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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4961 matches for " indoor air "
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Indoor Air Environment—Hygienic Factors and Limits  [PDF]
Thomas Alsmo
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.712140
Complaints on the indoor environment of the residents in recent decades have become a common problem in the Swedish housing. The buildings themselves are said to be the cause of problems, and it is given a vague picture of both the exposure and the effect of the problems. The symptoms that residents and users state are often common in the population such as headache, fatigue, mucosal disorders and skin problems. It must be considered that the air that people routinely inhale contains impurities of various kinds, both in- and outdoors. An important source of contamination indoors is the microorganisms that are pathogenic, so called agents. Examples of infectious agents are viruses, fungi, bacteria and protozoa. The purpose of this project is to examine whether a physical measurement is possible to obtain for identifying a possible threshold level of air pollution in the indoor environment. In this study, carried out through physical measurements, the results show major deficiencies in the Swedish school environment. If we study the emissions in the important health-related size range of particles larger than 5.0 microns, before and after measures, the environmental benefits are clarified since over 90% of contaminants larger than 5.0 microns have been eliminated.
Volatile Organic Compounds in Alberta, Canada Residences—Evidence from Community Surveys  [PDF]
Warren Kindzierski
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.329136
Abstract: The impact of the built environment on public health is complex, involving several determinants of health including indoor air quality. People who spend the most time indoors can be exposed to indoor air pollutants for long periods of time. These are often the same people who are most susceptible to adverse effects if exposures are high enough (young children, elderly, and chronically ill, especially those suffering from respiratory diseases). An analysis of data on selected indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from community studies in Alberta, Canada was undertaken. Measures of typical (central tendency) and high end (upper limit) indoor concentrations were estimated from seven studies in Alberta. Best estimates of central tendency indoor concentrations for 12 VOCs—benzene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, 3-methylhexane, heptane, octane, nonane, decane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene—were less than 5 μg/m3. Best estimates of central tendency indoor concentrations for three VOCs—toluene, m/p-xylene, and limonene—were greater than 5 μg/m3. In the case of best estimates of upper limit indoor concentrations—benzene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, hexane, 3-methylhexane, heptane, octane, nonane, carbon tetrachloride, and tetrachloroethylene had upper limit concentrations less than 15 μg/m3. Best estimates of upper limit indoor concentrations for toluene, m/p xylene, decane, limonene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were greater than 15 μg/m3. Upper limit concentrations observed inside Alberta residences were about 4 to 10 times higher than typical concentrations for most of the VOCs observed. Upper limit indoor concentrations for carbon tetrachloride and benzene in Alberta are similar to or greater than levels judged by US EPA to imply a concern for potential cancer effects. This indicates that some homes in Alberta can have levels of carbon tetrachloride and benzene that may be of concern from a public health point-of-view.
Ventilation and Relative Humidity in Swedish Buildings  [PDF]
Thomas Alsmo, Catharina Alsmo
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.511102

An important factor for comfort ratio in the indoor environment and affecting human health and well-being is the relative humidity. Studies have shown that about 70% of the staff at Swedish offices, schools and kindergartens experiences that the air is too dry during the winter season. Studies show that the relative humidity in indoor environments influences the incidence of respiratory infections and allergies. Important factors for the air environment indoors is to limit the number of airborne particles, since these are conveyors of both bacteria and viruses, and to keep the humidity at a level above 40% and below 70%, making the survival of viruses and bacteria minimized. Measurement results show that there is significant difference in the relative humidity during the winter season between the mechanically ventilated buildings with relative humidity levels below 10% than in buildings with natural ventilation. An important issue is how human health is affected by during longer periods and during much of the day live in environments with low relative humidity. Several researchers have noted that the incidence of respiratory infections increase during the winter when people are exposed to long periods of low humidity indoors. This means that the consequences of low humidity in the indoor environment should be considered and evaluated in a completely different way than is done today.

Assessment of Health Effects Related to the Use of Biomass Fuel and Indoor Air Pollution in Kapkokwon Sub-Location, Bomet Country, Kenya  [PDF]
Taratisio Ndwiga, Robert M. Kei, Hellen Jepngetich, Kenneth Korrir
Open Journal of Air Pollution (OJAP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2014.33007
Abstract: Biomass Fuel (BMF) refers to burned plant or animal material; wood, charcoal, dung and crop residues which account for more than half of domestic energy in most developing countries and for as much as 95% in low income countries. It is estimated that about 3 billion people in the world rely on biomass fuel for cooking, heating and lighting. The biomass fuel chain includes gathering, transportation, processing and combustion. These processes are predominantly managed by women where they work as gatherers, processors, carriers or transporters and also as end-users or cooks. Thus, they suffer health hazards at all stages of the biomass fuel chain. The main objective was to assess health effects related to the use of Biomass fuel and indoor air pollution in Kapkokwon Sub-location, Kericho County, Kenya from March to May, 2013. The study area was Kapkokwon sub location, Bomet County, Kenya. The study population was 202 households. Primary females of the household were the target group as they managed the biomass chain. A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional study design was adopted to assess the health effects associated to the use of biomass fuel and indoor air pollution. The research revealed that women suffer different type of physical ailments due to the biomass fuel chain. Physical exhaustion (86%), neck aches (78%), headaches (34%), knee aches (30%) and back aches (16%) were reported as the principal health effects associated with the third stage of the biomass fuel chain. Irritation of the mucus membrane of the eyes, nose and throat (100%), coughing (100%), burns (42%), shortness of breath (38%) and exacerbation of asthma (2%) were identified as principal health effects associated with the fourth stage of the biomass fuel chain (cooking). As a result of the detrimental impact of indoor air pollution (IAP) on health and mortality, many governments, non-governmental organization and international organizations should develop strategies aimed at reducing indoor air pollution. The strategies to include subsidization of cleaner fuel technologies, development, promotion and subsidization of improved cooking stoves, use of solar thermal cookers and solar hot water heaters, processing biomass fuel to make them cleaner, modifying user behavior and improved household design.
Correlation of Asthma Symptoms with Prevalence of Indoor NO2 Concentration in Kuwait  [PDF]
Fawaz S. Al-Anzi, Ayed A. Salman
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.22021
Abstract: The research literature provides strong evidence that characteristics of buildings and their indoor environments influence the prevalence of several adverse health effects. Kuwait is considered one of the countries with harshest weather conditions. It is estimated that Kuwaitis spend most of their times indoors. Indoor environments quality should be taken seriously since indoor allergens and irritants can play a significant role in determining the health of households. In this research we propose to profile synergistic interaction between morbidity differentials and air quality in Kuwait residential area. The objective of this project is to investigate the relation between indoors air quality and asthma symptoms. Data mining techniques are employed to discover the correlation between indoor air quality measures and asthma symptoms and trigger. The main trigger considered in this research is the concentration of nitrogen dioxide. Some other triggers investigated are dust mites, smoking and others.
Numerical simulation and analysis for indoor air quality in different ventilation  [PDF]
Yang Li
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.412197
Abstract: Indoor air environment includes indoor thermal environment and air quality, and a reasonable ventilation provides guarantee for a good indoor environment. A numerical study of the indoor environment in different ventilation is presented in this paper. The External Energy Saving Lab of the WenYuan Building was selected for this purpose, and its indoor air quality and thermal performance in the typical summer climate were simulated. For the numerical simulation, the techniques of Fluent Air-pak was adopted to establish the physical and numerical model of lab. A attention is given to the velocity field and the distribution of pollutant concentration, followed by a discussion of two ventilation modes (displacement ventilation and up-in and up-out ventilation). By comparison, it is found that the Displacement ventilation in improving indoor air quality is obviously superior to the traditional up-in and up-out ventilation.
Indoor Air Quality in Central Appalachia Homes Impacted by Wood and Coal Use  [PDF]
Laura M. Paulin, D’Ann Williams, Charles Oberweiser, Gregory B. Diette, Patrick N. Breysse, Meredith M. McCormack, Elizabeth C. Matsui, Roger Peng, Tricia A. Metts, Nadia N. Hansel
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.41007

Though the high prevalence of biomass fuel use in the developing world is widely known, the use of burning biomass for cooking and heating in the developed world is under-recognized. Combustion materials including coal and wood are also used for heating in some areas of the United States. We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of conducting indoor environmental monitoring in rural Appalachia. We sought to explore the type of biomass being used for home heating and its impact upon indoor air quality in non-heating and heating seasons. Residential indoor air monitoring for particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was conducted in Lee County, Virginia. Homes had evidence of poor indoor air quality with high concentrations of indoor PM and a large burden of cigarette smoking. Further characterization of indoor combustion material use in this region to determine the health impacts associated with such exposures is warranted.

Indoor Pollution in Work Office: VOCs, Formaldehyde and Ozone by Printer  [PDF]
Elena Barrese, Angela Gioffrè, Marialuisa Scarpelli, Donatella Turbante, Roberto Trovato, Sergio Iavicoli
Occupational Diseases and Environmental Medicine (ODEM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/odem.2014.23006

In recent years proof of “indoor air quality”, designed to protect and improve the health and safety of workers, was a central strategy in the prevention of many companies. The man creates with the environment in which he lives and works a continuous gas exchange through breathing; this makes the respiratory system main entrance of air pollutants. The indoor pollutants are numerous and originate from different sources. Their concentration may vary over time and depends on the nature of the source, on ventilation, habits and activities carried out by the occupants in the areas concerned. It is well known that photocopiers and laser printers are equipment that emit several chemicals (ozone, solvents, toner dust) both to release the materials used for their operation (toner, ink, paper) and then to the special printing technology used. During the printing and photocopying processes occurring chemical and physical processes complex, during which the components of toner and paper will react under the influence of light and high temperatures. More recently, there have been a growing number of articles as a result of indoor air pollution. They have become more and more significant; probably because of increasing of the concentrations of harmful substances in the confined environment. Particular attention has been given to the emission of harmful substances from electronic equipment and printing that are increasingly present in living and working place. This work was the main objective the emission of volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and ozone from laser printing devices and consequently the estimation of elimination of same substances through a paper filters which operate through a mechanism of filtration surface with interstitial and penetration of particles into matrix filter on agglomeration, they also enclose type sandwich a layer of activated carbon.

Comparative Assessment of Indoor Air of a Tertiary Hospital and a Public Secondary School in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria  [PDF]
O. C. Adekunle, B. K. Abdulkareem, O. A. Adewumi, T. O. Sanusi
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.812062
Abstract: Air bone transmission is one of the routes of spreading diseases responsible for a number of nosocomial infections [1]. Airborne microbial particles have negative effects especially on the health of immunocompromised people [2]. The infections are caused by aerosols which are small, viable and may remain suspend in the air stream over long period of time. This study was aimed at investigating and comparing the quality of indoor air of a tertiary hospital and a secondary school in Ilorin, Kwara state, Nigeria. Air samples were collected in the hospital and school using settle plate techniques. Bacteria isolated from different wards in the hospital were Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Bacillus spp., Klebsiella spp., Micrococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp., Acinebacter spp. The female surgical ward (FSW) had the highest degree of contamination of bacterial and fungal air borne while the bacterial isolates gotten from the school were heavy growth of Coagulase negative Staphylococcus and Bacillus spp., and few growths of Klebsiella spp. and Acinebacter spp. with highest bacterial count in J.S.S.2B class. For fungal growth Aspergillus spp. and Mucor spp. produced numerous growths in all the classes and in the hospital while Penicillium spp. gave scanty growth. The lowest bacterial count observed both in school and in hospital was still high when compared with British bacteriological standard.
Principais carbonilas no ar de locais públicos no Rio de Janeiro
Sodré, Eduardo Delfino;Corrêa, Sérgio Machado;Arbilla, Graciela;Marques, Márcia;
Química Nova , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-40422008000200011
Abstract: an air quality evaluation of indoor environments with focus on lower carbonyls was carried out in 50 public places using to-11a methodology. formaldehyde levels (ranging from 12.5 to 1034 mg m-3) were above the threshold limit in 49 of 50 analyzed samples while acetaldehyde (ranging from 5.2 to 840 mg m-3) and acetone (ranging from 5.5 to 4839 mg m-3) were respectively bellow the limits of osha and niosh in all samples. however all samples were bellow the threshold limits suggested by the brazilian legislation - nr-15. a correlation study between the carbonyls and temperature and humidity was also done.
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