Abstract:
From a seemingly impartial, unprejudiced point of view, Carnap claims to be able to eliminate, once and for all, all of metaphysics by “logical analysis”. We argue, on the one hand, that as far as Carnap’s analysis is strictly logical it leaves metaphysics untouched. On the other hand, we argue that as far as his analysis is epistemological it directly hits metaphysics, but lacks the prerogatives of formal logic, especially formal logic’s impartiality.

Abstract:
The metaphysical features of the mechanism for the integration of the information underlying protein folding were studied by applying principles of system logic theory. We conclude that it is not possible to predict all protein three-dimensional structures from protein sequences by one program only. This conclusion is validated in structural genomics in that we also cannot predict protein function from three-dimensional structure by one program only. Our theory also demonstrates that bioinformation flow from gene to biological function is an integration process, rather than an expression (translation) process. A system relationship between a gene and its biological function is also proposed. This electronic document is a “live” template.

Theuncertainty relation, which displays an elementary property of quantum theory, was originally described by Heisenberg as the relation between error and disturbance. Ozawa presented a more rigorous expression of the uncertainty relation, which was later verified experimentally. Nevertheless, the operators corresponding to error and disturbance should be measurable in the identical state if we follow the presupposition of Heisenberg’s thought experiment. In this letter, we discuss simultaneous measurability of error and disturbance and present a new inequality using error and disturbance in the identical state. A testable example of this inequality is also suggested.

Abstract:
Things exist logically as understandable through time; such logic is called “time logic” that includes both logically dead and alive. This essay features time logic on the move, personal concrete, coherent open, and inter-changing into music.

Abstract:
In view of the present state of development of non classical logic, especially of paraconsistent logic, a new stand regarding the relations between logic and ontology is defended In a parody of a dictum of Quine, my stand May be summarized as follows. To be is to be the value of a variable a specific language with a given underlying logic Yet my stand differs from Quine’s, because, among other reasons, I accept some first order heterodox logics as genuine alternatives to classical logic I also discuss some questions of non classical logic to substantiate my argument, and suggest that may position complements and extends some ideas advanced by L Apostel.

Abstract:
Randomness number generation plays a key role in network, information security and IT applications. In this paper, a permutation and complementary algorithm is proposed to use vector complementary and permuta-tion operations to extend n-variable Logic function space from 2^{2n} functions to 2^{2n} * 2^{n}! configurations for variant logic framework. Each configuration contains ^{2n} functions can be shown in a 2^{2n-1}*2^{2n-1}
matrix. A set of visual results can be represented by their symmetric properties in W, F and C codes respec-tively to provide the essential support on the variant logic framework.

Abstract:
Fuzzy logic is a logical calculus which operates with many truth values (while classical logic works with the two values of true and false). Since fuzzy logic considers the truth of scientific statements like something softened, it is fruitfully applied to the study of biological phenomena, biology is indeed considered the field of complexity, uncertainty and vagueness. In this paper fuzzy logic is successfully applied to the clinical diagnosis of a patient who suffers from different diseases bound by a complex causal chain. In this work it is presented a mathematical foundation of fuzzy logic (with connectives and inference rules) and then the application of fuzzy reasoning to the study of a clinical case. Probabilistic logic is widely considered the unique logical calculus useful in clinical diagnosis, thus the usefulness of fuzzy logic and its relation with probabilistic logic is here explored. The presentation of the case is supplied with all the features necessary to affect a clinical diagnosis: physical exam, anamnesis and tests.

Abstract:
Nowadays networks of analyses based in non-classic logics are used with success in the treatment of uncertainties. The characteristic of accepting the contradiction in his structure is the main cause of the methodologies based in Paraconsistent Logic is ideals for applications in systems of analyses and decision making. In this work we presented an algorithm based in Paraconsistent logic capable to extract in a gradual way the effects of the contradiction in originated signals of information of uncertain knowledge database. The Algorithm Paraconsistent Extractor of Contradiction effects - Paraextrctr_{ctr} is formed with base in fundamental concepts of the Paraconsistent Annotated Logic with annotation of two values (PAL2v) it can be applied in filters of networks of analyses of signal information where uncertain and contradictory signals can be present. The process of extraction of the effect of the contradiction is always begun by the largest inconsistency degree among two signals that belong to the group that is in analysis. In the end of the analysis it is found a consensus value. In this work we presented numeric example and one example of application of the Paraextrctr_{ctr} in Load Profile Forecast used in support to decision of the operation in an Electric Power System, but his application potentiality is demonstrated in several fields of the Artificial Intelligence.

Abstract:
We present in this paper an alternative of modeling physical systems through a non-Classical logic namely the Paraconsistent Logic (PL) whose main feature is the revocation of the principle of non-contradiction. The Paraconsistent Annotated Logic with annotation of two values (PAL2v) is a type of PL and has in its theoretical structure the main feature of dealing with contradictions offering flexibility in drawing conclusions. Several works about applications of PAL2v have shown that such logic is able to provide us with an adequate treatment to uncertainties. Based on the foundations of the PAL2v we presented the ParaQuantum logic (PQL) with the goal of performing analysis of signals from information sources which model physical systems. The formalization of the concepts of the logics PQL, that it is represented in a Lattice, requires the considering of Paraquantum logical states ψ which are propagated through variations of the evidence Degrees µ and λ which come out from measurements performed in Observable Variables in the physical world. When we analyze the lattice of the PQL, we obtain equations which quantify values of physical quantities from where we obtain the effects of propagation of the Paraquantum logical states ψ. In this paper, we introduce the Paraquantum Factor of quantization hψ whose value is associated with a special logical state on the lattice which is identified with the Planck constant h. We conclude through these studies that the Paraquantum Logical Model based on the ParaQuantum logics PQL can link the several fields of the physical sciences by means of quantization of values. It is an innovative approach of formulating natural phenomena.

Abstract:
In this work we presented a study of the obtaining of the spectral line emissions of the hydrogen atom using equations that are originated from the foundations of the Paraquantum Logic (PQL). Based on a class of logics called Paraconsistent Logics with annotation of two values (PAL2v), PQL performs a logical treatment on signals obtained by measurements on physical quantities which are considered Observable Variables in the physical world. In the process of application of the PQL the obtained values are transformed in Evidence Degrees and represented on a Lattice of four Vertices where special equations transform these degrees into Paraquantum logical states ψ which propagate. This allows creating Paraquantum logical models of physical systems of the real world. Using the paraquantum equations, we investigated the hydrogen atom spectrum and his main series known. We performed a numerical comparative study that applies the Paraquantum Logical Model to calculate the wavelengths values. The values of wavelengths obtained by the Paraquantum Equations are compared by the results found by the Rydberg formula and are verified that the series of the spectral line emissions of the hydrogen atom can be identified with the representative Lattices of the Paraquantum Logic. Through the application of the Paraquantum equations it was found a numeric value relates the layers of Paraquantum model of the Hydrogen atom. This value represents a constant that relates the Lattices that compose the Paraquantum universe, and it was denominated Paraquantum Structure Constant, whose symbol is αψ. The obtained results of the comparison demonstrate that the Paraquantum Logic comes with good possibilities of being the ideal logic to model our physical reality.