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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 20276 matches for " method "
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Knowledge and practice of periodic abstinence among women in India  [PDF]
Begum Shahina, Dwivedi Sada Nand, Mittal Suneeta, Pandey Arvind
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.34045

The use of contraceptive method to avoid pregnancy is a multifaceted phenomenon. Worldwide, 20 percent of married women of reproductive age are currently using periodic abstinence. To assess the knowledge and practice of periodic abstinence among currently married pregnant women, data were collected from the pregnant women attending the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. One thousand three hundred and thirty one (1331) currently married pregnant women were interviewed face-to-face. Approximately 29.3 percent of women were aware of the abstinence method, 11.5 percent women had history of using it. In-depth finding shows that 84.9 percent women did not have correct knowledge of fertile window of a menstrual cycle. Counseling about the correct fertile window of a menstrual cycle may increase the effectiveness of methods and hence reduce the incidence of unwanted pregnancies.

The Numerical Solution of the MRLW Equation Using the Multigrid Method  [PDF]
Yasser Mohamed Abo Essa, Ibrahim Abouefarag, El-Desouky Rahmo
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.521310
Abstract: In this paper, we obtained the numerical solutions of the modified regularized long-wave (MRLW) equation\"\", by using the multigrid method and finite difference method. The solitary wave motion, interaction of two and three solitary waves, and development of the Maxwellian initial condition into solitary waves are studied using the proposed method. The numerical solutions are compared with the known analytical solutions. Using\"\"error norms and conservative properties of mass, momentum and energy, accuracy and efficiency of the mentioned method will be established through comparison with other techniques.
FDTD Modeling of Lorentzian DNG Metamaterials by Auxiliary Differential Equation Method  [PDF]
Chiranjib Goswami, Saptarshi Mukherjee, Subrata Karmakar, Manimala Pal, Rowdra Ghatak
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2014.65010

In this paper, Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) is utilized to simulate metamaterials of Double Negative (DNG) origin that refers to those materials having simultaneous negative permittivity and permeability. The problem regarding space formulation is achieved by means of auxiliary differential equation method (ADE), which is easy, reliable and also causal process in nature thus making it proficient. It uses fair approximations to explicate the model. Mur’s boundary condition is used for 1-D problem space and convolution perfectly matched layer boundary is implemented for 2-D problem space. The properties of metamaterial conform their speculations of energy absorption, enhancement and backward propagation property with the aid of graphs engineered by Matlab simulation both in 1-D and 2-D. Also, the interaction of fields on DNG and Double Positive (DPS) layers is contrasted. The results achieved elucidate the validity and effectiveness of the ADE method and the Convolution Perfectly Match Layer (CPML) in designing DNG metamaterials.

Proposing a novel, efficient measure for assessing glade restoration efficacy: wildflower presence and abundance  [PDF]
Adam E. M. Eltorai
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2011.23026
Abstract: Human presence is detrimentally affecting natural environments. Glades are an example of such envi-ronments. As glades diminish in number, proper restoration efforts are essential for the preservation of the habitats’ unique ecosystems, biodiversity and natural processes. To ensure glade survivorship, evaluation of glade restoration efforts is critical. As indicators of the trophic level of producers in a food chain, wildflowers can serve as overall indicators of the restoration process. A comparison of wildflower species presence and abundance between recently restored and control glades offer insights into the restoration progress. In this paper, I propose the us-age of a novel method for assessing restoration effi-cacy. I outline step-by-step how to apply such a method. I then explain how the implementation of such a method can be used to address questions re-garding the restoration effort’s efficacy.
A New Iterative Solution Method for Solving Multiple Linear Systems  [PDF]
Saeed Karimi
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory (ALAMT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/alamt.2012.23004
Abstract: In this paper, a new iterative solution method is proposed for solving multiple linear systems A(i)x(i)=b(i), for 1≤ i ≤ s, where the coefficient matrices A(i) and the right-hand sides b(i) are arbitrary in general. The proposed method is based on the global least squares (GL-LSQR) method. A linear operator is defined to connect all the linear systems together. To approximate all numerical solutions of the multiple linear systems simultaneously, the GL-LSQR method is applied for the operator and the approximate solutions are obtained recursively. The presented method is compared with the well-known LSQR method. Finally, numerical experiments on test matrices are presented to show the efficiency of the new method.
Verification of Hypothesis of “Six Patterns of Paid Vacation Use”: An Exploration of Six Patterns of Paid Vacation Usage and Number of Days Taken  [PDF]
Go Igusa
Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies (JHRSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jhrss.2014.23013
Abstract: In this study a survey using questionnaires was conducted to understand the actual condition of the relationship between methods for taking paid vacation and its usage rate; to focus on verifying the relationship quantitatively by empirical analysis; and to present a plan to promote paid vacation usage. The simple tabulation did not reveal a distinct difference in the number of days taken as paid vacation among the usage methods; however, by making the other conditions constant, the number of days taken as paid vacation by those adopting a share method was significantly high. In other words, by recommending the share method at a workplace, it is possible that the paid vacation usage condition improves considerably. In order for this method to operate effectively, the paper proposed that “efforts to utilize human resources” is necessary so that personnel who can replace the work of employees taking paid vacation are prepared.
Evaluation of Prognostic Factor for Perforation Closure Rate in Patient with Chronic Otitis Media  [PDF]
Hirokazu Katsura, Yasuo Mishiro, Miki Ikehata, Kenzo Tsuzuki, Masafumi Sakagami
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2014.35055
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate factors affecting the perforation closure rate for perforated otitis media. Methods: Between 2008 and 2012, a total of 118 patients with perforated chronic otitis media underwent tympanoplasty at Hyogo College of Medicine Hospital by a single surgeon. Prognostic factors were analyzed using multivariate analysis with logistic regression. Results: The success rate for tympanic perforation was 93.2%. Factors showing significance on multivariate analysis were dryness of perforation and patient age at the time of surgery. Conclusion: The results suggest that pre-surgical treatment is a key factor influencing the closure rate.
Selection Method of Surfactants for Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery  [PDF]
Roland Nagy, Rubina Sallai, László Bartha, árpád Vágó
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2015.52013
Abstract: Alternative energy sources have not yet presented suitable to meet the energy demand of the world; therefore crude oil will play furthermore an essential role in the energy consumption in the future. EOR is a challenging field for several scientific disciplines. The number of patents highlights the importance of this area. Most of the publications label that the target of the chemical processes is the reduction of IFT between the displacing liquid and oil phase. Based on the results in the last two decades the surfactants and flow modifier type polymers have shown more potential for a higher efficiency of the EOR than in any other methods. The aim of this work was to develop different surfactant testing methods that are capable to characterize the most important surfactant properties separately and to evaluate their combined or complementary effects. There was no correlation between the specific characteristics. But the weak correlation was detected by using the CE complex evaluation method. Further improvements could contribute significantly to improve the selectivity of the new experimental non-ionic surfactants for EOR applications.
A Computational Study with Finite Difference Methods for Second Order Quasilinear Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations in Two Independent Variables  [PDF]
Pavlos Stampolidis, Maria Ch. Gousidou-Koutita
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/am.2018.911079
In this paper we consider the numerical method of characteristics for the numerical solution of initial value problems (IVPs) for quasilinear hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations, as well as the difference scheme Central Time Central Space (CTCS), Crank-Nicolson scheme, ω scheme and the method of characteristics for the numerical solution of initial and boundary value prob-lems for the one-dimension homogeneous wave equation. The initial deriva-tive condition is approximated by different second order difference quotients in order to examine which gives more accurate numerical results. The local truncation error, consistency and stability of the difference schemes CTCS, Crank-Nicolson and ω are also considered.
Lukas S. Musianto
Jurnal Manajemen dan Kewirausahaan , 2002,
Abstract: Quantitative and qualitative methods are most different, especially in their axioms and their characteristics. In the past, they were separate from each other. This paper analyzes those differences so that in the future, comprehensive methods such as envisioned by Brennan allow the two types of methodologies to be used together in research. In the past, because of the differences in the two methods, especially in basic concepts and aspects, usually only the quantitative or qualitative method was used. The situation in universities in Indonesia shows that the qualitative method is a relatively new approach and that until now, most research has been applied quantitative research, since there are few experts in the qualitative method. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Metode kuantitatif dan kualitatif memang berbeda, terutama dalam axioma dan cirri-cirinya. Pada masa lalu, kedua metode tersebut dipisahkan. Artikel ini menganlisa tentang perbedaan-perbedaan tersebut, agar pada masa depan, metode yang menyeluruh seperti yang diusulkan oleh Brennan dapat dikembangkan bersama dalam penelitian. Pada masa lalu juga, oleh karena berbagai perbedaan yang ada antara dua metode, terutama dari segi konsep-konsep dasar serta berbagai aspek dari masing-masing metode, maka biasanya hanya salah satu pendekatan digunakan dalam penelitian. Keadaan dalam universitas-universitas di Indonesia menunjukkan bahwa metode kualitatif menjadi pendekatan yang relative lebih baru dan sampai sekarang, sebagian besar penelitian yang dilakukan menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif karena jumlah orang yang sungguh memahami metode kualtitatif masih sedikit. Kata kunci: metode kualitatif, metode kuantitatif.
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