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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1472 matches for " intermediate-day onions "
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Efeito da fertiliza??o azotada na dinamica de enraizamento e na produ??o comercial de cebola de dias médios no alentejo
Machado,Rui Manuel Almeida; Shahidian,Shakib; Pivetta,Carina Rejane; Oliveira,Maria do Rosário Gamito;
Revista de Ciências Agrárias , 2009,
Abstract: intermediate-day onions (cv. gilmar) rooting patterns, soil availability no3-, leaf n concentration and commercial yield were evaluated in a field trial where four nitrogen fertilizer rates (0, 37, 74 and 111 kg n ha-1) were applied into four split applications, following a randomized block design with four replications. root length, soil availability no3-, and leaf n concentration were evaluated at four dates during growing season (33, 57, 96 and 127 days after planting). root length density (cm cm-3) at different sampling dates, locations (under the bulb and at 4 cm from the plant row) and depths was not affected by nitrogen level. for all sampling dates about 65 to 100 % of the root length was concentrated in the top 10 cm of the soil profile, under the bulb and the maximum root length density was 1.88 cm cm-3. the maximum rooting depth ranged from 20 and 30 cm, not exceeding 10 cm in depth, up to 32 days after planting. under the conditions of the experiment, results recommend an application of 30 kg ha-1 of nitrogen at planting and an increasing of the amount of nitrogen applied (16.2% of total n applied) at bulb initiation. marketable onion yield increased with the level of nitrogen but the production obtained with the application of 74 kg ha-1 (5.12 kg m-2) and 111 kg n ha-1 (6.59 kg m-2) did not differ significantly.
Efeito da fertiliza o azotada na dinamica de enraizamento e na produ o comercial de cebola de dias médios no alentejo Nitrogen fertilization effects on rooting pattern and yield of intermediate-day onions bulb in alentejo region
Rui Manuel Almeida Machado,Shakib Shahidian,Carina Rejane Pivetta,Maria do Rosário Gamito Oliveira
Revista de Ciências Agrárias , 2009,
Abstract: Este trabalho teve como objectivo estudar a influência da aplica o de diferentes quantidades de azoto, repartidas por quatro aplica es, na disponibilidade de azoto nítrico no solo, no comprimento radical, na concentra o de azoto nas folhas e na produ o comercial de cebola de dias médios (cv. Gilmar) no Alentejo. O ensaio decorreu na Centro de estudos e experimenta o da Mitra da Universidade de évora e foi delineado em blocos casualizados com quatro repeti es. Os tratamentos consistiram em 4 níveis de aduba o azotada (0, 37, 74 e 111 kg N ha-1), repartidos por quatro aplica es. A disponibilidade de azoto nítrico no solo, o comprimento radical e a concentra o de azoto nas folhas foram avaliados aos 33, 57, 96 e 127 dias após a planta o. A densidade radical (cm cm-3) sob o bolbo e a 4 cm da linha de cultura, nas diferentes datas e profundidades de amostragem, n o foi afectada pelos níveis de azoto. Ao longo ciclo, 65 a 100 % das raízes, em termos de comprimento radical, concentraram-se sob o bolbo e a densidade radical máxima alcan ada foi de 1,88 cm cm-3. A profundidade máxima de enraizamento situou-se entre os 20 e 30 cm, n o ultrapassando os 10 cm de profundidade até aos 32 dias após a planta o. Nas condi es do ensaio, os resultados indicam como recomendável uma aplica o de 30 kg ha- 1 de azoto à planta o e um aumento da quantidade de azoto aplicado (16,2% do total de N aplicado), no início da forma o do bolbo. A produ o comercial aumentou com o nível de azoto, mas as produ es obtidas com a aplica o de 74 kg ha-1 (5,12 kg m-2) e de 111 Kg N ha-1 (6,59 kg m-2) n o diferiram significativamente. Intermediate-day onions (cv. Gilmar) rooting patterns, soil availability NO3-, leaf N concentration and commercial yield were evaluated in a field trial where four nitrogen fertilizer rates (0, 37, 74 and 111 kg N ha-1) were applied into four split applications, following a randomized block design with four replications. Root length, soil availability NO3-, and leaf N concentration were evaluated at four dates during growing season (33, 57, 96 and 127 days after planting). Root length density (cm cm-3) at different sampling dates, locations (under the bulb and at 4 cm from the plant row) and depths was not affected by nitrogen level. For all sampling dates about 65 to 100 % of the root length was concentrated in the top 10 cm of the soil profile, under the bulb and the maximum root length density was 1.88 cm cm-3. The maximum rooting depth ranged from 20 and 30 cm, not exceeding 10 cm in depth, up to 32 days after planting. Under the conditions of
Produ??o de cebola de dias curtos no Alentejo. Influência da aduba??o localizada
Machado,Rui Manuel Almeida; Oliveira,Maria do Rosário Gamito;
Revista de Ciências Agrárias , 2008,
Abstract: in alentejo region low temperatures and soil waterlogging during autumn- winter season are limiting factors for vegetable production under field conditions. short -day onions can be an option to surpass these restrictions. the aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of short - day onion cultivars and band placement of the fertilizer on onion production in alentejo, planted during the autumn. the experiment was carried out at mitra research station of the university of évora and the treatments were: short - day onion cultivars (?spring star? and ?mineutaka?) and fertilizer application method at plantation (broadcasting and banding at 10 cm ± 2 depth, under the crop row). fertilizer banding did not affect root density (cm cm-3) under the crop row, nor onion bulb yield which was 8.3 and 9.0 kg m-2 for ?spring star? and ?mineutaka? respectively. since the studied cultivars presented resistance to waterlogging and low temperature that occurred during the growing season with good production, short - day onion has great agronomical potential for alentejo region. additionally, having in consideration the growing season conditions, water will not be a limiting factor.
Produ o de cebola de dias curtos no Alentejo. Influência da aduba o localizada Short-day onion bulb yield in Alentejo. Influence of fertilizer band placement
Rui Manuel Almeida Machado,Maria do Rosário Gamito Oliveira
Revista de Ciências Agrárias , 2008,
Abstract: As baixas temperaturas e o fácil encharcamento da maioria dos solos do Alentejo constituem uma restri o à produ o de hortícolas ao ar livre, no Outono-Inverno. A cebola de dias curtos pode constituir uma op o pela sua capacidade para superar estes constrangimentos. Assim, este trabalho teve como objectivo estudar o comportamento de duas cultivares de cebola de dias curtos, plantadas no Outono e a influência da localiza o da aduba o aquando da planta o. O ensaio decorreu na herdade experimental da Mitra da Universidade de évora e os tratamentos em estudo foram: a cultivar de cebola de dias curtos (“Spring Star” e “Mineutaka”) e o método de aplica o do adubo à planta o (distribui o a lan o e localiza o do adubo numa faixa a 10 cm ± 2 de profundidade, sob a linha de cultura). A aduba o localizada n o afectou a densidade radical (cm cm-3) sob a linha de cultura, nem a produ o comercial de bolbos a qual foi respectivamente para a “Spring Star” e “Mineutaka” de 8,3 e 9,0 kg m-2. Visto as cultivares estudadas terem apresentado resistência ao excesso de água e às baixas temperaturas que ocorreram durante o ciclo, com produ es consideráveis, a cebola de dias curtos apresenta-se como uma cultura com elevado potencial agronómico para o Alentejo. Adicionalmente, dada a época em que é realizada a cultura a água para a rega n o será um factor limitante. In Alentejo region low temperatures and soil waterlogging during Autumn- Winter season are limiting factors for vegetable production under field conditions. Short -day onions can be an option to surpass these restrictions. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of short - day onion cultivars and band placement of the fertilizer on onion production in Alentejo, planted during the autumn. The experiment was carried out at Mitra Research Station of the University of évora and the treatments were: short - day onion cultivars (“Spring Star” and “Mineutaka”) and fertilizer application method at plantation (broadcasting and banding at 10 cm ± 2 depth, under the crop row). Fertilizer banding did not affect root density (cm cm-3) under the crop row, nor onion bulb yield which was 8.3 and 9.0 kg m-2 for “Spring Star” and “Mineutaka” respectively. Since the studied cultivars presented resistance to waterlogging and low temperature that occurred during the growing season with good production, short - day onion has great agronomical potential for Alentejo region. Additionally, having in consideration the growing season conditions, water will not be a limiting factor.
Day Old Vaccination Against Infectious Bursal Disease in Broiler Chickens
M. Hair-Bejo,M.K. Ng,H.Y. Ng
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2004,
Abstract: Infectious bursal disease (IBD) also known as Gumboro disease is an important viral disease in poultry industry due to significant economic losses resulting from high mortality and immunosuppression. The disease can only be controlled and prevented by proper vaccination and biosecurity. It was the objective of the study to determine the efficacy of an `intermediate` strain of live attenuated IBD vaccine in broiler chickens at day old vaccination. One hundred and fifty two day-old broiler chicks were reared and raised in slatted cage in experimental house. The chicks were divided into 3 groups namely the groups A, B and C. Both chicks in the group A (day old vaccination) and group B (day fourteen vaccination) were vaccinated with an `intermediate` strain of live attenuated IBD vaccine (104.5EID50/0.1ml) via intraocular route at day old and 14, respectively. The group C acted as the control. Eight chicks from each group A and group C were sacrificed at days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. The chicks in the group B were sacrificed at days 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. The body weight of the sacrificed chicks was recorded and the blood samples were collected for IBD antibody titre using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). On necropsy, the gross pathological changes were recorded. The bursa of Fabricius was fixed in 10% buffered formalin for histological examination. The study showed that the body weight of chickens from all the three groups were not significant different (p>0.05) throughout the trial, except at day 14 and day 21 from group A was significantly lowered (p<0.05) than group C. The bursa weight and the ratio of bursa weight to body weight showed group B were significantly (p<0.05) lowered than group A and group C at days 28, 35 and 42. There were no bursa lesions in group A and group C throughout the experiment. However, moderate bursa lesions was observed in group B at days 21 and 28 of age and showed signs of recovery at days 35 and 42. Single dose of day old vaccination could not induce IBD antibody in the chickens. In contrast, vaccination at day 14 of age induced high and protective level of IBD antibody. The vaccine at both time of vaccination was able to neutralized high level of maternally derived antibody (MDA). It was concluded that single dose of day old vaccination in broiler chickens with high MDA (4821±509) was ineffective and could not induce IBD antibody.
Extending the Storage Life of Onions by Gamma Radiation
A. Khan,Y. I. Khattak,R. Khan
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 1999,
Abstract: The paper describes the possibility of extending the storage life of onions by gamma radiation, which poses a serious storage problem in the hot summer months in Pakistan. Bulbs were irradiated at a dose of 0.10 kGy and stored, alongwith unirradiated control, under ambient conditions for a period of 4 months. The weight loss varied between 15 and 23 after the storage period. It was found that losses through dehydration were less in the Desi than in the Red Variety. The rotting ranged from 6.5-9.4 per cent in the irradiated onions and 12.4-12.8 per cent in the unirradiated bulbs after 4 months storage. Quality evaluation tests revealed that the internal and external quality of the irradiated samples scored higher than the corresponding controls. The cost of onions irradiation was calculated to be Rs.290.00 per tonne.
Effect of g irradiation and storage time on the ascorbic acid concentration in onion bulbs (Allium cepa L.)
Benkeblia N.,Selselet-Attou G.
International Agrophysics , 1999,
Abstract: The stability of ascorbic acid (AA) of irradiated onion bulbs stored at 4 and 20 oC was studied. Gamma ionisation at 0.10; 0.15 and 0.30 kGy causes losses of 10, 13 and 20% of AA content, respectively, and the D value (Decimal Reduction Dose) of AA ionising treatment was estimated at 3.19. During the first 12 weeks of storage AA content decreased in nonirradiated and irradiated bulbs at 0.10, 0.15 and 0.30 kGy, respectively, to 4.52, 4.56, 4.81 and 5.18 mg 100 g-1 FW at 20 °C. At 4 °C, AA decreases to 5.92, 6.53, 6.08 and 5.92 mg 100 g-1 FW. From 12 weeks to the end of the storage period (24 weeks), AA increased but the final concentrations observed were lower than the initial levels and ranged from 15 to 30% less at 20 °C, and from 5 to 20% at 4 °C.
ROLE OF THE CENTRAL CHOLINERGIC SYSTEM IN MEMORY FORMATION IN YOUNG CHICKS
中枢胆碱能系统在小鸡记忆形成过程中的作用

Weng Xuchu,Chen Shuangshuang,Kuang Peizi,
翁旭初
,陈双双,匡培梓

心理学报 , 1996,
Abstract: The central cholinergic system has been long implicated in learning and memory processes in mammals. However, the precise role of this system in memory formation in birds remains to be determined. Using a one-trialpassive avoidance task, we demonstrated that inhibition of the central choli nergic system activities by intracranial injection of scopolamine produced amnesia in a dose-dependent manner.The amnesia induced by scopolamine in this task developed between 15-20 minutes after training whenever the drug was administered 15 or 30 minutes before training. Since scopolamine in present doses did not affect disgust reactions, general pecking behavior, and motor behavior as shown in an open field task,the memory effects of scopolamine observed in this study cannot be easily attributed to processes unrelated to memory processing,such as sensorimotor performance and general arousal.These results suggested a specific role of the avian central cholinergic system in the formation of intermediateterm -memory,strongly supportingthe three-stage model of memory formation originally proposed by Gibbs and Ng(1977)
Extension of Storage of Onions and Potatoes by Gamma Irradiation
J. Nouri,F. Toofanian
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: Post-harvest management of onions and potatoes is a sever problem in Iran. In this regard a research project of radiation preservation of root crops was carried out. Ten tones of red variety of onions and pashandi variety of potatoes were used every year of the trial. Bulbs were irradiated at a dose of 0.10 kGy and stored along with the unirradiated controls, at low temperature and under ambient conditions for a period of more than 7 months. After 4 months of storage under ambient conditions, the rotting ranged from 1 to 15% in irradiated onions and 5 to 64% in unirradiated samples. The unirradiated potatoes were discarded after 6 months of storage, because of heavy sprouting and rotting. It was found that losses through dehydration were 9.4 to 14.9% in the irradiated potatoes. Also a comparative study of reducing and non-reducing sugars, vitamin-C contents, total sugar, starch and protein was carried out between control and irradiated samples. The percentage weight loss varied between 25 to 36% after 6 months of storage in the irradiated onions and 18 to 29% for untreated samples.
Layered Approach to Open Source Software Development Success
Aminat Showole,Shamsul Sahibuddin,Suhaimi Ibrahim
Communications of the IBIMA , 2011,
Abstract: Open source has emerged as a widely accepted software development phenomenon which has tremendously brought about a significant paradigm shift from traditional software development methodologies such as top down design and stepwise refinement to an unconventional software development approach by means of collaborative software development method among a wide geographically dispersed interested developers and committed project participants while paying less attention to immediate “physical gains”. The open source approach focuses on highly diverse views of developer motivations; ranging from ego gratification, ideological satisfaction and gift culture for individual developers and open source motivations may be viewed from spreading the software development risks and associated maintenance costs at corporate organisational level. In this article, a five layered open onion model of open source was broadly examined. Analysis and evaluation were narrowed down to only the initiation layer of the open onion model. Results show that open source success largely depends on the quality associated with successful initiation of the project. Our findings also reveal that the most popular open source license is GPL and that license type has significant impact on project rank. The domain audience has negative impact on project rank and user interface has significantly negative impact on project’s domain audience. Open source project topics covered have a significant impact on the domain audience and a negative effect on the user interface. This research has also presented a conceptual framework of open source success tree.
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