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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 736 matches for " leaves "
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Cadmium Distribution in Tobacco Growing Soil Fractions: Its Influence on Dried Leaf Contents  [PDF]
Eduardo Ortega, Francisco Javier Lozano, Carlos Manuel Asensio, Sara Montoya, Maria Luisa Lorenzo
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.411B001
Abstract:

Many authors have studied cadmium concentrations in tobacco leaves. However, crops such as tobacco store Cd mainly in their leaves and these are for human consumption. The objective of this study is to establish the cadmium levels present in each of the soils fractions throughout the growing period of tobacco plants, and to examine the influence of these fractions on the total content cadmium in dried leaves. The field select is situated near ofGranadacity (soils from Vega de Granada) loamy calcareous thermic typic Xerorthent. The plant (Nicotiana tabacum, cvs. RJ36 variety), and the soil dedicated to the tobacco crop were contaminated with a fixed amount of Cd (100 mg/kg of CdCl2) in the proximity of the root influence area. The contents of Cd are analysed in channel waters, in different soil fractions and dried tobacco leaves (mg/kg) with the different treatments. In conclusion, the water for irrigation is not a contamination risk for the soil even when user over lengthy periods of time. The fraction presenting higher average values is the one of Cd bound to CaCO3 with 0.161 ppm, and the Cd bioavailable fractions is second in importance, and propose a Cd

Taxonomic Significance of Anatomical Characters in Some Species of the Family Myrtaceae  [PDF]
Taha Y. Al-Edany, Sahar A. A. Malik Al-Saadi
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.35069
Abstract: This paper elaborated the epidermis properties, transverse sections of leaves, petioles and stems of five cultivated spe-cies belong to five genera of Myrtaceae. They are Callistemon viminalis (Sol. ex Gaertn.) G. Don, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., Myrtus communis L., Psidium guajava L. and Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. It was clear that certain structural characteristics were of significant impor-tance in separation of these taxa, such as the presence of hypodermis in the leaves of P. guajava, the absence of stomata from the abaxial surface of leaves of C. viminalis and P. guajava, the isobilateral mesophyll in C. viminalis and E. camaldulensis leaves, the wavy transverse section of stem in C. viminalis, the presence of more than one vascular strand in S. aromaticum petioles as well as the presence of prismatic crystals in addition to the druses in the petioles of P. guajava.
Effect of Olive Leaves Drying on the Content of Oleuropein  [PDF]
Ibraheem Afaneh, Hiba Yateem, Fuad Al-Rimawi
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2015.63023
Abstract: Oleuropein content in olive leaves dried at ambient temperature, and at elevated temperature (50°C) from Palestinian olive trees collected from West Bank in the middle of November was determined by HPLC and compared to naturally dry olive leaves (collected dry from the tree). Results showed that higher concentration was obtained from olive leaves dried at room temperature (10.0 mg per gram of dry olive leaves), compared to those dried at 50°C (1.7 mg/g), and those that collected dry from the tree (2.5 mg/g). Oleuropein content of dried olive leaves was compared with leaves that chopped and extracted fresh, and results show that fresh leaves showed the lowest oleuropein content (<0.1 mg/g) denoting that drying of leaves is required for high oleuropein recovery.
An Analysis of a New Foliar Architecture of the Permian Period in Mexico and Its Ecological Interactions  [PDF]
Maria P. Velasco-de León, Miguel A. Flores-Barragan, Diego E. Lozano-Carmona
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.65066
Abstract: The Paleozoic flora of the state of Puebla is characterized by the presence of ancient and conservative lineages; we focus this study on the taxonomical Annularia, Bjuvia and the new morphotype. These groups are found in carbonaceous lutite, where paleosoils, small roots and trunks in situ are abundant, and have been associated with swampy environments. In this paper, we discuss the presence of a new architectural form of megaphyll size that has not been registered in other Permian locations. These lutite imprints are the second most abundant in this location and their degree of preservation supports their autochthonous nature. The large size of its funnel-shaped blade and its extremely long petiole support the idea that its size was a response to a competition for biotic resources and to the hydric stress to which communities of this region were exposed, as consequence of the environmental conditions prevailing at the end of the Paleozoic era. It is proposed that they lived in environments with seasonal humidity and this hypothesis is supported by both the abundance of fossil groups and lithology.
Applying Conventional Combustion Science and Technology to Alternative Energy Resources in Industrial Systems  [PDF]
Osadolor O. Odia, James O. Asalor
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.59062
Abstract:

Life is hinged on energy and a good and sustainable source is the penultimate desire of all nations. Now faced with the impending decline in the oil reserves, attempts have been and are being made to control the use. Yet beyond all the control strategies, the time approaches when the world supply will become inadequate. The very high rate of regeneration of grasses, weeds and leaves shows that it will be environmentally friendly to use as fuel, for the carbon dioxide that will be released when they are burnt will be required for their regeneration. In this study, attention is focused on designing a burner to combust these materials in an industrial setting. The result shows that the temperature profile for pulverized lower grade biomass fuel rises slowly and tends to stabilize at 438℃. It was also discovered that the cost of a heating process can be drastically reduced as it costs $8 when using the cooking gas and $4.66 when using the mixture of the new fuel and cooking gas. Thus by using this new fuel or a mixture of it, not only will the cost of heating processes be reduced, but also the life of the existing known conventional resources will be prolonged.

Expression of Heterosis and Heritability in Vegetative Traits of Gongronema latifolia  [PDF]
Christian Ugwu Agbo, Jaime A.Teixeira da Silva
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2014.42015
Abstract:

The existence of hybrid vigour with high heritability in vegetative traits of Gongronema latifolia will increase its productivity. This study was therefore undertaken to estimate heterosis and heritability in the vegetative traits of G. latifolia. Stem cuttings of five heterozygous parents of different geographical origin, and seeds of 10 hybrids resulting from their crosses were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications in a field. Data on the vegetative traits were obtained at the maximum growth period in each year of study and was used to estimate heterosis and heritability over the years. Better parent heterosis (BPH) ranged from -72% to 78% over three years. All the vegetative traits—with the exception of cordate base size—showed positive heterosis in a minimum of four cross combinations in two years. The cross AKS-33-EKPENE EDIENE X ANS-53-AWKA gave a higher BPH ranging from 5% to 6% in leaf area in the three years. The crosses ENS-48-MBU X IMS-50-NJIABA and ENS-48-MBU X ANS-53-AWKA gave higher BPH for leaf length and breadth for the first two years. All crosses showed positive and negative BPH for number of vines/plant and cordate base size, respectively. The hybrids ENS-48-MBU X IMS-50-NJIABA and EBS-49-ISHIAGU X IMS-50-NJIABA, with highly heritable BPH > 60 cm2 leaf area, will be selected in favour of other hybrids and parents. The selection of these hybrids will improve and maintain productivity in the species as the leaves are the harvestable part and the species is vegetatively propagated.

Applicability of the Method of Linear Dimensions to Estimate Leaf Area in Improved Genotypes of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora  [PDF]
Sebasti?o Vinícius Batista Brinate, Wagner Nunes Rodrigues, Lima Deleon Martins, Tafarel Victor Colodetti, Marcelo Antonio Tomaz, José Francisco Teixeira do Amaral
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.65070
Abstract: There are different methods to determinate leaf area in coffee plants; however, methodologies that allow measurement of leaf area accurately and in nondestructive ways are very important, as they are less economically costly and enable measurements on the same leaf over time, making it possible to describe accurate patterns of growth. The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of the method to estimate leaf area using linear dimensions of leaves for improved genotypes of Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner. The experiment was conducted in two separated competition fields, each one following factorial schemes 10 × 2, with 10 genotypes and 2 methods to obtain the leaf area: measuring linear dimensions, and using equation model (estimated leaf area) and leaf area integrator (real leaf area). The genotypes for both Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner have different leaf areas, making it possible to discriminate groups of genotypes for both species using the size of their leaves as classification criteria. Even with the differences between genotypes, the pattern of leaf shape remains similar, confirming the applicability of the method to estimate leaf area using linear dimensions of leaves for improved genotypes, such as the model proposed by Barros, without the occurrence of loss of accuracy for the improved genotypes, for both Arabica and Conilon coffee, studied in this experiment.
Study on Growth Effects of Major-Nutrients Composition to Banana Cultivation in Coastal Areas of Sindh, Pakistan  [PDF]
Shahmir Ali Kalhoro, Xuexuan Xu, Amanullah Mahar, Amjad Ali, Fahad Ali Kalhoro, Sohail Ahmed Otho, Rab Nawaz Soomro, Fayaz Ali, Zulfiqar Ali Baloch
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.67106
Abstract: The composition of major nutrients, i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK), is a critical factor in banana cultivation and also influences crop yield. This study was aimed to analyze the concentrations of NPK in different banana growing locations of coastal areas of Sindh, Pakistan. A total of 15 composite soil samples at the depth of 0 - 15 and 15 - 30 cm and the same number of banana leaves were collected. The samples were analyzed for the concentration of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn and Cl concentrations. Results showed that the surface and sub-surface soils of coastal areas were heavy in texture, non-saline, medium alkaline and moderately calcareous in nature. Medium to adequate in Organic Matter (OM), medium in total nitrogen, medium to optimum in available phosphorus, medium to high in exchangeable potassium and deficient in available zinc at both tested depths. The analysis of soluble anions indicated that the carbonates were absent and that chlorides were dominant as compared with bicarbonates. Nitrogen and zinc concentrations of banana leaves were below the critical level, whereas P, K, Mn and chloride ion concentration were above the critical levels. In addition, the relative percentages for K, Ca and Mg were 57.72 to 61.72, 19.05 to 21.00 and 17.70 to 20.00 respectively.
The Participation of Wall Monolignols in Leaf Tolerance to Nature Flooding of Hydrophytes  [PDF]
Olena M. Nedukha
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2015.68058
Abstract: The comparative analysis of the monolignols localization in epidermis, photosynthesizing parenchyma and vessels walls of Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton pectinatus and P. perfoliatus submerged leaves carried out on the basis of cytochemical method and laser confocal microscopy. The images of quantitative distribution of syringyl and guaiacyl in the cell walls were obtained at cellular level depending on the type of leaf tissues and plant species. The increase of relative content of monolignols was established in walls of vessels and in the corners of parenchyma cells. Cytochemical analysis indicates that ratio of syringyl/guaiacyl in leaf tissues changes depending on species. The role of of syringyl and guaiacyl monolignols in the cellular mechanisms of adaptation to nature flooding is discussed.
Okra Leaves—Agricultural Waste for the Removal of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) from Contaminated Water  [PDF]
Mazhar Iqbal Khaskheli, Saima Qayyum Memon, Zaheer Ahmed Chandio, Wahid Bux Jatoi, Mohammad Tariq Mahar, Faiz Mohammad Khokhar
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2016.74037
Abstract: The present study demonstrates the sorptive efficiency of okra leaves for the Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in aqueous system. The batch dynamic sorption method was carried out as the function of the pH of the solution, sorbent doze, initial bulk concentration, shaking speed and contact time. The experimental data were examined by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Cr(III) at pH-4.0 and Cr(VI) pH-2.0 showed a maximum sorption capacities 221.17 mg/g and 81.94 mg/g respectively. Kinetically experimental data of both chromium species were well fitted to pseudo second order rate, Elovich, Morris-Weber and Richenberg equations. Positive values of enthalpy change and negative values of Gibbs free energy indicated the endothermic and spontaneous nature of sorption reaction respectively. The developed method was applied to real ground water samples (affected by industrial wastewater). Up to 92.15% of chromium metal was removed from the real water samples.
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