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Balan?o de nitrogênio, degradabilidade de aminoácidos e concentra??o de ácidos graxos voláteis no rúmen de ovinos alimentados com feno de Stylosanthes guianensis
Ladeira, Márcio Machado;Rodriguez, Norberto Mario;Borges, Iran;Gon?alves, Lúcio Carlos;Saliba, Eloísa de Oliveira Sim?es;Miranda, Lídia Ferreira;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982002000900026
Abstract: seven sheep fed s. guianensis hay were used to evaluate ruminal amino acid degradability, nitrogen balance and rumen volatile fatty acid (vfa) concentrations. nylon bags technique was used for determination of the in situ degradabilities of amino acids. bags were collected at 6, 24 and 48 hours after insertion. duodenum and feces samples were used to determine amoniacal-n and non-amoniacal-n. to determine ruminal vfa concentrations, samples of 80 ml were collected immediately before feeding and 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours after. nitrogen balance was 6.0 g/day. s. guianensis had 10.4 and 6.3 g of methionine and lysine, respectively, per 100 g of total amino acids. non essential amino acids had degradation rates twice than essentials. aminoacitic profile of undegradable protein was different than the original feed protein. the acetate:propionate ratio was 4.31. high concentrations of methionine and its low degradability make the s. guianensis an important feed when this amino acid is limiting.
Effect of feeding maize silage supplemented with concentrate and legume hay on growth in Nellore ram lambs
Venkateswarlu Malisetty,Ramana Reddy Yerradoddi,Nagalakshmi Devanaboina Mahender Mallam,Hari Krishna Cherala
Veterinary World , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/vetworld.2013.209-213
Abstract: Aim: The main intension of this research work is to develop a feeding system for growing Nellore ram lambs by feeding maize silage based rations supplemented with concentrate and or legume hay at certain levels to investigate the growth rate. Materials and Methods: Experimental animals (Nellore ram lambs) were purchased from local sandy and maize silage was prepared at village by using silos (9''L X 9''W X 8''D) and concentrate mixture was prepared at feed mill located at department by using locally available ingredients. Animals were housed in well ventilated sheds and were dewormed and vaccinated against diseases. Fortnightly body weights were taken by using spring balance and calculated the total weight gain and ADG. The experimental animals were divided into seven groups based on their body weight to contain six in each and were fed intensively for five months with sole maize silage (R-I), silage + concentrate at 0.5 per cent body weight (R-II), silage + concentrate at 1.0 per cent body weight (R-III), silage + concentrate at 1.5 per cent body weight (R-IV), silage + lucerne hay (R-V) and silage + GN haulms (R-VI) and sweet sorghum bagasse based complete diet (R-VII) to study the growth rate. Results: Significantly (P<0.01) increase in ADG was observed in ram lambs fed R-IV ration was 16.58, 20.49, 24.10, 29.74, 38.28 and 62.01 per cent, respectively in comparison to those fed R-VII, R-V, R-III, R-VI, R-II and R-I rations. Almost similar ADG was noticed in lambs fed R-III, R-V and R-VII rations and the supplementation of concentrate at 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% of body weight plus maize silage ad lib has increased the growth/gain in ram lambs by 62.48, 99.81 and 163.25 per cent, respectively in comparison to sole silage feeding. Similarly, supplementation of lucerne hay and groundnut haulms with maize silage has increased the weight gain by 109.31 and 84.97 per cent, respectively in comparison to sole maize silage fed animals. Sole sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) based complete ration (50:50) fed lambs (R-VII ration) showed the ADG almost similar to those animals fed lucerne hay plus maize silage ad lib. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, it is concluded that, maize silage can be supplemented either with lucerne hay, groundnut haulms (to meet 25% of DM requirement) or concentrate mixture at 1.5% of body weight for obtaining optimum growth rate in Nellore ram lambs. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000): 209-213]
Evaluating the use of Atriplex nummularia Hay on Feed Intake, Growth, and Carcass Characteristics of Creole Kids
Meneses,Raúl; Varela,Gabriel; Flores,Hugo;
Chilean journal of agricultural research , 2012, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-58392012000100012
Abstract: there is a surplus of atriplex nummularia lindl. grazing that can be used as animal feed. this material was harvested to assess the effects on intake, growth, and carcass characteristics of kids. atriplex replaced alfalfa hay (medicago sativa l.) in a proportion of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% for 60 creole kids weighing 13 kg and was assigned to the diets in a completely randomized design. the process was conducted from march to may. two males and two females were used from each group to evaluate individual nutrient intake. height at withers, thoracic diameter, and weight change were evaluated in all the animals. the carcasses of four females per group were evaluated. offered and rejected hay diet samples were chemically analyzed. atriplex hay crude protein (cp), metabolizable energy (me), chlorine (cl), and sodium (na) contents were 20.20%, 1.99 mcal kg-1, 4.78%, and 6.47% respectively. hemicellulose (hc), ash intake, height at withers, thoracic diameter, and carcass component, except for the kidney, were not different (p > 0.05) among treatments. over 20% of a. nummularia hay content in the diet caused an increase in mineral consumption (p < 0.05). total body weight gain decreased (p < 0.05) by adding 20% or more a. nummularia hay content in the diet. however, adding up to 20% of a. nummularia hay in the diet did not produce a negative effect and higher percentages decreased weight gains attributable to the high na and cl content.
Nitrogen Fertilization and Inoculation Effects on Dry Bean  [PDF]
Ryan Buetow, Grant H. Mehring, Hans Kandel, Burton Johnson, Juan M. Osorno
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/as.2017.810077
Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has the ability to form symbiotic relationships with N2-fixing bacteria. The research objectives were to evaluate yield and growth differences between dry bean cultivars from black, navy, and pinto market classes, with different N management combinations utilizing urea fertilizer, and two rhizobacteria inoculants. Research was conducted near Park River and Prosper, ND, during 2010, 2012, 2013. The experiment was a RCBD 3 × 2 × 3 factorial with four replicates with three dry bean cultivars, two N fertility levels, and two rhizobacteria inoculum sources plus a non-inoculated treatment. The pinto cultivar was also evaluated in 2014. Results showed significant cultivar main effect differences for nodules per plant, vigor, height, and 1000 seed weight. The pinto cultivar had significantly more nodules per root (19) compared with the black (13) and navy cultivars (9). There were not significant differences between inoculant treatments. The fertilizer main effect indicated significant differences for vigor and 1000 seed weight. No significant interactions were detected among factors. Addition of 56 kg N ha-1 resulted in more vigorous plants, but had no effect on seed yield, and reduced 1000 seed weight at harvest at Park River in 2013. Root nodule number was higher with the inoculant treatments with 16.2 and 15.8 nodules per plant compared to the non-inoculated treatment with 10.7 nodules per plant at Park River in 2013. The pinto variety Lariat with an application of 56 kg ha-1 had visually greener plants in 2013 and 2014, except Park River in 2013, but SPAD readings were not following the same trend. Inoculation and application of N fertilizer on dry bean may not be necessary if rhizobacteria are present and soil N levels are sufficiently high but future research on rates, timing, and N source and appropriate strains of Rhizobia inoculant on other pinto varieties is suggested.
Potential legacy effects of biofuel cropping systems on soil microbial communities in southern Wisconsin, USA  [PDF]
Chao Liang, Gregg R. Sanford, Randall D. Jackson, Teri C. Balser
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/as.2011.22019
Abstract: Soil microbial community structure is clearly linked to current plant species composition, but less is known about the legacy effects of plant species and agricultural management practices on soil microbial communities. Using microbial lipid biomarkers, we assessed patterns of com-munity-level diversity and abundance at depths of 0-10 and 10-25 cm from three hay (al-falfa/orchardgrass) and two corn plots in south ern Wisconsin. Principal components analysis of the lipid biomarkers revealed differential composition of the soil microbial communities at the two depths. Despite similar abundance of fungi, bacteria, actinomycete, protozoa, and total microbial lipids in the hay and corn at 0-10 cm, community structure differed with a sig-nificantly higher absolute abundance of arbus-cular mycorrhizal fungi and gram-negative bacteria in the hay plots. No significant micro-bial lipid mass differences were detected be-tween the two management regimes at 10-25 cm, but the proportional dominance of bacterial gram type differed with depth. These results indicate the potential for legacy effects of an-nual and perennial cropping systems manage-ment on microbial community composition and suggests the importance of considering past land-use when initiating long-term agroecolo- gical trials.
Timothy Hay Business in Alberta: Business Models and Supply Chain Issues  [PDF]
Sajjad Zahir
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2013.32021

This paper presents the business model and supply chain issues of Timothy hay business in Southern Alberta. Production, processing, marketing and distribution aspects of the business are described. Research was conducted using case-based field studies involving Timothy farmers, hay plant operators and forage research scientists. It is recommended that further research in raising yield of hay production and a better management of freight and exchange rate fluctuations will be greatly beneficial to this sector of business.

Efeito da utiliza??o de dietas simplificadas, à base de forragem, sobre a digestibilidade e o desempenho de coelhos Nova Zelandia
Faria, Haroldo Garcia de;Ferreira, Walter Motta;Scapinello, Cláudio;Oliveira, Carlos Eugênio ávila de;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982008001000012
Abstract: two experiments were carried out to evaluate the dry matter, crude protein and gross energy digestibilities and the performance of rabbits fed simplified diets based on forages. in digestibility assay, 45 new zealand white rabbits with 1,550 kg of initial weight and 50 days old were distributed to a completely randomized design with 3 diets and 15 replications. three diets were used: a reference-diet and two simplified diets (one with alfalfa hay and other with upper third part of foliage cassava hay). coefficients of digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and gross energy were 50.06, 73.29 and 50.59% for the diet with alfalfa hay and 29.64, 46.96 and 24.52% for simplified diet with upper third part of foliage cassava hay. in performance experiment, 90 new zealand white rabbits from 35 to 70 days old were distributed to a completely randomized design with three diets, above specified, and 30 replications. the results obtained with simplified diets in the total experimental period of (35 to 70 days) were lower than those obtained with the reference-diet; however, more studies should be conducted with simplified diets to obtain maximum incorporation use of forages for the animal.
Nematode infestation and N-effect of legumes on soil and crop yelds in legume-sorghum rotations  [PDF]
Vincent Bado, Abdoulsalam Sawadogo, Bouma Thio, André Bationo, Karim Traoré, Michel Cescas
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/as.2011.22008
Abstract: The effects of cowpea (Vignaunguiculata) and-groundnut (Arachis hypogea) on succeeding sorghum yields, soil mineral N and nematode infestationwere studied during five cropping seasons (2000 to 2004) in a weakly acid Ultisol of the agronomy research station of Farakô-Ba lo-cated in the Guinean zone of Burkina Faso, West Africa. A factorial 5x5 design of five crop rotations with five fertilizer treatments in a split-plot arrangement with four replications was used.Sorghum yields were affected by the two factors (rotation with legumes and fertilizer ap-plications) during the four years. But interactions were not observed between the two factors. Monocropping of sorghum produced the lowest yields and legume–sorghum rotations increased sorghum yields by50% to 300%. Ground-nut–sorghum and cowpea–sorghum rotations increased soil mineral N by36% and 52%, re-spectively. Crop rotation influenced nematode infestation but the effects on soil and sorghum root infestation differed according to the rotation. The cowpea–sorghum rotation increased soil and sorghum root infestationby nematodes while groundnut–sorghum decree-sed the nematode population. The soil of the cowpea-sorghum rotation contained 1.5 to 2 times more nematodes than the soil of the monocropping of sorghum. In contrast, the soil ofthe groundnut–sorghum rotation contained from 17 to 19 times fewernematodes than that of themonocropping of sorghum. However, nematode infestation did not affect any of the succeeding sorghum yields. It was concluded that the parasitic effect of nematodes was limited by the predominance of positive N-effects on the development of succeeding sorghum.
Field Efficacy of Chemical Pesticides against Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Infesting Soybean in Brazil  [PDF]
José Fernando Jurca Grigolli, André Luis Faleiros Louren??o, Crébio José ávila
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.64058
Abstract: The soybean pod borer, Maruca vitrata, can cause great damage by attacking pods from soybean plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the field efficacy of chemical pesticides, when applied in spray, against soybean pod borer. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of Fundação, MS, in Maracaju, MS, Brazil, in the growing season 2012/2013. The randomized block design was used with six treatments (teflubenzuron, flubendiamide, methomyl, chlorantraniliprole + lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos, and a control treatment without insecticide) and five replications, on cultivar BMX Turbo RR. Evaluations were performed at one, four, seven, 10, and 14 days after pesticides application (DAA), and were based on the percentage of attacked plants with M. vitrata presence, and the number of alive larvae per plant. On each evaluation, 10 plants per plot were analyzed. The data were subjected to ANOVA and the treatment means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. Pesticides teflubenzuron, flubendiamide, chlorantraniliprole + lambda-cyhalothrin, and chlorpyrifos significantly reduced the percentage of attacked plants by M. vitrata. Chlorpyrifos, teflubenzuron, and chlorantraniliprole + lambda-cyhalothrin showed higher field efficacy to control M. vitrata from the first day after application. However, flubendiamide showed good efficacy from 10 days after application, and joined the group with higher efficacy (chlorpyrifos, teflubenzuron, and chlorantraniliprole + lambda-cyhalothrin). Methomyl showed no field efficacy against legume pod borer.
Desempenho de coelhos em crescimento alimentados com diferentes níveis de feno da rama da mandioca (Manihot esculenta, crantz)
Scapinello, Claudio;Falco, José Egmar;Furlan, Antonio Claudio;Faria, Haroldo Garcia de;
Ciência Rural , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782000000300021
Abstract: with the aim of studyng the hay made from the upper third of cassava foliage in development of growing rabbits, 32 rabbits, 16 males and 16 females, breed white new zealand from 50 to 70 days of age were used. the rabbits were distributed in block randomized design within sex, with 4 treatments (4 levels of inclusion the cassava foliage hay 0, 10, 20 and 30%) with eight animals in each block and 2 replicates in each block, being each replicate constituted of one animal per experimental unit. the weight at 70 days of age decresead linearly (p<0.05) when the level of cassava foliage hay was increasead in diets. the other characteristics of performance and carcass were not affected with the cassava foliage hay inclusion levels. the results have showed that the levels of cassava foliage hay is viable not more than 20% of inclusion in diet.
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