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“Breast is best”—Infant-feeding, infant mortality and infant welfare in Germany during the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries  [PDF]
J?rg V?gele, Luisa Rittershaus, Thorsten Halling
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.512298

Breastfeeding is considered to be the key variable for infant health. Consequently, UNICEF and the World Health Organization promote the beginning of breastfeeding within the first hour after birth and recommend to exclusively breastfeed the infant during the first six months. The origins of these modern breastfeeding campaigns can be traced back to the beginning of the twentieth century. Whereas high infant mortality rates traditionally were considered to be a matter of fate and the declining birth rates towards the end of the nineteenth century raised fears about the nation’s future and led to the emergence of an increasing infant welfare movement in imperial Germany. As low breastfeeding rates were identified as a key factor behind the high infant mortality rates, the main objective of the infant care movement was to increase breastfeeding. The paper examines how the context of infant care and infant mortality was constructed and how breastfeeding campaigns in the context of infant mortality, breastfeeding rates and socio-political changes developed during the twentieth century. Thus the paper covers the period from the beginnings of social paediatrics at the beginning of the 20th century, the breastfeeding campaigns embedded into Nazi ideology during the Third Reich, until the declining breastfeeding ratios and the “feeding on demand”-movement in the 1970s as well as the ideological differences between West and East Germany during the Cold War.

Breastfeeding Status and Effective Factors in 21 - 27 Months Iranian Infants  [PDF]
Fatemeh Nayeri, Mamak Shariat, Hosein Dalili, Farima Raji, Akram Karimi
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2015.52024
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the Breastfeeding status among children aged 21 - 27 moths. A cross sectional study was carried out in South Health Center (Tehran-Iran) in 2010. Four hundred 21 - 27 month breastfed infants entered the study. This study compared some variables in 2 groups; weaning before and after 22 months. The level of significance was considered P < 0.05. Mean breastfeeding duration and median (either exclusive or combined) were 19.66 ± 6.40 and 22 months. Among all reasons were cited by mothers, some reasons like insufficient breast milk supply (77.9%), infant restless (77.1%), and Mother’s reluctance (75.6%) were the most common causes of exclusive breastfeeding cessation. A significant relation was seen between breastfeeding duration and gestational age or birth trauma (P Value = 0.031, P Value = 0.04). Breastfeeding training and First mother-infant skin to skin contact had significant roles on breastfeeding duration (P Value < 0.05, P Value = 0.001, respectively). It seems lots of public health efforts and policy are needed to improve breastfeeding rate in our country.
Coleito no primeiro semestre de vida: prevalência e fatores associados
Issler, Roberto Mario Silveira;Giugliani, Elsa Regina Justo;Marostica, Paulo José Cauduro;Nieto, Fabiane;Milani, Adriana Rosa;Wolmeister, Anelise Schifino;Scherer, Mateus Breitenbach;Pires, Daniela Oliveira;Oliveira, Marcia Nunes;Pinto, Danusa Graeff Chagas;Sarturi, Bianca Fernandes;Smidt, Luis Felipe Silva;Villetti, Manoela Chitolina;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2010000500016
Abstract: the aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of bed-sharing and factors associated with this sleeping environment in an urban population in southern brazil. this was a cross-sectional nested cohort study with 233 mother-infant pairs selected at the maternity ward of the university hospital in porto alegre. when the infant was 3 and 6 months old, home visits were performed to collect data on bed-sharing and associated variables. the main outcome was the place shared by the mother and infant for sleeping. variables with p < 0.2 were included in a poisson regression model. at 3 and 6 months, 31.2% and 28.5% of infants slept with their mothers at night. at 3 months, prevalence was higher for single mothers (pr: 1.56; ci: 1.01-2.39) and mothers sharing the home with the infant's maternal grandmother (pr: 1.70; ci: 1.09-2.65). prevalence of bed-sharing at 3 months was high and associated with single mothers and sharing the home with the infant's maternal grandmother.
Saúde e nutri??o de crian?as de áreas urbanas da Zona da Mata Meridional de Pernambuco: resultados preliminares de um estudo de coorte
Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral de;Lima, Marilia de Carvalho;Silva, Gisélia Alves Pontes da;Romani, Sylvia de Azevedo Mello;Eickmann, Sophie Helena;Alessio, Maria Luiza Martins;Batista Filho, Malaquias;Leger, Claude Louis;Huttly, Sharon Rebeca;Ashworth, Ann;
Revista Brasileira de Saúde Materno Infantil , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-38292003000400011
Abstract: objectives: to demonstrate social, economic features and demographics of the nutritional profile of children at birth and at 12 months old, in addition to comprehensive data on breast-feeding, diarrhea and vaccination status in the first year of life. methods: a sample of 652 newborns were selected from september 1997 to august 1998 and followed-up during the first 18 months of life. these children lived in the urban areas of four municipalities south of pernambuco. data collection was performed through house visits. results: approximately 60% of the families had a per capita income £ ? of the minimum wage and 41% of the mothers had less than four years of schooling. the median of exclusive and total breast-feeding was of 0 and 94 days respectively. diarrhea incidence was of two episodes/per child/per age (< -2 scores z) and at 12 months was of 6,8% and 11% respectively. only 66% of the children had their vaccination schedule completed at 12 months old. conclusions: the development of this prospective research will contribute to a more in-depth understanding of the health and nutrition problems of children and to adequate intervention planning in that area.
Análisis de la mortalidad infantil y factores condicionantes: Chile 1998
Kaempffer R,Ana M; Medina L,Ernesto;
Revista chilena de pediatría , 2000, DOI: 10.4067/S0370-41062000000500005
Abstract: recent trends and features of infant mortality in chile are analysed in this paper. basic information from the chilean national institute of statistics, w.h.o. and the latin american centre of demography were used for the analysis. the present rate of 10.3 deaths per 1000 births is one of the three lowest in latin america and the downward trend has reduced to a quarter of that observed 20 years ago. more than half of the deaths are due to neonatal and congenital problems. other important causes are respiratory diseases, accidents and communicable diseases. infant mortality rates in the chilean regions varies from 8.9 to 14.2. no significant correlation was found between regional figures and availability of physicians, hospital beds or income levels. data analysis did confirm the significance of high parity, older age and low education level of the mother. less significance was noticed for rural life, the condition of illegitimacy or the condition of working mother. low birth weight children had a risk 16 times greater than babies with a normal birth weight
Are Family Table Foods Appropriate for Infants? Comparing the Nutritional Quality of Homemade Meals Adapted from the Family’s Table Foods and Those Specially Prepared for Infants  [PDF]
Pérola Ribeiro, Dirce Maria Sigulem, Tania Beninga Morais
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.513135
Abstract: The Brazilian Ministry of Health recommends that by 8 months of age, children should eat the same types of foods consumed by the other members of the family. Thus, this study sought to evaluate whether the nutritional composition of meals specially prepared (SM) for children aged 7 to 18 months in low-income families was superior to that of meals adapted (AM) from the family’s table foods. Protein, fat, carbohydrate, energy, dietary fiber, iron, sodium and sodium chloride values, were determined by chemical analyses and compared to dietetic guidelines. The infants’ hemoglobin levels were also investigated. In total, sixty samples of the infants’ lunch meal (51 AM and 9 SM) were taken for during a home visit. The values of protein, fat, carbohydrate, dietary fiber and energy of the AM were significantly lower, while the sodium and sodium chloride values were significantly higher, compared to those of the SM. The AM also contained significantly more water. No differences were seen with regard to iron values. Sodium chloride amounted for most of the sodium content. Neither the SM nor AM was adequate in terms of iron and sodium. All SM were adequate for protein and fat, whereas AM showed significantly more samples with inadequate energy levels. SM fell within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range, while AM fell below the lower value for fat and slightly above the upper value for carbohydrate. The prevalence of anemia was 60% in the study population (36/60). In conclusion, meals adapted from the family’s table foods showed a lower nutrient density and a less balanced macronutrient range when compared to meals specially prepared for infants. The main nutritional shortcomings, for both AM and SM, were the extremely low content of iron and the high content of sodium.
Mothers Exaggerate Their Finger Movements While Demonstrating Object Manipulation to Their Infants  [PDF]
Kaori Nagata, Eriko Yamamoto, Goh Matsuda, Kazuo Hiraki
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.912149
Abstract: We investigated whether mothers exaggerate the fine movements of their fingers when interacting with their infants, and whether infant-directed action is influenced by mothers’ beliefs about a demonstration-observer’s knowledge. Fifteen mothers demonstrated how to use a novel toy to their infant (Infant condition), an adult family member (Uninformed Adult condition), and an adult female who already knew how to use the toy (Informed Adult condition). An optical motion capture system was used to examine the mother’s wrist and finger movements, and her gaze was video recorded. Compared with the Uninformed Adult condition, in the Infant condition, mothers exaggerated their wrist movements when holding the toy in the same way as in previous studies, opened their fingers wider when reaching for the toy, and looked at the observer more often. There was no significant difference in hand movements between the Informed Adult and Uninformed Adult conditions: that is, the observer’s level of prior knowledge did not affect the mothers’ motions. This suggests that mothers may exaggerate their finger movements in order to attract their infants’ attention, not only while holding the object but even while initially reaching for it, while also monitoring the infant.
A Method for the Measurement of Lutein in Infant Formula  [PDF]
Rebecca Yuhas, Megan Mccormick, Stephen Yachetti, Anita M. Burgher, Kadeline Kong, John Walsh
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.22020
Abstract: Lutein is an antioxidant that is deposited in the macular region of the eye and is crucial to macular function. Lutein is present in human milk and recently has been added to infant and toddler formulas. A method for the extraction and quantification of lutein from lutein-fortified infant formula and toddler milk products was developed. The lipids and carotenoids were extracted from the samples with ethanol and hexane:tetrahydrofuran. Polar xanthophylls were ex-tracted from the organic mixture with ethanol:water, leaving behind lipids and less polar carotenoids. The ethanol:water extracts were dried, reconstituted in mobile phase, and the lutein was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. A C30 carotenoid column and a mobile phase gradient of methyl-tert-butyl ether and methanol were used for the chromatographic separation. Validation data showed repeatability with relative stan-dard deviations < 4% and intermediate precision with relative standard deviations <20% at a low fortification level, 25 mcg lutein/L, and <12% at a high fortification level, 200 mcg lutein/L. Overall recoveries from sample matrix ranged from 88% to 106%. This liquid:liquid extraction method for the quantification of lutein in infant formulas is precise and accurate. Keywords: Lutein; carotenoid; infant formula; toddler milk; xanthophylls.
Glottic foreign bodies in infants: A series of four cases  [PDF]
Aayush Mittal, Rahul Bhargava, Sunil Kumar, Jatinder Kumar Sahni
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2013.26092
Abstract: Foreign body in glottis especially in infants is rare. Retrieval of foreign body is a rather simple procedure but sharing of the airway with the anaesthetist and impeding complication makes it more challenging and dangerous. Making a diagnosis of foreign body is most challenging in delayed cases. Complete history and detailed physical examination along with high index of suspicion, in cases of persistent cough, fever, nonresolving respiratory infection, are needed to rule out airway especially laryngeal foreign body. This series of 4 cases is being reported because of the rarity of the glottis foreign body in infants.
Does Breastfeeding Have an Effect on Infant Mortality in India? An Analysis of National Family Health Survey Data  [PDF]
Nomita Chandhiok, Lucky Singh, Kh. Jitenkumar Singh, Damodar Sahu, Arvind Pandey
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.59040
Abstract: Introduction: Sub-optimal infant and early childhood feeding practices in India contribute to the high burden of child under-nutrition and infant death. Objective: To study the effect of breast-feeding duration on the survival of infants along with other demographic, socioeconomic and service related factors and to compare the decadal changes in the association. Methods: A total of 36,754 and 26,782 births less than 3 years of age from two rounds of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) carried out in India during 1992-1993 (NFHS-1), and 2005-2006 (NFHS-3) respectively comprised the sample. Infant mortality was examined against a set of variables and breastfeeding as a time dependent covariate using multivariate extended Cox regression model. Results: Hazard of infant death observed in NFHS-3 (2005-2006) was 18 percent less [HR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.759 - 0.879] as compared to that observed in NFHS-1 (1992-1993). After adjustment of other factors, the risk of infant death was 97% less amongst children who were breastfed [HR = 0.03; 95% CI = 0.029 - 0.033] as compared to those who were not breastfed. In contrast to rural area, babies belonging to urban area had an 18 percent less hazard of death during the infancy period [HR = 0.82]. Hazard of infant death was less among births to mothers with higher maternal education levels [HR = 0.93] and in those who were in gainful occupation [HR = 0.91]. The risk of infant death was higher in babies perceived to be small at birth [HR = 1.40] and belonging to states with medium post neonatal mortality rate (PNMR) [HR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.112 - 1.371] and high PNMR [HR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.327 - 1.609] in contrast to those born to women belonging to states with low post neonatal mortality. Conclusion: Promotion and implementation of evidenced based strategies are needed in India to combat the high rates of child under-nutrition and infant and child mortality.
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