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experimentally indicate a lower limit of dose in mammographic imaging yielding
adequate image quality for complementary diagnostic views, by evaluation of
image series with different exposure parameters and additional image processing
on mastectomy specimens with diverse pathology. Methods: Image series were obtained on seven specimens with
different target-filter combinations at different exposure values. Three
experienced radiologists assessed the lowest acceptable dose level per specimen
using a relative grading technique. With the standard image as reference, fibroglandular tissue and
pathological structures, including microcalcifications, were evaluated.
Subsequently, a series of pixel binning processes was tested and subjectively
assessed on the selected images. Results: The lowest dose level at which image quality was acceptable, and achieved with a W/Ag target-filter
combination at 32 kV and 4 mAs. These images can be acquired with 10.4% to 22.4% of the average glandular dose in
standard images. Post process pixel binning added to the interpretability of
such low dose images. Conclusion: This specimen study suggests that dose level of mammography images might be
reduced substantially by general application of a W/Ag spectrum, particularly
when combined with post process noise reduction. Future studies should focus on
the feasibility of this technique in clinical mammography.
The physical and psychological burden on patients
during mammography was analyzed using the autonomic function index in 34 adult
females. The indices included heart rate (HR), high frequency (HF) of the R-R
interval on an electrocardiogram, and the ratio of HF to LF (low frequency)
(LF/HF). HR is an indicator of the degree of mental and physical activity, HF
indicates the parasympathetic index and LF/HF indicates the sympathetic index.
For the mediolateral oblique (MLO) view in mammography, autonomic function
indices were measured before and during mammography. Statistical analysis was
performed by the Mann-Whitney U test and the significance level was set at
5%. The autonomic function indices were compared before and during
mammography and all showed no significant differences. The average value before
imaging and the reference value at rest were compared. The results showed that
HR increased 1.3-fold, HF increased 0.4-fold, and LF/HF increased 3.2-fold over reference values. Chronological changes during mammography showed that HF increased and LF/HF decreased from 120 seconds
after the start of imaging. From these observations, it is evident that the
state before mammography is not the same as the resting state and that the
sympathetic index is dominant before imaging. They also suggest that some aspects
of the psychological burden experienced during mammography are not due to the
pain of breast compression alone.
mastitis (GM) is a chronic inflammatory breast disease. This pathology was
first described by Kersler and Wolloch in 1972 . It is an uncommon cause of
a breast mass [2-5]. Awareness of this entity is crucial, because it can
clinically and radiologically mimic breast carcinoma, fibroadenoma or
fibrocystic changes . It has several appearances radiologically
also; biopsy still remains the only way
for final diagnoses. Here we present a woman with a breast mass. Our aim is to
show ultrasound, mammography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of GM by
reviewing the literature.
Purpose: To study the specificity of mammography and ultrasonography separately and in combination for detection of breast masses (ultrasonography-mammography correlation); To study the investigations to evaluate various breast masses; To describe suitable indications, advantages and limitations of each technique compared with other available modalities; To study the mimics of breast masses; To have histopathology follow-up and retrospective evaluation with imaging findings to improve diagnostic skills in series of 166 patients complaining of breast mass. Material: The prospective clinical study was carried out in the department of Radiodiagnosis for a period of 2 year extending from December 2010 to December 2012 infemale patients complaining of breast mass. Well informed written consent was obtained from them. Histopathology follow up was obtained from either biopsy or post operative tissue. USG machine: Philips HD 11 XE USG of the breasts and axillary region done in supine position in presence of female attendant; Mammography machine: Allengers machine with Agfa special mammography cassettes. Cranio caudal and Medio-Lateral Oblique views are taken in the presence of female attendant. MRI: PHILIPS 1.5 T machine; CT: SIEMENS duel slice CT machine. Results: Ultrasonography and mammography was done in most of the cases were sufficient to diagnose the lesion in most of the cases especially in benign breast masses. MRI and CT scan was used in special cases to know the extent of the lesions, in mimics of breast masses, bony extensions, primary muscular and bony lesions. Total 166 patients complaining of breast mass in one or both breasts were examined and evaluated with USG and mammography. The lesions were confirmed on histopathology (FNAC/biopsy). Out of 30 diagnosed malignancies two lesions were missed on mammography and four lesions were missed on ultrasonography. One of them was missed on both. For malignancies specificity of mammography is 93.3% and that of ultrasonography is 86.67%. Combining both the modalities specificity is near 97%.