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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1019 matches for " mercado extrabursátil (OTC) "
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EVALUACIóN DEL MERCADO DE OPCIONES SOBRE TASAS DE CAMBIO: PERSPECTIVAS PARA UNA MEJOR UTILIZACIóN
Iván Darío Ochoa,Cristina González
Revista EIA , 2007,
Abstract: Colombia debe contar con un mercado financiero acorde con las necesidades de la internacionaliza-ción de su economía. Para esto requiere desarrollar un mercado de derivados, y entre ellos el de opciones sobre la tasa de cambio peso/dólar, de modo que se aprovechen las ventajas de este instrumento, entre otros fines, para la cobertura del riesgo cambiario, cada vez más latente en un mundo globalizado. Las opciones financieras son poco conocidas en Colombia y sobre ellas se tiene muy poca información. Puesto que no hay un mercado organizado, se transan sólo en el mercado extrabursátil (OTC), el cual, si bien es cierto que implica mayor riesgo de contraparte, también permite el dise o de coberturas a la medida de las necesidades del cliente. Con la globalización de la economía y el paso a un régimen de tasa de cambio flotante, se han presentado apreciaciones del peso frente al dólar en los últimos a os que alcanzan el 25%, lo que ha implicado grandes pérdidas para el sector exportador colombiano. Estos hechos deberían impulsar a quienes participan en el mercado externo, en cualquier modalidad, a desarrollar una cultura de gestión del riesgo cambiario para prevenir pérdidas futuras por exposición a la volatilidad de la tasa de cambio. No obstante, se evidencia que, por diversos motivos, no se ha dado un amplio desarrollo de esa cultura, y son precisamente esos motivos los que se investigaron con las mayores empresas exportadoras/importadoras del país y se analizan en este artículo. Las investigaciones sobre los aspectos mencionados complementadas con el estudio de las variables que afectan la valoración de las opciones en el mercado financiero permiten formular algunas conclusiones sobre las principales razones para que no exista una fuerte cultura de cobertura del riesgo cambiario, a pesar de que la amenaza de este riesgo es creciente, de por qué el mercado de las opciones sobre tasa de cambio es de tan poca profundidad hoy en día en Colombia y cuáles son las perspectivas para una mejor utilización de este instrumento financiero que algunos autores consideran como un símbolo de los mercados financieros modernos. Colombia has to have a financial market that fits the needs of its increasingly internationalized economy. That means that a financial derivate market has to be developed. This includes a very deep options market in which forex options be widely dealt with in order to take advantage of the multiple benefits of this instrument specially for hedging purposes since the currency exchange risk is more and more threatening in a globalized world. Options a
Patrones por cuantificación en la evolución a corto plazo del IBEX
Jesús Ma Sánchez Montero,Javier Gamero Rojas,Ma Angeles Domínguez Serrano
Rect@ , 2002,
Abstract: Cuantificamos las variaciones diarias del IBEX (durante la última década) mediante una unidad mucho mayor que la resolución oficial del IBEX, a fin de limitar el número de posibles variaciones diarias y poder estudiar regresiones no lineales respecto a varios días anteriores. Se analizan los patrones de evolución a corto plazo y su grado de significación. El objeto del trabajo consiste en detectar posibles imperfecciones en el mercado en la operación a corto plazo, que pudiesen aparecer debido a prácticas técnicas de trading o al grado de asimilación de nuevas noticias. Para ello se necesita estudiar la (hiper)superficie empirica de autorregresión, a fin de descubrir no linealidades en la evolución diaria.
Modeling the Customer Satisfaction Influence on the Long Term Sales: Example with Leading OTC Analgesics INN on National Market  [PDF]
Guenka Petrova, Nikolay Mateev, Dimitar Barumov, Lily Peikova, Maria Dimitrova, Manoela Manova
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.49060
Abstract:

Background: The customer satisfaction models are used to examine brand loyalty and sales. The utilization of the counter medicines depends directly on the level of knowledge of consumers, preferences and their satisfaction could be considered as an important predictor for their revenue. Objectives: The goal of the current study is to develop a Markov model for assessing the influence of the customer satisfaction on long term sales of leading OTC international nonproprietary names (INNs) of analgesics on the national market. Methods: Two first-order stationary Markov models based on marketing data for OTC analgesics sales and customer satisfaction inquiry, particularly from metamizole (MET), paracetamol (PAR), acetysal (ASA), and ibuprofen (IBU) were created and manipulated. The first model considered the very satisfied customers and the second the very satisfied and the somewhat satisfied customers. Results: MET is the INN with the most loyal customers followed by PAR. The product Markov matrix was derived after multiplications of the matrixes with market share and loyal customers’ probabilities. The steady state is achieved after 17 years for the group of satisfied customers and after 40 iterations for the group of somewhat satisfied. The market fluctuations are more dynamic in the second model probably due to lower determination of customers purchasing behavior. Conclusions: The model allows prediction of the long term changes in sales, differences between the groups of customers and long term marketing fluctuations. It could be useful in companies’ strategic sales management.

Research on Accounting Information Disclosure of the NEEQ Market  [PDF]
Fengfang Li
Modern Economy (ME) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/me.2015.69096
Abstract: The National Equities Exchange and Quotations (for short, NEEQ) market has become a national securities trading place for almost two years. More and more companies have been listed on the NEEQ market, which means China’s OTC market has entered a period of rapid development. However, with the rapid development of the NEEQ market, the accounting information disclosure problems arise. According to our country’s institutional background, this article analyzes the accounting information disclosure problems of the companies which are listed on the NEEQ market, draws lessons from the foreign markets and puts forward relevant policy suggestions.
Encefalopatía hiperamoniémica: valoración y manejo nutricional a propósito de un caso
Oliva Rodríguez,R.; Suleiman Martos,Y.; Pereira Cunnil,J. L.; Serrano Aguayo,P.; García Alfaro,C.; García Luna,P. P.;
Nutrición Hospitalaria , 2012,
Abstract: otc deficiency is a disorder of the urea cycle x-linked. it is manifested in men as severe hyperammonemia in the first days of life. in women the disease is milder severity. various conditions cause decompensation with hyperammonemia. it could be fatal or cause permanent neurological damage. we report a 36 years old woman admitted for surgery, she suffered a decompensation in conjunction with surgical wound infection. hyperammonemia caused neurological deterioration with decreased level of consciousness, tetraparesis and neurogenic dysphagia. the treatment consisting of low-protein diet, ammonium chelating drugs and dialytic measures, was effective in controlling hyperammonaemia and improving neurological status. this case illustrates the importance of nutritional support of patients with disorders of the urea cycle in the hospital because the descompensations are more frecuent here.
Encefalopatía hiperamoniémica: valoración y manejo nutricional a propósito de un caso Hyperammonemic encephalopathy: nutritional assessment and management of a case
R. Oliva Rodríguez,Y. Suleiman Martos,J. L. Pereira Cunnil,P. Serrano Aguayo
Nutrición Hospitalaria , 2012,
Abstract: El déficit de Ornitintranscarbamilasa (OTC) es un trastorno del ciclo de la urea ligado al cromosoma X. Se manifiesta en el varón como hiperamoniemia severa en los primeros días de vida. En la mujer la enfermedad es más leve. Diversas situaciones pueden provocar una descompensación con hiperamoniemia que puede ser letal o provocar da os neurológicos permanentes. Presentamos una mujer de 36 a os que ingresó para cirugía y que sufrió una descompensación coincidiendo con infección de la herida quirúrgica. La hiperamoniemia provocó un deterioro neurológico con disminución del nivel de conciencia, tetraparesia y disfagia neurógena. Con tratamiento, que consistió en dieta hipoproteica, quelantes de amonio y medidas dialíticas, se consiguió controlar la hiperamoniemia y mejorar el estado neurológico. Este caso ilustra la importancia del soporte nutricional especializado de los pacientes con trastornos del ciclo de la urea en el ámbito hospitalario por darse frecuentemente situaciones que favorecen las descompensaciones. OTC deficiency is a disorder of the urea cycle X-linked. It is manifested in men as severe hyperammonemia in the first days of life. In women the disease is milder severity. Various conditions cause decompensation with hyperammonemia. It could be fatal or cause permanent neurological damage. We report a 36 years old woman admitted for surgery, she suffered a decompensation in conjunction with surgical wound infection. Hyperammonemia caused neurological deterioration with decreased level of consciousness, tetraparesis and neurogenic dysphagia. The treatment consisting of low-protein diet, ammonium chelating drugs and dialytic measures, was effective in controlling hyperammonaemia and improving neurological status. This case illustrates the importance of nutritional support of patients with disorders of the urea cycle in the hospital because the descompensations are more frecuent here.
Review: ASPECTS OF DOPING AND PROHIBITTED DRUGS
Mayank Tripathi,Rajendra Kr Songara*,Priyank Sharma,Vipin Mishra
Pharmacie Globale : International Journal of Comprehensive Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: The International Olympic Committee (IOC) Medical Code states “Doping contravenes the ethics of both sport and medical science. Doping consists of the administration of substances belonging to prohibited classes of pharmacological agents or the use of various prohibited methods or both”. International Pharmaceutical Federation approved a Statement of Standards for the role of the pharmacist in the fight against doping in sport. This document outlines recommendations for governments, pharmaceutical associations, pharmacists, and pharmaceutical manufacturers regarding their role in doping control.
DRUG REGULATORY STATUS ASSIGNMENT CRITERIA: A CONTRAST AMONG 2 COUNTRIES
Anoop Paruchuri*, Vini Pavithran , M. Pavani , S. Selvamuthukumaran and G. P. Mohanta
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2013,
Abstract: After a laborious and extravagant procedure the drug finally enters the market for use. But who determines the new drug status as a prescription only or an OTC? There is a clear cut contrast between the US and India with respect to their assignment guidelines and the future prospect of a new drug. In the US the regulatory status of the approved drug is determined as per the FDA guidelines (FDCA of 1938) in accordance with the Durham-Humphrey act of 1951 which depicts the criteria required for a pharmaceutical product to be marketed as a prescription drug or an OTC product. CDSCO headed by the DCGI is the authority responsible for determining the regulatory status which acts as per the regulations listed in Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 in India. The US regulatory system stipulates the malleability for the inter conversion of the drugs regulatory status known as “Rx to OTC switch” which is deficient in India. Perfect implementation of regulations in India will promote effective use of OTC’s and forestall illicit sale of prescription drugs as OTC’s.
Morphology and stability of aggregates of an Oxisol according to tillage system and gypsum application
Souza, Fábio Régis de;Rosa Junior, Edgard Jardim;Fietz, Carlos Ricardo;Pellin, Douglas Martins Pereira;Bergamin, Anderson Cristian;Gelain, Evandro;Rosa, Yara Brito Chaim Jardim;
Revista Ceres , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-737X2012000600017
Abstract: morphological characterization and aggregate stability is an important factor in evaluating management systems. the aim of this paper is to evaluate the stability and morphology of the aggregates of a dystrophic oxisol managed with no-tillage and conventional tillage with and without the residual action of gypsum. the experimental design was randomized blocks arranged in split-split plot, where the treatments were two soil management systems (plots) with 0 and 2000 kg ha-1 of gypsum (subplots) and five depths (0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.15, 0.15-0.20 and 0.20-0.30 m) as the subsubplots, with four replications. the aggregate morphology was determined through images and later evaluated by the quantporo software. stability was determined by the wet method. the results showed that the no-tillage system, with or without gypsum residual effect, provided the aggregates with the largest geometric diameters. the combination of no-tillage system and the gypsum residual effect provided rougher aggregates.
Relations among growth traits in tilapia (Orechomis nilotica)/ Rela es entre as características de crescimento na tilápia (Oreochromis nilotica)
Marco Antonio da Rocha,Edson Luis de Azambuja Ribeiro,Ivone Yurika Mizubuti,Leandro das Dores Ferreira da Silva
Semina : Ciências Agrárias , 2003,
Abstract: A sample of 250 observations in tilapia (Orechomis nilotica) was used in this work. The evaluated traits were those related to growth, i.e., body weight (BW), total body length (BL), body height (BH) and head length (HL). The data were transformed to natural logarithm, and the majority of the relations obtained (BW x BL, BW x BH, HL x BL, e HL x BH) indicated a negative alometric growth. The relation BW x HL was alometric positive. Only the relation BH x BL presented an isometric growth. A prediction equation was determined using as dependent variable the natural logarithm of body weight (lnBW), and as independent variables the natural logarithms of body length (lnBL) and body height (lnBH). The prediction equationwas, lnBW = -2.97041 + 2.2145 lnBL + 0,741373 lnBH; r2 = 0.99. A amostra utilizada neste trabalho era constituída de 250 observa es em tilápia (Orechromis nilotica). As características avaliadas foram as relativas ao crescimento, ou seja: Peso corporal (P); Comprimento corporal total (C); Altura corporal (A); e Comprimento de cabe a (CA). As rela es obtidas através da transforma o das variáveis para logaritmo natural, indicou que a maioria das rela es (P X C, P X A, CA X C e CA X A) apresentou crescimento alométrico negativo, a rela o P X CA alométrico positivo, e somente a rela o A X C apresentou crescimento isométrico. Uma equa o de predi o foi determinada utilizando a variável ln(P) como dependente e ln(C) e ln(A) como variáveis independentes, a equa o de predi o foi: ln(P) = -2,97041 + 2,2145 ln(C) + 0,741373 ln(A); r2 = 0,99.
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