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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5725 matches for " industrial by-products. "
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Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Agro-Industrial By-Products in Ruminant Nutrition  [PDF]
Eyob Haile, Francis K. Njonge, Goitom Asgedom, Mathew Gicheha
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2017.71002
Abstract:

This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition and in situ degradability of agro-industrial by-products found in Eritrea. Three categories of by-products were evaluated and were the milling industry (wheat bran; WB, short; WS, and middling; WM), brewery (brewers’ dry grain; BDG, hops; BDH, and yeast; BDY) and sesame cakes (sesame cake machine extracted; SCM and manually extracted; SCT). The dry matter (DM) varied between 88.46% in BDY to 92.39% in SCT. The lowest (P < 0.05) crude protein (CP) content was recorded in WM at 10.11% while the highest was from the BDY at 48.20%. The metabolisable energy (ME) value of the agro-industrial by-products ranged from 8.72 to 11.18 MJ per kg DM with the BDH recording the lowest value (P < 0.05). The sesame cakes (SCM and SCT) recorded higher values of 11.17 and 11.18 MJ per kg DM respectively. The SCT recorded the highest ash content at 10.93% followed by BDY at 10.16% with the least being obtained from WM at 2.48%. The ether extract and acid detergent lignin contents were generally low in all cases for all the by-products. Generally, the results indicated that there was no clear pattern in terms of nutrients content amongst the by-products. The in situ DM, organic matter (OM) and CP degradability differed amongst and within the sesame cakes, milling and brewery by-products. The wide variation in chemical composition, DM, OM, CP degradability, and ME obtained from this study offer farmers huge flexibility in formulating rations according to the productive performance of target animals.

Isolation and screening of d-limonene-resistant microorganisms
Bicas, Juliano Lemos;Pastore, Gláucia Maria;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822007000300034
Abstract: this study reports the isolation of microorganisms that are resistant to environment containing limonene, the most important residue in the citrus industry. for the isolation, samples collected from strategic places of a citrus processing plant (yellow water, entrance and exit of the bagasse tank, effluent and deteriorated fruits found in bins, machine straps, fruit washers and plant floor), some citrus fruit and mint from local market were used. the samples were incubated in rotary shaker at 30oc/150rpm for 48h or 7 days in ym medium containing 0.1% limonene. great part of the 112 strains recovered after 48h and the 126 strains recovered after 7 days were identified as gram positive bacilli, followed by gram negative bacilli, yeasts and gram positive cocci, besides five fungi. about half of the gram positive and gram negative bacilli and yeasts and some gram positive cocci were resistant to limonene concentrations up to 2% in the medium broth. amongst them seventy were able to grow in mineral medium containing limonene as sole carbon source. the research described in this paper is the initial step for the exploration of flavor compounds production via biotransformation of limonene, a non-expensive by-product of citrus industry.
Avalia??o de alimentos alternativos para cavalos adultos da ra?a Crioulo
Arruda, Alex Martins Varela de;Ribeiro, Leonir Bueno;Pereira, Elzania Sales;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982009000100008
Abstract: the objective of this research was to evaluate alternative feeds for adult horses characterized as agroindustrial by-products through the total apparent digestibility and digestible nutrients determinations with creole adult horses. five animals were housed in individual metabolism cages and fed with five experimental diets, starting from a reference diet containing peletized ration and tifton - 85 hay, and other four with the replacement of 30% with weight basis (kg/kg) of the reference diet for each one of the agro industrial by-products, soybean residue, soybean hulls, wheat hulls and corn hulls. the best digestibility values for dry matter, crude protein, ethereal extract, neutral and acid detergent fiber, were obtained with the corn hulls diet (68.05%), reference diet (61.38%), soybean residue diet (64.50%), corn hulls diet (84.32%) and soybean hulls diet (60.62%), respectively. the highest digestible dry matter value was observed with reference diet (62.10%) and the others treatments presented mean value of 50.22%. to each one of the alternative feeds tested in this study, the highest values for digestible protein, ether extract, neutral and acid detergent fiber were observed with wheat hulls (7.53%), soybean residue (5.11%), soybean hulls (53.04 and 40.77%), respectively. it was suggest that all by-products could be used in the horse feeding without problems to the digestive tract; therefore, the inclusion level and the combination of these by-products in the formulation of the diets depend on the availability and regional costs.
Valor nutritivo de silagens de capim-elefante enriquecidas com subproduto do processamento do maracujá
Neiva, José Neuman Miranda;Nunes, Francisco Canindé Souza;Candido, Magno José Duarte;Rodriguez, Norberto Mário;L?bo, Raimundo Nonato Braga;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982006000600036
Abstract: this research was carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of elephant grass silages, with increasing levels of dehydrated passion fruit by-product (dpfb). five inclusion levels were studied (0.0, 3.5, 7.0, 10.5, and 14.0%). twenty castrated male sheep were assigned to a complete randomized design with five treatments (inclusion levels) and four replicates. the intakes of dm (dmi), cp (cpi), ndf (ndfi) and adf (iadf) were determined, as well as the dm apparent digestibility (dmad), cp (cpad), ndf (ndfad), adf (adfad) and hemicellulose (hemiad). in addition, it was determined total digestible nutrients (tdn) and the nitrogen balance (nb). the dpfb inclusion during the elephantgrass ensiling process raised the dmi and the cpi, although there was no effect on the ndfi and adfi. the dpfb addition also raised the dmad, cpad, the tdn and the nb. the ndfad, adfad and the hemiad were not affected by the treatments. it was concluded that the dpfb addition by the time of elephantgrass ensiling is a recommended practice, increasing the energetic density, the intake and apparent digestibility of the silages.
Avalia??o das altera??es bromatológicas e de degradabilidade do resíduo de lixadeira do algod?o após tratamento biológico com Pleurotus sajor-caju
Castro, Ana Luisa Aguiar de;Paiva, Paulo César de Aguiar;Dias, Eustáquio Souza;Santos, Juliana dos;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542004000300017
Abstract: the objective of the experiment was to evaluate the bio-conversion treatment to enhance the nutritional value and degradability of cotton textile mill waste, using the fungi pleurotus sajor-caju. the experiment was conducted at the departments of biology and animal science of the universidade federal de lavras (ufla), between july 2002 and january 2003. bio-conversion was induced by the use of the residue as the main component in a substrate bed for cultivation of edible mushrooms (c1 and c2). in comparison to the untreated cotton textile mill waste, two bio-conversion alternatives by pleurotus sajor-caju were tested. after mushroom production, samples of the treated material were submitted to in situ degradability tests and chemical composition. results indicated that c1 and c2 treatments decreased fibrous fractions (adf and ndf) and increased cp of cotton textile mill waste, improving the chemical composition. c1 and c2 treatments also resulted in an increased of soluble fraction (a), the degradation rate (c), and decreased insoluble potential degradable fraction (b); increasing effective degradability of dm and ndf of cotton textile mill waste.
Efeito dos tratamentos físicos e químicos no resíduo de lixadeira do algod?o
Santos, Juliana dos;Castro, Ana Luisa Aguiar de;Paiva, Paulo César de Aguiar;Banys, Vera Lúcia;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542004000400027
Abstract: the experiment was carried out at the department of animal science of the universidade federal de lavras and at the food laboratory at the universidade josé do rosário vellano (unifenas), with the objective to evaluate the nutritive value of cotton textile mill waste using chemical composition (dm, cp, ndf, adf) and ruminal degradability of the dry matter and ndf. the treatments were: t1 - in natura residue (in); t2 - residue submitted to the pressure and steam treated (127oc/1,5 kgf/cm2/35"; ps); t3 - 4% sodium hydroxide treated residue (four 24 hours; naoh); t4 - 3% urea treated residue (for 28 days; u); t5 - 4% naoh +3% urea treated residue (naoh/u); t6 - pressure and steam + 4% naoh treated residue (ps/naoh); t7 - pressure and steam + 3% urea treated residue (ps/u). the results obtained in the chemical composition can allow concluding that combined treatments improved the nutritive value of the residue, as the naoh/u treatment showed better results of cp, ndf, adf. in the degradability experiment, it may be concluded that ps, u, naoh/u, ps/naoh and ps/u treatments were efficient in increasing effective degradability of dm, also resulted higher dry matter soluble fraction (a) and lower insoluble potentially degradable fraction (b). the treatments u, ps/naoh and ps/u had higher values of effective degradability of ndf and higher soluble fraction (a). the combined treatments increased the degradability and nutritive value of cotton textile mill waste, and combined treatments with urea had the better results.
Chemical and bromatological characteristics of elephant grass silages with the addition of dried cashew stalk
Rêgo, Margareth Maria Teles;Neiva, José Neuman Miranda;Rêgo, Aníbal Coutinho do;Candido, Magno José Duarte;Carneiro, Maria Socorro de Souza;L?bo, Raimundo Nonato Braga;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982010000200004
Abstract: the objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritive value of elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum, schum.) silages with the addition of 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16% dried cashew stalk (anacardium occidentale l.) - dcs, based on the fresh matter. a randomized complete design with four replications was used. twenty 210 l plastic drums were used as experimental silos. the levels were determined of the dry matter (dm), crude protein (cp), neutral detergent fiber (ndf), acid detergent fiber (adf), hemicellulose, ether extract (ee), total carbohydrates (tc), non-fibrous carbohydrates (nfc), neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen (ndin,% total n), acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (adin, % total n), ph values, ammonia nitrogen (in percentage of the total nitrogen, n-nh3, % total n), lactic acid, acetic acid, butyric acid and propionic acid. adding dcs resulted in higher values of dm, cp, ee, nfc, ndin (% total n), adin (% total n), ph, lactic acid and propionic acid. on the other hand, with increasing dcs levels, a linear decline was observed in values of ndf, adf, hemicellulose, ammonia nitrogen (% total n) and butyric acid. dcs did not show effect on the tc and acetic acid in the silages. as a result, up to 16% dehydrated cashew stalk may be added to elephant-grass silages, based on the fresh matter, to increase cp and nfc levels and decrease ndf and adf and improve the fermentation patterns. it should be taken into account that higher ndin and adin values may interfere in nitrogen availability and therefore in further dm intake.
Inclusion of guava wastes in feed for broiler chickens
Lira, Rosa Cavalcante;Rabello, Carlos B?a-Viagem;Ferreira, Paulo Vanderlei;Lana, Geraldo Roberto Quint?o;Lüdke, Jorge Vitor;Dutra Junior, Wilson Moreira;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982009001200016
Abstract: the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of including guava wastes in the feed on the performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens. an experiment was carried out with 300 male cobb strain chicks, in a randomized complete design with five levels of waste and five replications. a reference diet based on corn and soybean meal and four feeds with 3, 6, 9 or 12% guava waste were evaluated. the feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were assessed weekly; the weight at slaughter and the weight and yield of eviscerated carcass, carcass without feet and head, breast, drumstick, thigh, wing, back, edible viscera and abdominal fat were assessed. the inclusion of guava waste in the feed promotes performance and carcass yield similar to that obtained with the feed based on corn and soybean meal, therefore this agro-industrial by-product can be used at levels of up to 12% in feeds for broiler chickens.
Digestibility and Nutrient Utilization of Some Agro-Industrial By-Products Fed to Growing Pigs in the Humid Tropics
K.U. Amaefule,S.F. Abasiekong,S.N. Ibe,O.C. Onwudike
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2009,
Abstract: Digestibility and nutrient utilization of some agro-industrial by-products fed to growing pigs in the humid tropics were determined with twelve castrated male hybrid (Large White x Landrace) pigs whose weights ranged from 15.33 to 17.67 kg (average 16.17 kg) and aged 13 weeks. The experimental design was a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Each of the four treatments had three replicates and a castrated male per replicate. Locally constructed metabolism cages (107 cm x 60 cm x 50 cm) were used in the experiment. Parameters measured were nutrient intake, digestibility coefficients of DM, CP, CF, Ether Extract and Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE). Others were energy utilization, nitrogen (N) balance and protein utilization. Wheat offal fed to growing pigs significantly (P<0.05) increased DM (418 g) and organic matter (391 g) intakes but significantly depressed apparent digestibility coefficient of ether extract (67.50%) and nitrogen intake (16.00 g). Other nutrient and energy utilization indices were not significantly (P>0.05) affected. The conclusion was that Palm Kernel Meal (PKM), Brewers Dried Grain (BDG), wheat offal or equal proportions of PKM+BDG fed to growing pigs have similar apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients, energy utilization, nitrogen balance and protein utilization. However, wheat offal could decrease digestibility coefficient of Ether Extract (EE) and also nitrogen intake.
Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant, Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory, Tyrosinase Inhibitory and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Selected Agro-Industrial By-products
Ehsan Oskoueian,Norhani Abdullah,Rudi Hendra,Ehsan Karimi
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijms12128610
Abstract: Evaluation of abundantly available agro-industrial by-products for their bioactive compounds and biological activities is beneficial in particular for the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, rapeseed meal, cottonseed meal and soybean meal were investigated for the presence of bioactive compounds and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. Methanolic extracts of rapeseed meal showed significantly ( P < 0.01) higher phenolics and flavonoids contents; and significantly ( P < 0.01) higher DPPH and nitric oxide free radical scavenging activities when compared to that of cottonseed meal and soybean meal extracts. Ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid tests results showed rapeseed meal with the highest antioxidant activity ( P < 0.01) followed by BHT, cotton seed meal and soybean meal. Rapeseed meal extract in xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory assays showed the lowest ?IC 50 values ?followed by cottonseed and soybean meals. Anti-inflammatory assay using IFN-γ/LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells indicated rapeseed meal is a potent source of anti-inflammatory agent. Correlation analysis showed that phenolics and flavonoids were highly correlated to both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Rapeseed meal was found to be promising as a natural source of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities in contrast to cotton and soybean meals.
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