot cultures of Smallanthus sonchifolius, also known as yacon, were made before healthy shoots grew in association with bacteria on half strength Murashigue and Skoog media supplemented with 2.2 μM benzylaminopurine. Twenty-one bacterial isolates were obtained from in vitro S. sonchifolius plantlets, eight of these isolates were identified as Flavimonas oryzihabitans, Curtobacterium pusillum, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Microbacterium imperiale. These microorganisms produced indole acetic acid (IAA) at amounts varying between 8.89 to 47.45 μg/mL, reason for being classified as plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB). The results show that buds associated with bacteria cultured on sucrose free media produced 3.77 new roots measuring 18.33 cm in length after a 30-day growing period. In contrast, buds growing on sucrose supplemented media, the number of roots induced was higher (6.67 to 14 roots/explant) but shorter in length, 4.67 to 5.83 cm. During plant acclimatization to soil, photosynthesis and water efficiency were measured showing that the plants were healthy and vigorous. A slightly higher rate of photosynthesis and water use efficiency was recorded in the plants produced on heterotrophic conditions as compared to plants grown in sucrose free media. Plants adapted well in the soil demonstrating that the PGPB community associated to S. sonchifolius in shoot cultures was not harmful to plant production. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the bacteria associated with in vitro S. sonchifolius shoot cultures was not the result of microbial contamination, but rather from symbiotic associations that extended from cultivation in the greenhouse, to culture and back to soil. This is the first report to show that autotrophic cultures may represent a viable alternative to grow healthy plants without eliminating beneficial bacteria associated with the host.
Detec??o do Sugarcane mosaic virus no Paraná e limpeza somaclonal por cultura de tecidos
Barboza, Ant?nio A.L.;Silva Júnior, Hélio M.;Souto, Eliezer R.;Silva, Clandio M.;Marcuz, Fernanda S.;Vieira, Rafael A.;
Fitopatologia Brasileira , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-41582007000400010
Abstract: an isolate of sugarcane mosaic virus (scmv) associated with mosaic symptoms in the rb925268 sugarcane clone was identified in paraná state. axilary buds of 4 to 8 mm used as explants were regenerated into plantlets using ms medium with and without ribavirin antiviral, at concentrations of 10 to 60 mg/l. ribavirin was toxic to sugarcane at all concentrations, resulting in plant death at concentrations of 30 mg/l or higher. the complete elimination of scmv was obtained in ms medium with 25 mg/l ribavirin concentration, confirmed by sap inoculation into sorghum bicolor cv. rio and by rt-pcr.
Propagación in vitro de Heliconia standley Macbride en Cuba
Sosa-Rodríguez, F. M.;Ortiz, R. S.;Hernández, R. P.;Armas, P. M.;Guillen, D. S.;
Revista Chapingo. Serie horticultura , 2009,
Abstract: a protocol was applied that allowed the micropropagation of the ornamental species of heliconia standleyi macbride. different variants of disinfestations of plants, culture medium and explants handling were studied during the different stages of the process and finally their acclimatization. the cultivar can be propagated in liquid medium using a disinfestations with sodium hypochlorite (naocl) 2% during 20 min, cultured medium supplemented with 6-bap (2.0 mg·litro -1), aia (0.65 y 1.3 mg·litro-1) and explants had a size bigger than 1.0 cm in semi liquid medium. the multiplication coefficient after subculture was 4.6 explants/meristems. optimum results in the roots production for addition in medium of aia 1.3 mg·litro-1 were obtained. the acclimatization was satisfactory in greenhouse always the size of plants were between 3 - 5 cm and until 45 days in controlled conditions.
In Vitro Propagation and Conservation of Zeyheriamontana Mart: An Endangered Medicinal Plant  [PDF]
Bianca Waléria Bertoni, Rita Maria Moraes, Laura Lemo Previdelli, Paulo Sérgio Pereira, Suzelei de Castro Fran?a, Ana Maria Soares Pereira
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.43066

Roots of Zeyheriamontana, a species native to the savanna (Cerrado) region of central Brazil, produce lapachol, a naphthoquinone with anticancer activity. Lapachol is also the precursor of β-lapachone, a novel drug candidate for preventive and adjuvant cancer therapies. The leaves of Z. montana are a renewable source of ursolic acid and oleanoic acid, compounds known for their anticancer, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The potential prophylactic use of β-lapachone, as well as the medicinal properties of ursolic acid, highlights the importance of this study on Z.montana’s germplasm conservation. Multiple shoots were induced on Woody Plant media with supplemented 0.1 mg·L-1 of thidiazuron (TDZ). Rooting was promoted on half strength WP (Woody Plant media containing 1.0 mg·L-1 of Indolbutiric acid-IBA). Plantlet acclimatization to ex-vitro condition was done at a 70% success rate using different substrates. It was possible to store Z.montana’s elite germplasm using in vitro cultures of media containing 2% sucrose plus 4% sorbitol for six months without subcultures.

Prospects of Biotechnological Approaches for Propagation and Improvement of Threatened African Sandalwood (Osyris lanceolata Hochst. & Steud.)  [PDF]
Dickson Kalabamu Xavery, Tileye Feyissa
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.611183
Abstract: The African Sandalwood plant (Osyris lanceolata ) is a threatened shrub or a small hemi-parasitic tree endemic to East Africa and South African regions, which is being severely affected by uprooting for oil extraction, poor natural regeneration, phenological structures (dioecious), medicinal values, lack of sexual recruitment, habitat loss, anthropogenic and climate factors. It has been found that through application of in situ conservation of natural trees with respect to rapid human population growth, the available natural strands of valuable plants such as African sandalwood have not been able to meet the demands of the people in world specifically developing countries. However, advances in plant biotechnology provide new options for collection, multiplication and short- to long-term conservation of Osyris lanceolata species, using in vitro culture techniques. Different aspects of biotechnological applications can be extensively used to reduce the risk of extinction of this valuable plant species and to improve the quality and quantity of essential oils produced by it. Therefore, tissue culture appears to be a promising approach for the propagation and conservation of African sandalwood plant.
Effect of Photon Flux Density and Exogenous Sucrose on the Photosynthetic Performance during In Vitro Culture of Castanea sativa  [PDF]
Patricia L. Sáez, León A. Bravo, Manuel Sánchez-Olate, Paulina B. Bravo, Darcy G. Ríos
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.714187
Abstract: The low photon flux density (PFD) under in vitro conditions and sucrose added to the culture medium negatively limits the photochemical activity and photoprotective mechanisms of microshoots. In this work we hypothesize that decreasing sucrose in the culture medium in combination with increasing irradiance, could improve the photosynthesis and consequently the in vitro growth. We evaluated the effect of exogenous sucrose (30 and 5 g·L-1, HS and LS, respectively), under different PFD (50 and 150 μmol photons m-2·s-1, LL and HL, respectively) on the photosynthetic performance and growth of Castanea sativa microshoots. Decreasing sucrose negatively affected the physiological attributes evaluated. Only chloroplast ultrastructure was improved by LS; however this did not lead to an improved in photosynthesis or growth. HL HS produced an increase in photosynthetic activity and chlorophyll contents, reaching under these conditions a higher proliferation rate and biomass production. Additionally, the photochemical activity (electron transport rate and non-photochemical quenching) was improved by HL. Thus, our results suggest that, at least for C. sativa HL is beneficial during the in vitro culture, improving photosynthetic performance as well as growth, but this is only possible in the presence of moderate concentrations of sucrose added to the culture medium.
In Vitro Regeneration of Endangered Medicinal Hypoxis Species  [PDF]
Busie E. B. Nsibande, Xueyuan Li, Annelie Ahlman, Li-Hua Zhu
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.616261
Abstract: The genus Hypoxis contains some of southern Africa’s most important wild medicinal species, a situation that has placed most of them amongst endangered species facing extinction. In this study, four Hypoxis species collected from Swaziland: H. argentea, H. filiformis, H. acuminata and H. hemerocallidea, were included to assess their potential for in vitro propagation in order to efficiently conserve these species in the future. Among all types of explants tested only corm explants and seeds gave rise to shoots under the in vitro conditions. For the corm establishment, H. filiformis was the most in vitro responsive species, which had 100% shoot regeneration with high shoot number when cultured on the MS medium supplemented with 3 mg·l-1 kinetin with a piece of shoot attached, while the highest mean shoot number (17) was obtained on the same medium, but with no shoot attachment to the corm explants. H. argentea was the next most responsive species in vitro with up to 70% establishment, while the other two species had only up to 20% of in vitro establishment. For the seed explants, up to 29% seed germination was obtained for H. argentea when the seed coats were crushed before the in vitro culture. The regenerated shoots were rooted in vitro and acclimatized in the greenhouse successfully
Thinking inside the Box: Tissue Culture for Plant Propagation in a Key Ecological Species, Andropogon gerardii  [PDF]
Ava M. Hoffman, Melinda D. Smith
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.910144
Abstract: Intraspecific diversity has widespread effects on ecological communities and ecosystems. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying these effects, manipulative studies require a rigorous and efficient empirical approach. Yet, replicating sufficient numbers of genetically identical individuals remains a challenge. As a result, we are limited in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the ecological effects of intraspecific diversity. In contrast, large sample sizes are routinely produced in horticultural research using micropropagation, or tissue culture. In order to determine the potential usefulness of micropropagation technique for ecological studies, we investigated the efficiency and efficacy of micropropagation on the ecologically important non-model C4 grass species, Andropogon gerardii. Our preliminary results demonstrate that micropropagation is a rapid and effective technique for producing large numbers of genetically identical clones at up to 100 times the rate of traditional propagation. Key intraspecific differences among clones of A. gerardii were also retained through the micropropagation process. Given that traditional techniques used to test the effects of intraspecific diversity manipulations are time-limiting (greenhouse propagation) or can be biologically misrepresentative (seeds) for some species, we suggest that micropropagation might be a powerful tool for advancing ecological genetics studies in many plant systems.
Production of Transgenic Camelina sativa Plants via Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Shoot Apical Meristems  [PDF]
Viji Sitther, Behnam Tabatabai, Oluwatomisin Enitan, Somayeh Gharaie Fathabad, Sadanand Dhekney
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2019.101001
Abstract: A method to produce transgenic Camelina sativa plants in cvs. PI650159 and PI650161 was developed. Micropropagated shoot meristem cultures were established from in vitro germinated seedlings and used as target tissues for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A plasmid harboring enhanced green fluorescent protein,
Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares e vermicomposto na aclimata??o de Alpinia purpurata (Viell.) Schum e Zingiber spectabile Griff. (Zingiberaceae)
Silva, Maryluce Albuquerque da;Silva, Fábio Sérgio Barbosa da;Yano-Melo, Adriana Mayumi;Melo, Natoniel Franklin de;Maia, Leonor Costa;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33062006000200001
Abstract: to select amf and substrates that enhance production of micropropagated seedlings of alpinia purpurata and zingiber spectabile, tropical ornamental species, seedlings were inoculated with 1,500 infective propagules of gigaspora albida, glomus etunicatum and acaulospora longula, in pots containing: (a) soil; (b) soil and vermicompost (3:1); (c) soil, sand and vermicompost (2:2:1). the experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial of: four inoculation treatments (three with amf and uninoculated control), three substrates, with eight replicates for each plant species. after 70 (z. spectabile) and 100 (a. purpurata) days of inoculation, plant growth parameters such as height, leaf and offshoots number, dry mass of shoots and roots, leaf area, as well as mycorrhizal colonization, amf sporulation were evaluated. significant interactions were not observed between amf and substrates. in a. purpurata, the two substrates with vermicompost promoted growth, while in z. spectabile only the substrate with higher proportion of this compound enhanced plant growth. use of vermicompost reduced mycorrhizal colonization in both hosts and the sporulation of a. longula. during the acclimatization period, application of organic amendment is useful to induce formation of healthy seedlings of a. purpurata and z. spectabile but it may be harmful to the amf community.
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