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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1467 matches for " influenza "
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The Correlation of IFN γ to the Preferential Isolation of Influenza Type B over Type A Viruses in Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells  [PDF]
Timothy Byaruhanga, Bernard Bagaya, Joyce Namulondo, John Timothy Kayiwa, Barbara Namagambo, Nicholas Owor, Irene Nabukenya, Barnabas Bakamuntumaho, Julius Julian Lutwama
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2017.71002
Abstract: The isolation of influenza viruses in Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells has shown preferential isolation of a great percentage of Influenza B strains at the first passage than Influenza A strains. During in vitro isolation of Influenza viruses, majority of type A viruses are not confirmed as positive isolates by Hemagglutination (HA) assay despite having higher virulence and pathogenicity versus influenza B viruses. This study investigated the differences in IFN-γ and IL-10 cytokines secreted by MDCK cells upon exposure to the viruses and thus provided possible answers as to why influenza type B can easily be isolated from MDCK cells compared to influenza A. Positive influenza viruses were inoculated onto MDCK cells. IFN-γ and IL-10 cytokines stimulated by the viruses in MDCK cells were measured by indirect ELISA at 1 hour, 12 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours post inoculation (pi). A total of 46 specimens, with 23 specimens from each virus type were analyzed. IFN-γ was significantly higher at 1 hour pi in MDCK cells for influenza type A at p value of 0.024 than type B. No statistical significance was observed in means of cytokine IL-10 between influenza type A and type B. The study may show that IFN-γ is correlated to the preferential isolation of influenza type B over type A viruses. Anti-inflammatory cytokines may not necessarily be playing a role in the preferential growth of influenza type B, a less virulent type over influenza type A in MDCK cells.
Influenza-Related Hospitalizations and Associated Comorbidities in Nebraska: 2007-2011  [PDF]
Guang-Ming Han, Sandra Gonzalez, Chrispin Chisanga, Cole Vanicek, K. M. Islam
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2014.42015

Objective: Influenza afflicts approximately 5% - 20% of the US population annually. Although prevalence statistics are useful, they are insufficient to understand completely influenza on a health care system. This study estimated Nebraska’s annual hospitalization and comorbidity rates due to influenza from 2007 to 2011. Methods: Influenza was defined according to ICD-9-CM primary codes beginning with 487 or 488 in hospital discharge records. The comorbidities of patients with influenza were defined according to ICD-9-CM secondary diagnosis codes. Results: The highest yearly age-adjusted hospitalization rates were 30.6 and 31.1 per 100,000 populations for 2008 and 2009, respectively. In 2008, the highest hospitalization rate was among those aged 65 yrs and older; in 2009, the highest rate was among those younger than 5 yrs. Asthma was the most frequent comorbidity overall and among those younger than 50 yrs. Conversely, hypertension and heart failure were the most frequent comorbidities among those aged 50 yrs and older. Conclusion: These findings provide a better understanding of the influenza burden and may contribute to developing more effective influenza prevention strategies.

Abarzúa C.,Fernando; Jourdan H.,Francisca de; Rabagliati B.,Ricardo; Cabib A.,Christopher;
Revista chilena de obstetricia y ginecología , 2005, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-75262005000400008
Abstract: introduction: influenza has been recognized as a risk factor for severe respiratory illness in pregnant women, therefore, in 2004, they were included in the chilean national vaccination program. there is evidence demonstrating the safety of the vaccine during pregnancy. patients and methods: it is a descriptive study about pregnant women diagnosed with influenza admitted to the pontificia universidad católica de chile clinical hospital for treatment, during winter period of 2004. epidemiological antecedents, clinical manifestations and complications were analyzed. result: six of forty five patients admitted with influenza were pregnant women (13%). only one of them had been vaccinated. five of six did not present cardiorrespiratory underlying disease. the average gestational age at admission was 28 weeks. three patients presented respiratory complications (pneumonia, rhinosinusitis) and no obstetrical complications were observed. conclusion: pregnant women with influenza are in risk for respiratory complications and hospitalization. extended vaccination coverage, according to the ministry of health guidelines, could lower this risk
Effectiveness of influenza vaccination in elderly outpatients in S?o Paulo city, Brazil
GUTIERREZ, Eliana Battaggia;LI, Ho Yeh;SANTOS, Ana Catarina De Seixas;LOPES, Marta Heloísa;
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-46652001000600003
Abstract: to investigate the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine in a population of elderly outpatients, we compared the occurrence and frequency of influenza like illness (ili), respiratory illness and hospitalization in vaccinated and non-vaccinated subjects. all the outcomes were clinically defined. the two groups were similar with respect to demographics, health situation and habits. the influenza vaccine contributed to the protection of the elderly investigated, since the vaccinated subjects referred a significantly lower number of ili than the non-vaccinated. there is a need for more studies about the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine in our country in elderly and other groups of our population.
Effectiveness of influenza vaccination in elderly outpatients in S o Paulo city, Brazil
GUTIERREZ Eliana Battaggia,LI Ho Yeh,SANTOS Ana Catarina De Seixas,LOPES Marta Heloísa
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 2001,
Abstract: To investigate the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine in a population of elderly outpatients, we compared the occurrence and frequency of influenza like illness (ILI), respiratory illness and hospitalization in vaccinated and non-vaccinated subjects. All the outcomes were clinically defined. The two groups were similar with respect to demographics, health situation and habits. The influenza vaccine contributed to the protection of the elderly investigated, since the vaccinated subjects referred a significantly lower number of ILI than the non-vaccinated. There is a need for more studies about the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine in our country in elderly and other groups of our population.
Pandemic Influenza in Two Newborns
Medine Ay?in Ta?ar,Yasemin Ar?kan,Fatma ?nci Ar?kan,Y?ld?z Dallar
Cocuk Enfeksiyon Dergisi , 2010,
Abstract: The new influenza A (H1N1) virus of swine origin was first described from Mexico in April 2009. Subsequently spreading all over the world, it was considered to be the first pandemic of the 21st century. According to data from the World Health Organization (WHO), the highest disease rates in American and European regions were reported among children and young adults. Despite the highly contagious nature of pandemic influenza, most cases displayed a mild course. WHO declared the risk factors for severe disease in children as ongoing chronic disease, intake of aspirin and age below two-years.The youngest patient reported in the literature is 21 days old. We would like to present two neonatal cases with verified pandemic influenza, who recovered without any complications.
Improving Influenza Vaccination Rates— A Straightforward Task or a Multifaceted Challenge?  [PDF]
Ljiljana Trtica-Majnaric
World Journal of Vaccines (WJV) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2013.32010

Annual vaccination with trivalent inactivated vaccines has been proven as safe and efficacious in preventing influenza and its complications. It is recommended especially to the elderly (>65) and other people at high risk for influenza complications and death such as patients with chronic medical conditions. Healthcare workers, who are considered to transmit infection to patients, or reciprocally, can be infected during encounters with patients, are also strongly advised to regularly receive vaccines. In order to improve influenza vaccination rates in countries in Europe, health authorities set targets for vaccination coverage by 2010. Despite the substantial efforts done, coverage rates maintain low. It is considered that informed decisions, based on existing evidence, are likely to cope with improving vaccination rates. Intention of this manuscript is to address some important issues connected with influenza vaccination which, to be able to aid the evidence, need to be further clearified. To support the debate, the author presented some dubious facts from the own practice experiences. As a long-lasting solution to improve vaccination practice strategies, strengthening programed vaccination is suggested. This concept would include implementation of nationwide vaccination protocols and their harmonization by the common logistics, and standardized data collection based on installation of E-health records. This strategy would allow data comparison among different populations. As based on this debate, improving influenza vaccination rates is not likely to be easy to perform straightforward task, but a multifaceted, long term challenge.

The Prevalence and Outcomes of Influenza Virus Infection in Heart Failure Patients in Brazil: Influenza Infection in Heart Failure  [PDF]
Henrique Godoy, Juliana Soares, Paula Zanellatto Neves, N.C.J. Bellei, Dirceu R. Almeida
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2015.53011
Abstract: Background: Respiratory tract infections were associated with acute exacerbations of heart failure (HF). However, the role of the influenza virus, a major agent of such infections, in this population remained unclear. Method: During the influenza virus seasons of 2013 and 2014 we prospectively assessed influenza respiratory illnesses in a cohort of adults primarily hospitalized for management of acute decompensated HF and a cohort of HF outpatients. Qualitative RT-PCR forinfluenzaA (A/H1, A/H12009pdm, A/H3) and B virus testing was performed on nasopharyngeal swab samples. Result: A total of 121 patients were included, 58.3% males (n= 70), mean age 57.7 years old (±14.0), mean left ejection fraction 35.3 (±9.8). Of these, 50.4% were inpatients (n= 61). The prevalence of symptoms of respiratory infections was 28.0% (n= 34) and 4.9% (n= 6) of all samples were positive for influenza virus. Only influenza A was detected and all cases were among inpatients. Influenza-positive patients had a greater need for antimicrobials (83.3%,n= 5; 16.3%,
A Relational Sociological Study on the Effects of Uncertainties in the Case of Influenza in Turkey  [PDF]
Aytul Kasapoglu
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2017.811058
Abstract: Health issues, especially global health issues, are important subjects of study for many sociologists. For example, the spread of influenza as a pandemic affects a large number of people and their emotions in terms of fear, becoming a social problem instead of a psychological issue. Because of uncertainties, what is happening and what people should do during global threats is not clear for many people generally and during pandemics specifically. The primary aim of this paper is to show the construction process of fear and risk by conducting a systematic review of former studies about the influenza that occurred in Turkey during the last 10 years. It is assumed that a combination of relational sociology and the sociology of disaster and development will provide an appropriate theoretical framework. In other words, H. White and his uncertainty typology along with A.E. Collins’ classification are both used to define the construction process of fear as a culture, starting with uncertainty and moving to alienation and finally normalization. Findings from this study, which are supported by N. Elias’ and U. Beck’s methodological considerations, revealed that uncertainties may lead to negative consequences, such as alienation. Due to conflicting information, people find themselves in a dilemma and they stop following norms and rules in terms of normlessness. Normlessness, as a sub-division of alienation along with meaningless, might result in negative actions, such as not getting vaccinated. Liminality, turning points and footing are also used to describe the construction process of fear and risk. Results also showed that over a 10-year period many things are normalized and people no longer panic as easily.
Influenza humana y aviaria: pasado, presente y futuro
Repetto D,Guillermo;
Revista chilena de pediatría , 2006, DOI: 10.4067/S0370-41062006000100002
Abstract: review of the epidemiology of influenza in the last years, particularly in regard to the present avian influenza epidemics. in the past century, 3 severe human influenza pandemics caused by avian a virus rapidly spread throughout the world. according to clinical, laboratory and epidemiological evidences, risk of a new human pandemics exists caused by a high pathogenic avian influenza virus strain, being migratory birds its main carriers. initiated in hong-kong in 2003, it rapidly extended to population in turkey, rusia, macedonia and colombia; chile has not been affected yet. bird-human transmission has been documented in a limited number of cases, all in asia and half of them fatal, but the greatest hazard is that a new virus strain could acquire, by genetic rearrangement, the ability to infect humans and disseminate among them in an explosive way. the indications and limitations of its prevention and treatment are discussed, including epidemiologic surveillance, use of antiviral drugs and vaccines
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