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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 25745 matches for " indoor air quality "
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Volatile Organic Compounds in Alberta, Canada Residences—Evidence from Community Surveys  [PDF]
Warren Kindzierski
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.329136
Abstract: The impact of the built environment on public health is complex, involving several determinants of health including indoor air quality. People who spend the most time indoors can be exposed to indoor air pollutants for long periods of time. These are often the same people who are most susceptible to adverse effects if exposures are high enough (young children, elderly, and chronically ill, especially those suffering from respiratory diseases). An analysis of data on selected indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from community studies in Alberta, Canada was undertaken. Measures of typical (central tendency) and high end (upper limit) indoor concentrations were estimated from seven studies in Alberta. Best estimates of central tendency indoor concentrations for 12 VOCs—benzene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, 3-methylhexane, heptane, octane, nonane, decane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene—were less than 5 μg/m3. Best estimates of central tendency indoor concentrations for three VOCs—toluene, m/p-xylene, and limonene—were greater than 5 μg/m3. In the case of best estimates of upper limit indoor concentrations—benzene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, hexane, 3-methylhexane, heptane, octane, nonane, carbon tetrachloride, and tetrachloroethylene had upper limit concentrations less than 15 μg/m3. Best estimates of upper limit indoor concentrations for toluene, m/p xylene, decane, limonene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were greater than 15 μg/m3. Upper limit concentrations observed inside Alberta residences were about 4 to 10 times higher than typical concentrations for most of the VOCs observed. Upper limit indoor concentrations for carbon tetrachloride and benzene in Alberta are similar to or greater than levels judged by US EPA to imply a concern for potential cancer effects. This indicates that some homes in Alberta can have levels of carbon tetrachloride and benzene that may be of concern from a public health point-of-view.
Correlation of Asthma Symptoms with Prevalence of Indoor NO2 Concentration in Kuwait  [PDF]
Fawaz S. Al-Anzi, Ayed A. Salman
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.22021
Abstract: The research literature provides strong evidence that characteristics of buildings and their indoor environments influence the prevalence of several adverse health effects. Kuwait is considered one of the countries with harshest weather conditions. It is estimated that Kuwaitis spend most of their times indoors. Indoor environments quality should be taken seriously since indoor allergens and irritants can play a significant role in determining the health of households. In this research we propose to profile synergistic interaction between morbidity differentials and air quality in Kuwait residential area. The objective of this project is to investigate the relation between indoors air quality and asthma symptoms. Data mining techniques are employed to discover the correlation between indoor air quality measures and asthma symptoms and trigger. The main trigger considered in this research is the concentration of nitrogen dioxide. Some other triggers investigated are dust mites, smoking and others.
Numerical simulation and analysis for indoor air quality in different ventilation  [PDF]
Yang Li
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.412197
Abstract: Indoor air environment includes indoor thermal environment and air quality, and a reasonable ventilation provides guarantee for a good indoor environment. A numerical study of the indoor environment in different ventilation is presented in this paper. The External Energy Saving Lab of the WenYuan Building was selected for this purpose, and its indoor air quality and thermal performance in the typical summer climate were simulated. For the numerical simulation, the techniques of Fluent Air-pak was adopted to establish the physical and numerical model of lab. A attention is given to the velocity field and the distribution of pollutant concentration, followed by a discussion of two ventilation modes (displacement ventilation and up-in and up-out ventilation). By comparison, it is found that the Displacement ventilation in improving indoor air quality is obviously superior to the traditional up-in and up-out ventilation.
Ventilation and Relative Humidity in Swedish Buildings  [PDF]
Thomas Alsmo, Catharina Alsmo
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.511102

An important factor for comfort ratio in the indoor environment and affecting human health and well-being is the relative humidity. Studies have shown that about 70% of the staff at Swedish offices, schools and kindergartens experiences that the air is too dry during the winter season. Studies show that the relative humidity in indoor environments influences the incidence of respiratory infections and allergies. Important factors for the air environment indoors is to limit the number of airborne particles, since these are conveyors of both bacteria and viruses, and to keep the humidity at a level above 40% and below 70%, making the survival of viruses and bacteria minimized. Measurement results show that there is significant difference in the relative humidity during the winter season between the mechanically ventilated buildings with relative humidity levels below 10% than in buildings with natural ventilation. An important issue is how human health is affected by during longer periods and during much of the day live in environments with low relative humidity. Several researchers have noted that the incidence of respiratory infections increase during the winter when people are exposed to long periods of low humidity indoors. This means that the consequences of low humidity in the indoor environment should be considered and evaluated in a completely different way than is done today.

Environmental Health And Building Related Illnesses
Stephen Ambu,Wan-Loy Chu,Joon-Wah Mak,Shew-Fung Wong
International e-Journal of Science, Medicine & Education , 2008,
Abstract: Malaysia has good environmental laws toprotect the outdoor environment and public health.However there are no laws governing indoor air quality(IAQ) and the knowledge among the public about itsimportance is also lacking. Environmental professionalsthink it is not a priority and this influences the policydecisions in the country. Therefore there is a need tocreate awareness by way of research, education andother promotional activities. What is much needed atthis time is the establishment of standards for theconduct of risk assessment studies. To establishstandards we need reliable data which can be used todevelop appropriate guidelines for the purpose ofmitigation and adaptation programmes. IAQ can havesignificant influence on health resulting in drop inproductivity and economy of a country. It has beenestimated that in the US, building related illnesses(BRI) symptoms have a relationship with decrease (3 to5%) in work performance in an affected populationresulting in an annual loss of US$60 billion in revenue.However, based on efficient management programmesthey have also projected that the potential annualsavings can be in the region of US$10 to 30 billion. Thisestablishes that fact that good management programmesbased on efficient guidelines is of economic value to acountry and wellbeing of the population. The IMU hasembarked on a research programme to collect themuch-needed data for the framing of a good IAQguideline for Malaysia.
Indoor Air Quality Measurement with the Installation of a Rooftop Turbine Ventilator  [PDF]
Jason Lien, Noor Ahmed
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.311166
Abstract: The present paper presents a numerical analysis of the difference in comfort level inside a room of a residential building when roof top turbine ventilator is installed. This analysis simulates various comfort factors which includes the indoor air movement, room temperature, Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD). Various test cases of ventilator exhaust rate were examined. The results showed that general comfort satisfying international standards in building can be achieved. This study also presents a qualitative and quantitative study of indoor air temperature and overall indoor air flow pattern. A promising conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that wind driven ventilators can play an important role in the design of a cost effective and energy efficient ventilation system inside a building.
Indoor Air Quality Study on Fiber Glass Industry  [PDF]
Amir Alhaddad, Baderiya Al-Abdulmohsin
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.510B009

The most hazardous chemical used in fiber glass industry are: formaldehyde, phenol and ammonia. The chemicals were monitored in an industry in Kuwaitto investigate the indoor air quality of the facility. It was found that all these chemicals were within the OSHA standards but formaldehyde exceeded KEPA standards (0.1 ppm) in the curing area. It was found that lower density of fiber glass product leads to higher concentration of pollutants in the atmosphere andvise versa. Moreover, higher thickness causes higher concentration of pollutants in the atmosphere.

Decline of VOC Concentrations with the Aging of Houses in Japan  [PDF]
Motoya Hayashi, Haruki Osawa
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.412A1004

The purpose of this investigation is to know the long-term characteristics of VOC concentrations in houses built before the building code in 2003 and to clarify the countermeasures against indoor air pollution in the houses already built. For example, the improvements of living habits, ventilation and the remove of building materials. The concentrations of VOCs were measured in these houses in summer and winter from 2000 to 2005. The results showed that the concentration of formaldehyde decreased in the first year. After that the decline of the concentration was not seen and the concentration changed only with the temperature. The characteristics of decline were thought to be caused by two sorts of emission. One is an emission of concealed formaldehyde in the process of material production and the other is an emission with the generation of formaldehyde from adhesives of urea resin and moisture. The concentration of toluene decreased rapidly in the first year. The concentrations of xylene, ethyl-benzene and styrene showed a similar change. But the concentrations of acetaldehyde which were measured from the summer of 2002 did not decrease and its concentration in some houses was higher than the guideline even in the winter of 2005.

Indoor Air Quality in the United Arab Emirates  [PDF]
William E. Funk, Joachim D. Pleil, Joseph A. Pedit, Maryanne G. Boundy, Karin B. Yeatts, David G. Nash, Chris B. Trent, Mohamed El Sadig, Christopher A. Davidson, David Leith
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.58072

Air quality was measured inside 628 United Arab Emirates (UAE) personal residences. Weekly average concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and three size fractions of particulate matter (PM2.5, PMc, and PM10) were determined in each home. In a subset of the homes, measurements of outdoor air quality, ultrafine PM concentrations, and elemental PM concentrations were also made. Questionnaires were administered to obtain information on housing demographics and lifestyle habits. Air measurements were performed using simple and cost effective passive samplers. The 90th percentiles of indoor CO, HCHO, H2S, NO2, and SO2 were 1.55 ppm, 0.05 ppm, 0.12 ppm, 0.01 ppm, and 0.05 ppm, respectively. Median indoor PM2.5, PMc, and PM10, concentrations were 5.73 μg/m3, 29.4 μg/m3, and 35.2 μg/m3, respectively. The

Indoor Air Mycological Survey and Occupational Exposure in Libraries in Mato Grosso-Central Region—Brazil  [PDF]
Diniz Pereira Leite Júnior, Ronaldo Sousa Pereira, Washington Santos de Almeida, Sara de Almeida Alves Sim?es, Ana Caroline Akeme Yamamoto, Janaina Vasconcellos Ribeiro de Souza, Evelin Rodrigues Martins, Fábio Alexandre Leal dos Santos, Rosane Christine Hahn
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.84022
Abstract: Background: Indoor air quality in environments where there is great circulation of people, posing risks to the health of its occupants, including allergic problems, infections and contaminations, can be aided by climatic factors, chemicals and biological agents housed in these environments, influencing the location and providing favorable conditions for the degradation of bibliographic collections. The present study investigated the presence of fungi in indoor environments in seven public and private libraries in the central region of Brazil, Mato Grosso, and verified the impact on occupational health. Results: A total of 26,194 fungal specimens were isolated from 342 dust samples collected using three techniques: Andersen’s sampler (12.3%), exposure plate dish (25.1%) and sterile swab (62.6%). A total of 184 fungal species were identified: 156 (84.8%) mycelial fungi and 28 (15.2%) yeast fungi, belonging 54 fungal genera, 43 (79.6%) mycelial fungi and 11 (20.4%) yeast fungi. The genus Aspergillus (40.6%) was one of the main fungi present in indoor air. Aspergillus niger (12.3%) was identified as the most prevalent species in literary environments, followed by Cryptococcus spp. (7.1%) and Cladosporium cladosporioides (7.0%). In relation to seasonal distribution, there was a greater fungal isolation in the dry season (54%); followed by the rainy season (46%). Conclusion: These results suggest the substrates researched in the evaluated environments presented in the form of documents, books and papers associated with dust and air humidity become suitable for microbiological proliferation. These findings highlight the importance of minimizing the risk of exposure to fungal agents, identified in pathogenic and toxigenic microenvironments in library collections.
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