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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2826 matches for " inflammation "
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Escin may exert a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect with glucocorticoids  [PDF]
Lei-Ming Zhang, Tian Wang, Hua-Ying Fan, Xin Yu, Bing Han, Mei Zhu, Feng-Hua Fu
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.22013
Abstract: Escin is a natural mixture of triterpenoid as- ponin isolated from the seed of the horse chestnut and demonstrates anti-oedematous and anti-inflammatory effects. As yet, the pre-cise mechanisms by which escin exerts its anti- inflammatory effects remain unclear. The data from current studies indicate that the anti-in-flammatory properties of escin were attributed to its ability to reduce the adhesiveness of neu-trophils and the associated release of inflam-matory mediators; its ability to decrease hista-minic and serotoninergic activities; its ability to inhibit phospholipase A2; its ability to decrease nuclear factor-κ B activation and down-regulate the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α. All these effects are similar to glucocorticoids. Mo- reover, escin depends on adrenal glands to ex-ert its anti-inflammatory effects. Also, our recent research showed that the serum corticosterone level in mice did not increase after a 7-day in-travenous injection of escin. The results sup-port the hypothesis that escin may exert a syn-ergistic anti-inflammatory effect with glucocor-ticoids. Confirming this hypothesis will play a role in elucidating the anti-inflammatory mech- anisms of escin.
Determination of Capsaicin Induced Increase in Dermal Blood Flow Using Laser Doppler Flowmetry Technique  [PDF]
Sunil Kumar Reddy Khambam, Madireddy Umamaheshwar Rao Naidu, Pingali Usha Rani, Takallapalli Ramesh Kumar Rao
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2011.23022
Abstract: In the present study, we evaluated laser Doppler flowmetry technique using LDF100C (Biopac systems) by determining blood flow changes following acute application of capsaicin on 12 healthy human subjects. Capsaicin applied locally (topical application) at a dose of 0.075% produced significant increase in mean dermal blood flow from 31.4 ± 3.1 Blood Perfusion Units (BPU) to 115. 7 ± 24.6 Blood Perfusion Units (BPU) after 30 minutes, also there was significant difference in dermal blood flow change between placebo (32.1 ± 2.7 BPU) and capsaicin (115.7 ± 24.6 BPU) applica- tion. Capsaicin application produced significant percentage change in dermal blood flow by 291.0 ± 85.3% from baseline, while the change was insignificant with placebo (13.2 ± 7.4%). Therefore, it is suggested that this technique which is technically sound, non-invasive and inexpensive can be adopted in various fields of research to determine blood flow changes and this technique can also be utilized to determine the antagonists of the mediators involved in capsaicin induced vasodilatation.
Minocycline for Schizophrenia: A critical review  [PDF]
Tsuyoshi Miyaoka
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.224056
Abstract: Minocycline, an antibiotic of the tetracycline family, has been shown to display neurorestoractive or neuroprotective properties in various models of neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, it has been shown to delay motor alterations, inflammation and apoptosis in models of Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease. Despite controversies about its efficacy, the relative safety and tolerability of minocycline have led to the launching of various clinical trials. Previously, we reported the antipsychotic effects of minocycline in patients with schizophrenia. In a pilot investigation, we administered minocycline as an open-label adjunct to antipsychotic medication to patients with schizophrenia. The results of this trial suggested that minocycline might be a safe and effective adjunct to antipsychotic medications, and that augmentation with minocycline may prove to be a viable strategy for “boosting” antipsychotic efficacy and for treating schizophrenia. Recently, in randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials, the addition of minocycline to treatment as usual early in the course of schizophrenia predominantly improves negative symptoms. The present review summarizes the available data supporting the clinical testing of minocycline for patients with schizophrenia. In addition, we extend our discussion to the potential applications of minocycline for combining this treatment with cellular and molecular therapy.
Anaphylatoxins: From Supposed Toxin Anaphylactics to Effective Mediators of the Early Events of Inflammation  [PDF]
Wilmar Dias da Silva
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2012.24043
Abstract: This review updates original data describing the experiments showing the complement origin of anaphylatoxins unexplainable submerged under the surface of the articles related to the subject. Next, recalls subsequent data describing the anaphylatoxins peptide nature and sequences, the cell receptors with which they interact and activate and the outcome of the cell responses. The review continues by highlighting the anaphylatoxin biological properties focusing on the unequivocal participation of these mediators in inflammation. The review concludes bringing data reinforcing the promising use of these peptides as molecular primers to create specific and efficient pharmacological antagonists.
Oncomodulin and macrophages derived factors in pancreas injury and development paradigms  [PDF]
Jo?l Fleury Djoba Siawaya, Carmen Capito, Raphael Scharfmann
Modern Research in Inflammation (MRI) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/mri.2013.21001
Abstract: Prior studies in the optic nerve injury paradigm showed con?icting data regarding production and signi?cance of the Ca2+-binding protein oncomodulin (OCM). Some have shown its potentaxon-regenerative or-growth attribute, where other showed little to no effect. We show here that pancreas inflammation lead to macrophages infiltration that produce OCM and inflamed tissues that express OCM receptorsin vivo. In culture OCM has a cytostatic effect on embryonic pancreas explants. Secretory products of zymosan activated macrophages are cytotoxic and factors derived from non-activated macrophages seem to promote pancreas development. It is our view that OCM is involved in protective injury response that allows through metabolism slowing sublethally injured cells to undergo recovery.
Cytokine release in sepsis  [PDF]
Ian Burkovskiy, Joel Sardinha, Juan Zhou, Christian Lehmann
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.49114

Despite the advances in the therapeutic approaches, health care protocols and policies, sepsis continues to be an important problem in clinical medicine. High lethality of sepsis cases calls for a detailed and critically important study of the pathophysiology of sepsis. In this review, we discuss pathomechanisms of sepsis and the role of cytokines that are released in sepsis. We propose that the systemic levels of cytokines are not always reflecting the pathological picture and the immune status of the patient. One of the emerging approaches which may bring an effective treatment strategy exploits the endocannabinoid system for its immunomodulatory properties. Following from that, the research in this particular field is very important as it can bring understanding behind the complicated pathophysiology of sepsis.

The cytokine hypothesis: A neurodevelopmental explanation for the emergence of schizophrenia later in life  [PDF]
Julia Howard
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.48A2011

There is increasing evidence for the cytokine hypothesis, which states that exposure to elevated cytokines in utero due to maternal immune activation is a major risk factor for the development of schizophrenia later in life. This is supported by numerous epidemicologic studies that connect multiple infections with schizophrenia emergence. Furthermore, cytokines are critically involved in early neurodevelopment and deviations from the norm can result in abnormal neuroanatomy and brain chemistry. Animal models of schizophrenia also support the critical role of developmental neuroinflammation in predisposing the brain to anatomical and behavioral abnormalities. Although there is strong evidence for the critical role of cytokines, they most likely work with other contributing risk factors such as genetic predisposition. New evidence indicates that cytokine exposure in utero may prime the brain and that a second stressor during adolescence, referred to as a second hit, may activate existing developmental vulnerabilities resulting in the emergence of clinical schizophrenia. Further knowledge of these pathogenic processes and risk factors could be very instrumental in reducing risk and slowing emergence of schizophrenia.

Inflammation and Carcinogenesis  [PDF]
Yu-Sheng Wu, Shiu-Nan Chen
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.410173

We consider that inflammatory substances play an important role in the carcinogenesis process. In the process, cytokines and growth factor secreted by cells can actively recruit immune cells in the carcinogenesis microenvironment, further, promote carcinogenesis progression. The carcinogenesis microenvironment even subverted the immune system, moreover, enhanced the carcinogenesis through immune suppressive mechanisms within the carcinogenesis microenvironment.

C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate: Continuing role for erythrocyte sedimentation rate  [PDF]
Gurmukh Singh
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2014.41002
Abstract: Background: Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) tests are often done to detect or monitor patients with suspected inflammatory disorders. The objective of the study was to ascertain if the manual ESR test added value to the information available from automated CRP results alone. Methods: In this retrospective, observational study at a safety-net hospital, the ESR and CRP values were compared in 4527 instances when both tests were done. In 150 instances, involving 97 patients; when ESR was >60 mm/hr and CRP was ≤1.0 mg/dL, the medical records were reviewed to discern the cause of disparity between the ESR and CRP results and to assess the utility of continued use of the ESR test. Results: Review of medical records did not reveal an explanation for elevated ESR in 20 patients with normal CRP results. In the remaining 77 (79%) patients, an inflammatory disorder was noted despite a normal CRP value; in 27 (28%) patients, the disorder was osteomyelitis. Presence of skin necrosis was also a prominent factor in the discrepant results. Conclusions: ESR has value in detecting inflammatory disorders that may not be obvious by clinical examination or CRP results. ESR has a particularly useful role in patients with suspected bone lesions and osteomyelitis.
Leiomyoma with Granulomatous Inflammation: Tissue Confirmation of Sarcoidosis  [PDF]
Kimi Verilhac, Jaime Arruda, Miriam D. Post
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2014.44029

Granulomatous inflammation of the uterus is rare, and sarcoidosis involving the uterus is even less common. Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic granulomatous disease that can affect any organ, but most typically involves the lungs, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, skin, and eye. Although it can be diagnosed clinically based on a constellation of symptoms, definitive diagnosis typically requires demonstration of non-infectious non-caseating granulomas on tissue biopsy. It is a diagnosis of exclusion, and other causes of granulomatous inflammation must be excluded. We report here a case of granulomatous inflammation involving a leiomyoma in a patient with a previous clinical diagnosis of sarcoidosis. This was the patient’s first tissue-based diagnosis of sarcoidosis and highlighted the importance of adequate sampling of routine surgical specimens, as they may harbor signs of systemic disease.

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