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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 714 matches for " inhibitory "
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Stroop-Like Interference in the Fruit Stroop Test in Typical Development  [PDF]
Hideyuki Okuzumi, Yoshifumi Ikeda, Nao Otsuka, Ryotaro Saito, Yuhei Oi, Shogo Hirata, Koichi Haishi, Mitsuru Kokubun
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.65062
Abstract: This study examined Stroop-like interference in the fruit Stroop test among 271 5 - 12-year-old children and young adults divided into five age groups: 64 5 - 6-year-olds, 65 7 - 8-year-olds, 60 9 - 10-year-olds, 46 11 - 12-year-olds, and 36 young adults (18 - 23-year-olds). Participants were ad-ministered a paper-and-pencil version of the fruit Stroop test, which includes the canonical color task, the superficial color task, and the fruit name task. In these tasks, participants were presented with line-drawings of fruits having strongly associated colors (e.g., yellow banana) and were asked to name the ink colors of the fruits, name the colors the fruit “should be”, or read the fruit name. The results indicated robust interference in the canonical color task of the fruit Stroop test, suggesting that this task is useful to assess individual differences of inhibitory control in typical development.
Genetics pathogenesis in the ovarian insufficiency  [PDF]
Lilliana Ciotta, Isabella Pagano, Vito Leanza, Mariagrazia Stracquadanio, Carlo Pafumi
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.23050
Abstract: Premature Ovarian Failure (POF) is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism that affects about 1% of women younger than 40 years old, while an incidence of 1/1000 is reported in women younger than 30 years old. [1] This hormonal disorder is caused by the loss of the ovarian response towards the pituitary gonadrotropins synthesis (FSH and LH) that are secreted according to the inhibitory feedback between hypothalamus, pituitary gland and gonads.
The Quality and in Vitro Efficacy of Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid Formulations in the Central Region of Ghana  [PDF]
Henry Nettey, Grace Lovia Allotey-Babington, Philip Debrah, Ofosua Adi-Dako, Manal Shaick, Isaac Kintoh, Francis Arnansi, Makafui Nyagblordzro, Marvin Holison
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.51009

Aim: To assess the quality and in vitro efficacy of five brands of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid tablet, suspension and injectable preparations selected from pharmacies in the Central Region of Ghana. Method: Using a Stratified Representation Sampling method, forty preparations (tablets, suspensions and injectable powders) containing amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were sampled from nine different locations within the Central Region of Ghana. To determine drug quality, several procedures, namely, content assay, disintegration and dissolution testing were employed. In vitro drug efficacy was determined by comparing the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC’s) obtained with published values. Results: All tablets passed the disintegration test, with disintegration time ranging between six (6) and fifteen (15) minutes. Analyses of all the tablets for drug content showed 100% failure (14 out of 14) for amoxicillin and 14% failure (2 out of 14) for clavulanic acid. Injectable formulations showed similar results. All four (4) samples analyzed for content failed the amoxicillin content assay (0 out of 4) but all passed clavulanic acid assay (4 out of 4). For tablet dissolution tests, there was a 93% (13 out of 14) pass rate for both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. Content analysis of all suspension formulations involved twenty-two (22) samples from five (5) brands. Only 41% (9 out of 22) passed for both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. All the other samples failed for either amoxicillin, clavulanic acid or both. Results obtained from drug quality tests were confirmed by in vitro efficacy tests against selected microorganisms. Conclusion: The samples were therefore not of good quality, since content assay is the most crucial test. It is hypothesized that

Screening of Several Anti-Infectives for in Vitro Activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis  [PDF]
Grace Lovia Allotey-Babington, Henry Nettey, Philip Debrah, Ofosua Adi-Dako, Clement Sasu, Anastasia Antwi, Yvonne Darko, Newriza Nartey, Jida Asare
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.416129
Abstract: Aim: To evaluate in vitro the effectiveness of several anti-infective agents alone or in combination against Mycobacterium smegmatis. Method: A convenient stratified sampling method was used to obtain selected anti-infective agents. For individual drug samples, Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) were obtained using the agar-well plate diffusion technique. Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Indices (FICI) were calculated for drug combinations using their MIC as obtained from the broth dilution method. Results: Of the thirty (30) anti-infective agents analyzed, ten (10) had MIC equivalent to or better than rifampicin (reference TB drug). Seven (7) drugs had MIC higher than rifampicin, while twelve (12) showed no growth inhibition of M. smegmatis. Analysis of the effect of drug combinations on M. smegmatis indicated that four (4) combinations, including rifampicin/ethambutol showed synergism. One (1) was additive, two (2) were indifferent and one (1) combination showed antagonism. Conclusion: Notable in the results obtained was the high effectiveness of the carbapenems in inhibiting the growth of M. smegmatis. Carbapenems, though not indicated for TB treatment, has a potential of playing a significant role in the treatment of tuberculosis. Also the drug combinations which showed synergism, especially those that involved the macrolide antibiotics, should further be investigated. These results have to be confirmed by in vivo clinical studies to define their roles in tuberculosis treatment.
Memory Suggestibility under Social Pressure and Inhibitory Control in Preschoolers  [PDF]
Xiaojun Cao
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2015.54012
Abstract: The current study examined the interaction of inhibitory control and social pressure on young children’s memory suggestibility. Children were administered the Video Memory Suggestibility Scale for Children (VMSSC) and batteries of inhibitory control tasks, and were exposed to different levels of situational social pressures during interviews for memory suggestibility. The findings indicated that inhibitory control played a significantly moderating role in the relationship between social pressure and memory suggestibility. The greater the inhibitory control, the lower the effects of social pressure on the memory suggestibility of children. For the children with lower levels of inhibitory control, the social pressure positively predicted memory suggestibility; but for the children with higher levels of inhibitory control, the social pressure didn’t significantly predict memory suggestibility. So, to a certain extent, memory suggestibility may be a dynamic integration of stable trait and fluctuating state elements. The implications for the essence of memory suggestibility were discussed.
Expression of inhibitory receptors on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from healthy Colombian donors
Rico- Lombana,Alejandra; Mateus,Jose; Lasso,Paola; González,John Mario; Puerta,Concepción Judith; Cuéllar,Adriana;
Universitas Scientiarum , 2012,
Abstract: t cell activation involves positive cellular signals that promote effector functions and negative signals that contribute to the regulation of these responses. these regulatory signals are generated upon activation of receptors on t cells that include cd160, 2b4, programmed death-1 and ctla-4. objective. to evaluate the expression of inhibitory receptors like cd160, 2b4, programmed death-1 and ctla-4 on cd4+ and cd8+ t cells from healthy colombian donors. materials and methods. peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 30 healthy donors from bogotá (colombia) were obtained via ficoll-hypaque density gradient and cells were stained with specific conjugated antibodies previously titrated. results. the cd160, 2b4, and programmed death-1 inhibitory markers were detected on cd4+ t cells with expression levels of 0.35%, 1.04%, and 1.35%, respectively. on cd8+ t cells, these markers were expressed at higher levels: 16%, 8.97%, and 4.3%, respectively. in contrast to the other receptors, ctla-4 frequency of expression showed no significant difference between cd4+ (1.56%) and cd8+ (1.53%) t cells. frequency of cd160/2b4 and ctla-4/ programmed death-1 coexpression was 0.18% and 0.09% on cd4+ cells, and 4.02% and 0.2% on cd8+ t cells. conclusions. this is the first report showing the frequency of inhibitory receptors such as cd160, 2b4, programmed death-1, and ctla-4 on cd4+ and cd8+ t cells from healthy colombian donors. our findings serve as a baseline for the analysis and comparison of these receptors in colombian populations with different disease conditions.
In-vitro anti fungal activity of Propolis alcoholic extract on Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp.
Diba K,Mousavi B,Mahmoudi M,Hashemi J
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Several studies have shown that propolis has antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and antiparasitic activity. Furthermore propolis has been described to have medicinal usages in some fungal infections like Candidiasis. Our aim is to study the inhibitory effects of alcoholic extract of propolis on Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. "n"n Methods: To determine inhibitory and fatality dose of propolis extract, we prepared serial dilution of the extract including 1/20, 1/40, 1/80, 1/160, 1/320 and 1/640 in 1 ml of liquid medium sabouraud broth. Given numbers of Candida yeasts in 1ml were added to above dilution tubes. Candida and Aspergillus cultures were incubated at 30°C and 25°C respectively for 24-72 hours."n"n Results: We obseved that the concentration of 0.25 g/dl of propolis extract showed an inhibitory and killing effect on more than 50% of the isolates. But there were no inhibitory and killing by the concentrations 0.0312 g/dl and 0.0625 g/dl on Candida isolates. Our findings showed that 0.0312 g/dl of the extract was partially active on Aspergillus fumigatus and dilution of 0.125 g/dl was active on Aspergillus. niger. In the agar dilution method, some changes were observed on morphological features (depends on the extract dilution) as well as quantitative effects of dilution of extract on the colonies. "n"nConclusion: We found that the alcoholic extract of propolis had a prominent antifungal activity and inhibitory effect on Candida and Aspergillus isolates.
Evaluación e indicación de las técnicas de difusión-dilución (epsilometría) EVALUATION AND INDICATIONS FOR DIFFUSION-DILUTION TECHNIQUES (EPSILOMETRY)
Vjera Triantafilo V.
Revista chilena de infectología , 2002,
Esomeprazol - krok naprzód w rozwoju inhibitorów pompy protonowej (IPP)
Krzysztof Przytulski
Polish Gastroenterology , 2003,
Abstract: Esomeprazol jest S-izomerem omeprazolu, pierwszym inhibitorem pompy protonowej syntetyzowanym w postaci izomeru optycznego, dost pnym do u ytku klinicznego. Ma on lepsz biodost pno i hamuje wydzielanie HCl w wi kszym stopniu ni omeprazol. Lek jest stosowany przede wszystkim w chorobie re-fluksowej (w dawce podstawowej 40 mg) oraz w eradykacji Helicobacter pylori (w dawce dobowej 40 mg). W badaniach klinicznych wykazano szybsze gojenie zmian zapalnych w prze yku, ust powanie zgagi w chorobie refluksowej bez zapalenia prze yku oraz pó niejsze i rzadsze wyst powanie nawrotów choroby reflu-ksowej u osób leczonych esomeprazolem w porównaniu z omeprazolem. W eradykacji Helicobacter pylori skuteczno esomeprazolu i omeprazolu podawanych cznie z antybiotykami jest podobna. Podobny jest równie profil bezpieczeństwa obu leków. D ugotrwa e stosowanie esomeprazolu u pacjentów z chorob refluksow jest bezpieczne. Nie jest konieczna modyfikacja dawki leku u osób starszych z niewydolno ci nerek lub agodn niewydolno ci w troby (w stopniu A w klasyfikacji Childa).
Zastosowanie leków biologicznych w nietypowych postaciach uszczycy – opis przypadków
Micha? Rogowski-Tylman,Aleksandra Lesiak,Anna Sysa-J?drzejowska,Anna Brucka-Stemkowska
Przegl?d Dermatologiczny , 2011,
Abstract: Wprowadzenie: uszczyca jest ci k , przewlek chorob , w przebieguktórej wyst puj liczne zaburzenia immunologiczne. Wprowadzeniedo lecznictwa dermatologicznego terapii biologicznej sta o si prze omemze wzgl du na jej bardzo du skuteczno i bezpieczeństwow opornych na leczenie przypadkach uszczycy zwyczajnej oraz uszczycowegozapalenia stawów. Cz sto jednak nietypowe postacie uszczycy,takie jak: uogólniona uszczyca krostkowa, uszczyca odwrócona, uszczyca skóry ow osionej g owy, uszczyca ograniczona do r ki stóp, sprawiaj istotne problemy terapeutyczne. Mimo braku rejestracjileków biologicznych do leczenia powy szych odmian uszczycy,w pi miennictwie spotyka si opisy zastosowania tych preparatóww nietypowych postaciach psoriasis. Cel pracy: Przedstawienie 3 przypadków klinicznych zastosowanialeków biologicznych we wskazaniach pozarejestracyjnych – w nietypowychpostaciach uszczycy. Opis przypadków: Przypadek 1. dotyczy 24-letniej kobiety z uszczyc ograniczon do d oni i stóp opornej na leczenie etanerceptem, adalimumabemi ustekinumambem, przypadek 2. – 54-letniej kobietyz uogólnion uszczyc krostkow leczonej skutecznie infliksymabemoraz przypadek 3. – 27-letniego m czyzny z oporn na leczenie uszczyc zwyczajn o nietypowej lokalizacji, u którego popraw kliniczn uzyskano po zastosowaniu adalimumabu. Wnioski: Przedstawione przypadki oraz dane z pi miennictwa wskazuj , e leki biologiczne mog by stosowane alternatywnie w terapiinietypowych postaci uszczycy.
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