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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11277 matches for " life expectancy "
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New Characteristics of Active Life Expectancy of the Elderly in China  [PDF]
Ping Gao, Han-Dong Li
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2016.51003
Abstract: Life expectancy of the elderly is a significant problem in China, and it changes not only the health care, but also the pension. This study used tracking data from the Chinese Urban and Rural Elderly Population Survey to calculate the age-specific Active Life Expectancy (ALE) of the Chinese elderly population aged 60 years and over. For analysis, this population was divided into different sub-populations according to gender, census register and region. The main conclusions of our study are as follows: 1) The quality of life for elderly males may be greater than that for elderly females; 2) There were significant differences in Active Life Expectancy (ALE) and Inactive Life Expectancy (ILE) between urban and rural elderly; 3) The differences in ALE between the eastern, central and western regions of China were not significant; and 4) The increased remaining life expectancy of the elderly was mainly attributed to the extended ALE in the lower age group and the expanded ILE in the higher age group. This study expands the knowledge of Chinese elderly’s life expectancy in different health status.
Life Expectancy at Current Rates vs. Current Conditions
Vaupel James W.
Demographic Research , 2002,
Abstract: Life expectancy is overestimated if mortality is declining and underestimated if mortality is increasing. This is the fundamental claim made by Bongaarts and Feeney (2002) in their article "How Long Do We Live?", where they base their claim on arguments about "tempo effects on mortality". This Reflexion explains why this claim is true in most heterogeneous populations. It suggests that demographers should be careful about distinguishing between life expectancy under current conditions, which is difficult and problematic to assess, and life expectancy at current rates, which can be estimated using standard methods. Finally, it speculates that there may be a deep connection between tempo and heterogeneity.
Lifesaving, lifetimes and lifetables
James W. Vaupel
Demographic Research , 2005,
Abstract: Mortality change roils period rates. In the short term, conventional calculations of age-specific probabilities of death and life expectancy in the period immediately after the change depend on how many lives have been saved. In the long term, the probabilities and period life expectancy also depend on how long these lives have been saved. When mortality is changing, calculations of period life expectancy do not, except in special circumstances, measure the life expectancy of a cohort of newborns that hypothetically live all their lives under the new mortality regime.
Breast Cancer in Inner Mongolia 2009-2011  [PDF]
Qin Li, Maolin Du, Kepeng Xin, Rong Liu, Yun Li, Wuyuntana Li, Xiong Su, Juan Sun
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2014.42011
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the mortality rate and the burden of breast cancers among residents of Inner Mongolia. We analyzed mortality data reported by the Death Registry System from 2009 to 2011. The age-specific mortality of breast cancer was close to female cancer in 25 to 35 years group. Regional distribution of breast cancer was not significant difference (p = 0.36). The women who were employed, married and living in rural areas were more likely to die of breast cancer. Over the period 2009 through 2011, the elimination of deaths from breast cancer resulted in increased life expectancy of 0.15 years. Mortality due to breast cancers is substantially greater among the younger women. Further, the mortality rate associated with breast cancers is greater for employed and married women than those unemployed and single women. Therefore, in Inner Mongolia, breast cancers appear to pose a greater mortality risk for young, employed and married women.
The Direction of Research on Active Aging and Healthy Life Expectancy in Japan  [PDF]
Atsuko Tokushige, Daiji Araki, Miyuki Suzuki, Yukie Iwasaki, Mizuho Ozawa
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.47050
Abstract:

In Japan, 18.1% of the population known as baby-boomers will become the late-stage elderly in 2025, thereby needing a foundation to support this change. The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare is promoting the development of a regional comprehensive system allowing the elderly to continue living in their familiar surroundings. However, a care shortage is inevitable unless elders are able to age in good health, regardless of the system’s level of enhancement. This study aims to review the literature on active aging, clarify trends in clinical operations undertakings and research in Japan, and consider relevant research issues. After combining the search results of “active aging” and “healthy life expectancy,” we used a text mining technique to analyze the abstracts of 120 original articles and 213 reviews, commentaries, and features. Eight categories were extracted from the original articles: health statistics, gender, age, etc. From the reviews, commentaries, and features, 16 categories were extracted: orientation, disease, and living, etc. Cerebrovascular disease and osteoporosis were the most common diseases covered in the original articles; there has been a substantial amount of research on “active aging” and “healthy life expectancy” because they can easily lead to being bedridden and to a decrease in QOL. In the reviews, commentaries, and features, lifestyle-related diseases and menopause rather than cerebrovascular disease and osteoporosis, were extracted. The categorical differences found in the original articles may be due to the possibility that Japanese researchers are publishing their research abroad rather than in Japan or they submit research on topics that are guaranteed to be published at home or abroad. Little research has been conducted using the terms, “active aging” and “healthy life expectancy,” evidenced by the small number of studies generated. Preparations for 2025 will require an increase in the number of studies from the perspective of “active aging” and “healthy life expectancy.”

Algorithm for decomposition of differences between aggregate demographic measures and its application to life expectancies, healthy life expectancies, parity-progression ratios and total fertility rates
Andreev Evgueni,Begun Alexander Z.,Shkolnikov Vladimir
Demographic Research , 2002,
Abstract: A general algorithm for the decomposition of differences between two values of an aggregate demographic measure in respect to age and other dimensions is proposed. It assumes that the aggregate measure is computed from similar matrices of discrete demographic data for two populations under comparison. The algorithm estimates the effects of replacement for each elementary cell of one matrix by respective cell of another matrix. Application of the algorithm easily leads to the known formula for the age-decomposition of differences between two life expectancies. It also allows to develop new formulae for differences between healthy life expectancies. In the latter case, each age-component is split further into effects of mortality and effects of health. The application of the algorithm enables a numerical decomposition of the differences between total fertility rates and between parity progression ratios by age of the mother and parity. Empirical examples are based on mortality data from the USA, the UK, West Germany, and Poland and on fertility data from Russia.
Efecto sobre la salud de las desigualdades socioeconómicas en el adulto mayor: Resultados basales del estudio expectativa de vida saludable y discapacidad relacionada con la obesidad (Alexandros)
Albala,Cecilia; Sánchez,Hugo; Lera,Lydia; Angel,Bárbara; Cea,Ximena;
Revista médica de Chile , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872011001000005
Abstract: background: the rapid increase in life expectancy in chile, with obesity as the main nutritional problem in all age groups, makes it necessary to ask whether the years gained are healthy. aim: to study the trajectories of disability associated with obesity in chilean elderly groups from different socio-economic and demographic backgrounds. material and methods: longitudinal study of 3 cohorts of older adults from santiago: the sabe cohort including 1235 people born before 1940; the alexandros cohort including 950 people born between 1940 and 1948 from primary health care centers and the isapres cohort of 266 people from private health insurance registries (isapres) born before 1947. an interview yielded socio demographic data and history of diseases. anthropometric measurements and hand dynamometry were performed. cognitive status was assessed by the mini mental state examination, depressive symptoms through the geriatric depression socore-5 and functional limitations through self-reporting of basic (adl), instrumental (iadl) and advanced daily living (aadl) activities. results: we report here baseline results from isapres and sabe cohorts. important social and gender differentials were observed. after adjustment by age and gender, a significant lower frequency of limitations in adl (odds ratio (or) = 0.17; 95% confidence intervals (ci): 0.079-0.343), iadl (or = 0.27; 95%ci: 0.159-0.452), and aadl (or = 0.42; 95%ci: 0.298-0.599) persisted in the isapre cohort, compared to the sabe cohort. obesity was associated with functional limitations only in aadl (or = 1.65; 95%ci: 1.18-2.31) and hand dynamometry was associated with lower functional limitation in adl, iadl and aadl. conclusions: this study demonstrates profound socio-economic and gender inequalities in older people, thus showing that the years of healthy life gained are not the same for the whole society.
Efecto sobre la salud de las desigualdades socioeconómicas en el adulto mayor: Resultados basales del estudio expectativa de vida saludable y discapacidad relacionada con la obesidad (Alexandros) Socioeconomic inequalities in active life expectancy and disability related to obesity among older people
Cecilia Albala,Hugo Sánchez,Lydia Lera,Bárbara Angel
Revista médica de Chile , 2011,
Abstract: Background: The rapid increase in life expectancy in Chile, with obesity as the main nutritional problem in all age groups, makes it necessary to ask whether the years gained are healthy. Aim: To study the trajectories of disability associated with obesity in Chilean elderly groups from different socio-economic and demographic backgrounds. Material and Methods: Longitudinal study of 3 cohorts of older adults from Santiago: the SABE cohort including 1235 people born before 1940; the Alexandros cohort including 950 people born between 1940 and 1948 from Primary Health Care centers and the ISAPRES cohort of 266 people from private health insurance registries (ISAPRES) born before 1947. An interview yielded socio demographic data and history of diseases. Anthropometric measurements and hand dynamometry were performed. Cognitive status was assessed by the mini mental state examination, depressive symptoms through the geriatric depression socore-5 and functional limitations through self-reporting of basic (ADL), instrumental (IADL) and advanced daily living (AADL) activities. Results: We report here baseline results from ISAPRES and SABE cohorts. Important social and gender differentials were observed. After adjustment by age and gender, a significant lower frequency of limitations in ADL (odds ratio (OR) = 0.17; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.079-0.343), IADL (OR = 0.27; 95%CI: 0.159-0.452), and AADL (OR = 0.42; 95%CI: 0.298-0.599) persisted in the ISAPRE cohort, compared to the SABE cohort. Obesity was associated with functional limitations only in AADL (OR = 1.65; 95%CI: 1.18-2.31) and hand dynamometry was associated with lower functional limitation in ADL, IADL and AADL. Conclusions: This study demonstrates profound socio-economic and gender inequalities in older people, thus showing that the years of healthy life gained are not the same for the whole society.
Old-Age Mortality in Germany prior to and after Reunification
Gjonca Arjan,Brockmann Hilke,Maier Heiner
Demographic Research , 2000,
Abstract: Recent trends in German life expectancy show a considerable increase. Most of this increase has resulted from decreasing mortality at older ages. Patterns of oldest old mortality (ages 80+) differed significantly between men and women as well as between East and West Germany. While West German oldest old mortality decreased since the mid 1970s, comparable decreases in East Germany did not become evident until the late 1980s. Yet, the East German mortality decline accelerated after German reunification in 1990, particularly among East German females, attesting to the plasticity of human life expectancy and the importance of late life events. Medical care, individual economic resources and life-style factors are discussed as potential determinants of the decline in old age mortality in Germany.
Gini coefficient as a life table function
Shkolnikov Vladimir,Andreev Evgueni,Begun Alexander Z.
Demographic Research , 2003,
Abstract: This paper presents a toolkit for measuring and analyzing inter-individual inequality in length of life by Gini coefficient. Gini coefficient and four other inequality measures are defined on the length-of-life distribution. Properties of these measures and their empirical testing on mortality data suggest a possibility for different judgements about the direction of changes in the degree of inequality by using different measures. A new computational procedure for the estimation of Gini coefficient from life tables is developed and tested on about four hundred real life tables. The estimates of Gini coefficient are precise enough even for abridged life tables with the final age group of 85+. New formulae have been developed for the decomposition of differences between Gini coefficients by age and cause of death. A new method for decomposition of age-components into effects of mortality and composition of population by group is developed. Temporal changes in the effects of elimination of causes of death on Gini coefficient are analyzed. Numerous empirical examples show: Lorenz curves for Sweden, Russia and Bangladesh in 1995, proportional changes in Gini coefficient and four other measures of inequality for the USA in 1950-1995 and for Russia in 1959-2000. Further shown are errors of estimates of Gini coefficient when computed from various types of mortality data of France, Japan, Sweden and the USA in 1900-95, decompositions of the USA-UK difference in life expectancies and Gini coefficients by age and cause of death in 1997. As well, effects of elimination of major causes of death in the UK in 1951-96 on Gini coefficient, age-specific effects of mortality and educational composition of the Russian population on changes in life expectancy and Gini coefficient between 1979 and 1989. Illustrated as well are variations in life expectancy and Gini coefficient across 32 countries in 1996-1999 and associated changes in life expectancy and Gini coefficient in Japan, Russia, Spain, the USA, and the UK in 1950-1999. Variations in Gini coefficient, with time and across countries, are driven by historical compression of mortality, but also by varying health and social patterns.
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