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Current Evidence of the Monoaminergic Regulation of Romantic Love and Relationship  [PDF]
Wei-Hsi Chen, Mei-Yen Chu, Yuan-Hsiang Chu, Yen-Chin Lin, Kuo-Yen Chen
Advances in Sexual Medicine (ASM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/asm.2017.73011
Introduction: Sexual response cycle is modulated by a variety of biological factors, especially antidepressants and antipsychotics. Although the circuit of romantic love has recently been delineated, the biological impact on romantic love is barely mentioned in human, however. Methods: In thus study, a comprehensive literature review was completed to elucidate the role of central monoamines, including dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, melatonin and histamine, for the romantic love and relationship in human. Results: The central circuit of romantic love includes the mesolimbic and mesocortical tract and their extensions widely distributed in cortical, subcortical and brainstem structures. The activation of brain foci progressively decreases along with the romantic relationship in many areas, including the bilateral caudate and ventral tegmentum area without change of passionate love. Hyperactivity of dopamine and serotonin is suggested at the synaptic level for romantic love in lovers, probably through an inhibition of transporters or increase of terminal release. Romantic love can be modulated by antidepressants or recreational drugs. Polymorphism of dopamine and serotonin receptor relates to the romantic relationship. The effect of other monoamines is barely mentioned. Conclusions: Romantic love is vulnerable for secondary effect, such as drugs which modulate the dopamine and serotonin, in human. Romantic relationship is also impacted by the polymorphism of monoamine receptors. Therefore, the biological effect is not limited to sexual response cycle but also the romantic love and relationship. Further investigation is warranted for understanding the secondary effect in romantic love for romantic dissolution or divorce.
Love in Spenser’s Amoretti  [PDF]
Jiancheng Wang, Zhengshuan Li
Advances in Literary Study (ALS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/als.2014.21006

Being a sonnet cycle of love with a detailed description of the lady’s physical beauty and the lover’s happy feelings, Amorettiis a story of love between earthlings which is aimed at marriage. Meanwhile, Spenser sanctifies the love by Platonizing and Christianizing the lady. Thus it is clear that the love in the mind of Spenser is not just an earthly one or a heavenly one separately, but both, and, a combination of both earthly love and sacred love.

On Rousseau’s Love Outlook and His Civilian Complex  [PDF]
Xiaoying Li, Yingfei Yuan
Advances in Literary Study (ALS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/als.2015.34018
Abstract: Rousseau had some peculiar love experiences which many people couldn’t understand, especially the experience with the servant Therese le Vasseur. So in the article, I explored his life background, his love experiences and analyzed his love outlook. Certainly, his love outlook was related to his love experiences and his love experiences also were related to his civilian complex. I might say that his love experiences, love outlook and civilian complex answered people’s doubt that was why he chose Therese le Vasseur to spend his rest of his life.
Love Styles in Couple Relationships: A Literature Review  [PDF]
Rosalba Raffagnino, Luisa Puddu
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.612027
Abstract: Love is a fundamental emotion in people’s lives, and also plays a vital role in human health. It is a multifaceted feeling, with different expressions in different life contexts. Its polysemy has been widely identified and analysed upon observing how the different styles of experiencing love have different effects on personal and relational health. This article presents a review of literature regarding the influence of the various love styles—identified by Lee [1]—on quality and duration of a love relationship, and how they may be predictors for the health and well-being of partners. Upon analysis of the various reviewed articles, it is recorded that the various love types and styles have different effects on various levels of quality and duration of the relationship between two people. On the basis of the results observed, the authors suggest numerous research priorities in order to facilitate the implementation of knowledge through actions targeted towards relational health and well-being.
A Computational Bible Study of What to Love and What to Hate  [PDF]
Wei Hu
Advances in Literary Study (ALS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/als.2014.24019
Abstract: The Bible comprises the Old Testament of 39 books and the New Testament of 27 books. It can be viewed as the book of love, in which God revealed, out of His unconditional and unchanging love, His plan for the redemption of man in the Old Testament and fulfilled His promise made in the Old Testament by offering the one and only way of salvation through His son Jesus in the New Testament. In this study, we selected the Bible verses that contain the word love or its variation, which were then employed to cluster the books of the Bible with a computational approach. Of the 28 books containing the word love in the Old Testament, seven groups were identified: Genesis, Deuteronomy, Proverbs, Psalms, Song of Songs, First Samuel, and the rest of the other books. From the 26 books containing the word love in the New Testament, five groups were recognized: First Corinthians, John, First John, Luke and Mark and Matthew, and the rest of the other books. Furthermore, the major theme of love in each cluster was also elucidated. The opposite of love is hate. To gain the whole picture of love, we also selected Bible verses that contain the word hate or its variations. From clustering the books containing hate, different contexts of the word hate were recognized, teaching us to hate those that are contrary to love. Taken together, this computational study of the Bible demonstrated that God’s law is designed to love and to love fulfills the law completely and perfectly. Our findings provided a complete catalog of different contexts and themes in which the word love is being presented in the Bible, thereby enabling better understanding of the Bible in this regard.
The Plurality of the Sacred—Critical Remarks on Mircea Eliade’s Conception of the Sacred  [PDF]
Yaser Mirdamadi
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2015.57048
Abstract: Mircea Eliade’s conception of the sacred, confining it to religious sacred, is criticized. A more comprehensive model of the sacred, which includes non-religious sacred, is developed and human love is suggested as a good candidate for non-religious sacred.
Romantic Jealousy and Love Infidelity Correlations  [PDF]
Thiago de Almeida, Adriano Schl?sser
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2014.23021
Abstract: Many researchers have studied the factors that can contribute to a loving relationship remaining stable and having a good quality for both partners. Two of the most worrying concerns that people have in regard to love relationships are the jealousy and infidelity. The purpose of this study was to verify whether there is relationship between these two phenomena. In this study, 45 heterosexual couples with an average age of 24.6 years participated, who were recruited through an ad placed on the site of a public university located in the city of Sao Paulo. To assess the degrees of jealousy of the participants, “Escala de ciúme romantico—ECR” was used. To evaluate the infidelity of the participants, the “Inventário de comportamentos relacionados à infidelidade” created specifically for this work was used. The results indicated that: 1) though it was so low, the jealousy is an agent of self-fulfilling prophecy for infidelity (r = 0.25, 90 df, p < 0.05); and 2) there is an association for the infidelity of each partner related to the infidelity of the other partner (r = 0.36, df 45, p < 0.05). These results indicate, therefore, that there is a direct relationship between the jealousy and infidelity.
The Endurance of Love: Passionate and Companionate Love in Newlywed and Long-term Marriages
Elaine Hatfield,Jane Traupmann Pillemer,Mary Utne O’Brien,Yen-Chi L. Le
Interpersona : An International Journal on Personal Relationships , 2008,
Abstract: Most theorists assume that the passage of time will have a very different impact on passionate versus companionate love. Passionate love is said to decline fairly quickly, while companionate love is thought to remain fairly stable (or actually increase) over time.This hypothesis was tested in two studies. In Study 1, we interviewed 53 newlywed couples soon after their marriages and again one year later, when presumably (for some) the “honeymoon was over.” In Study 2, we interviewed a random sample of 240 older women, ranging in age from 50-82, who had been married varying lengths of time. (The median length of marriage was 33 years.) We asked about their passionate and companionate love for their partners and their partner’s love for them. In Study 1, it was found that although newlywed men and women loved with equal passion, women tended to love their partners more companionately than they were loved in return. (This is in accord with previous research with dating couples.) The results for people married many years were more complex.Finally, we turned to the question with which we are most concerned: What impact does time have on love? In both Study 1 and Study 2, time did have a corrosive effect on love—but to our surprise it appeared to have an equally detrimental effect on both passionate and companionate love.
Jorge Antunes
Revista Gest?o & Saúde , 2012,
Abstract: SONETO SOBRE O MISTéRIO DO AMOR Dedicado ao Prof. Dioney Moreira Gomes Jorge Antunes Um expert em linguística pariu dois meninos simpáticos, felizes. De um homem que era só ent o surgiu planta vi osa plena de raízes.
Plato: White and Non-white Love
Amo Sulaiman
Kritike : an Online Journal of Philosophy , 2009,
Abstract: Plato’s dialogues, the Symposium, and Phaedrus, provide a reasonableexplanation of love. G. Vlastos and M. Nussbaum do not share such anopinion. The former contends that Plato’s view of love is about lovingonly a person’s beauty, but not the entire person; thus, it falls short of anappropriate explanation of love. The latter holds that a theory of love should be complete, and that Plato’s one is incomplete on the grounds that it does not account for personal love. These criticisms will be re-evaluated in light of the duality of love (the white and non-white horses—in Phaedrus) as well as participants’ views in the Symposium; a re-assessment will weaken the mentioned objections. This paper contends that from the Symposium and Phaedrus, one can have a fruitful understanding of being in love, being out of love, falling inlove, loving for its own sake and being erotically in love. In order to account for these related issues of love it is important to consider Plato’s works in terms of his “official” and “unofficial” views. The former is construed as the doctrine of the lover or loving for its own sake: this is associates with Diotima’s views which are repeated by Socrates. With reference to the latter, it is possible to explain what personal love or being in love, being out of love, falling in love, and being erotically in love involve. Erotic love will be interpreted as an extension of our philosophical conception of love, related to views of love that are mentioned in the Symposium other than Socrates’ report of Diotima’s conceptions. This paper is divided into two parts: the first one will show views of love in the Symposium. That is, being in love, being out of love, falling in love and loving for its own sake will be discussed. In addition, the forementioned criticisms will be re-evaluated. In the second section, we will show that Aristophanes’ speech expresses erotic love, and then Kant’s objections will be explained and discussed.
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