Abstract:
In game theory, in order to properly use mixed strategies, equalizing strategies or the Nash arbitration method, we require cardinal payoffs. We present an alternative method to the possible tedious lottery method of von Neumann and Morgenstern to change ordinal values into cardinal values using the analytical hierarchy process. We suggest using Saaty’s pairwise comparison with combined strategies as criteria for players involved in a repetitive game. We present and illustrate a methodology for moving from ordinal payoffs to cardinal payoffs. We summarize the impact on how the solutions are achieved.

Abstract:
Decision-making toward prudent energy conservation is a primary issue in the power utility management while con-ceiving green environment. Presented in this paper are relevant considerations and prudent ways of decision-making thereof. Examples are furnished to illustrate the underlying considerations and are discussed using practical examples. Specifically green ambient is considered and the underlying payoff resulting from each combination of strategies adopted (or courses of action taken) by the technology-option participants is evaluated. Game-theoretic pursuits are followed.

Designers
of infrastructure are aware that the government, owners and users become more and
more concerned about negative environmental impacts of tunnels, so environmental
assessment of tunnels are becoming an issue in the process of tunnel design. In
this study, to assess tunnels in construction and operation phases, the matrix method,
through which the “Impacting Factors” and “Environmental Components” are determined,
is also outlined. The affected environment was divided into thirteen components,
such as Ecology, Surface water, Air quality, etc. In this paper, matrix method was
applied to evaluate the impact of tunneling in three typical tunnels and compare
them with standard diagrams of Environmental Components that were derived and introduced.
These tunnels were: Urban Utility tunnel in Tehran, Eurasia tunnel in Istanbul and
Tsuen Wan drainage tunnel in Hong Kong. Based on the acquired results, the present
paper finally concluded that among three cases, Tsuen Wan drainage tunnel affects
the environment in construction phase more than others, while Eurasia tunnel effects
on air quality are more significant in operation phase.

Abstract:
This case study aims to understand the characteristics of the historic land use pattern in the surrounding areas of a streambed in Aydin, Turkey. Aerial photographs from 1960 and Ikonos images from 2002 are utilized in GIS environment. Two analytical approaches exist: (1) detecting the magnitude of growth in the urban area and (2) detecting the land use transformation along the streambed. Matrix Utility index is employed to relate the amount of imperviousness to each land use type. Overall, the City has expanded 80.14% and the matrix utility value dropped 25.30%, which mean that less compatible land uses surrounded the stream each coming year. The typical outcome of this trend is increasing high density with very high percentages of impervious surfaces. A new land use scenarios should be generated to bring the index value to its initial levels. In this aspect, the matrix utility index could be an effective tool in land use decisions and in developing common language between urban planners and landscape architects.

Abstract:
摘要 已有的Top-k高效用项集挖掘为了保持向下封闭性，利用项集的事务效用代替其真实效用，使得项集效用被估计得过大，导致剪枝效果不好，挖掘效率较低.针对这一问题，提出了索引效用的概念，在此基础上建立两级索引，并进行索引剪枝，增强了挖掘中剪枝的效果，提高了Top-k高效用项集挖掘的效率；此外，通过建立效用矩阵，支持对项集效用的快速计算，进一步提高了挖掘效率.不同类型数据集上的实验验证了所提出的Top-k高效用项集挖掘方法的有效性和高效性. Abstract：The existing methods of Top-k high utility itemset mining substitute the transaction utilities of itemsets for their real utilities in order to keep the downward closure property. This makes the utilities of itemsets be estimated too large， resulting in bad pruning effect and low mining efficiency. To solve this problem， the concept of the index utility was proposed. On this basis， the two-level index was built and pruned， by which the pruning effect was strengthened and the efficiency of Top-k high utility itemset mining was enhanced. Moreover， the fast calculation of itemset utilities was supported by building the utility matrix. Therefore， the mining efficiency was further enhanced. The experiments on different types of datasets validate the effectiveness and the efficiency of the proposed method.

This paper describes optimal investment strategies for kinked utility functions. One example is a CRRA utility function with a kink at a maximum wealth, which leads a covered call “like” strategy and the other is a CRRA utility function with a kink at a minimum wealth, which leads a protective put “like” strategy. This paper introduces analytic mathematical solutions providing a mathematical explanation of a dual utility where Black-Sholes assumption is utilized in the solutions. The intuitive solutions are clear for cases of those kinked utilities but minute mathematical explanation is described. Also a numerical simulation is performed for a covered call like strategy case.

Abstract:
This paper studies the multi\|attribute decision making problem. Based on the translation formulas of four types preference information (represented by means of preference orderings, utility values, complementary judgement matrix and reciprocal judgement matrix), this paper first makes the information uniform, using complementary preference relations, then utilizes the priority formula of complementary judgement matrix to rank the alternatives. Finally, a numerical analysis is given.

Abstract:
Since natural science is our most precise and careful method of investigation of reality, based on our most precise thinking, mathematics, statistics as the mathematical point of contact with reality is the spearhead of scientific investigations-points of reality-contact-such as physics and engineering. This essay briefs technical calculations of statistics, as it focuses on the vast significance of statistics by One, citing two concrete examples to show its utilitarian power penetrating the concrete situations, and then Two, our cautions on its use, some quite serious.

Abstract:
Traditionally, risk aversion (both absolute and relative) has been expressed as a function of wealth alone. The charac- teristics of risk aversion as wealth changes have been extensively studied. However, prices, as well as wealth, enter the indirect utility function, from which the typical risk aversion measures are calculated. Given that, changes in prices will affect risk aversion, although exactly how has not been considered in the literature. This paper provides such an analysis. In particular, we firstly remind the reader that both absolute and relative risk aversion are homogeneous functions, and as such independently of their particular slopes in wealth, there is a natural effect that holds relative risk aversion constant and decreases absolute risk aversion when prices and wealth are increased by a common factor. We also show that the size of relative risk aversion as compared to the number 1, which is of much importance to the comparative statics of the economics of risk and uncertainty, depends on how changes in prices affect marginal utility. Under plausible (and standard) theoretical assumptions we find that relative risk aversion is likely to be increasing, and that increases in prices will have a tempering effect on risk aversion.

Abstract:
The connectivity of information has changed many
things but not the way economists model consumers, firms and government.
Information is here newly modeled as a fundamental element of microeconomic
choices and utility, cost and tax functions. The results are more clearly
defined metrics for losses due to cyber breaches or productivity gains from cyber investments. The integration of
information into standard microeconomics also allows use of econometric
and other tools to analyze the empirics of
the consumer and the firm. In particular, the results identify ways in which losses in the Gordon and Loeb [1] model can be specified in more detail.