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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9944 matches for " in vitro studies "
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Advances in Ophthalmic Drug Delivery Systems : Part I
Yasmin Sultana,Rahul Jain,Rahul Rathod,Asgar Ali
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2005,
Abstract: The eye is a unique organ from anatomical and physiological point of view, in that it contains several highly different structures with specific physiological functions.For instance, the cornea and the crystalline lens are the only tissues in the body in addition to cartilage which have no blood supply, whereas choroid and ciliary processes are highly vascularized and exhibit very high blood flows. The retina with the optic nerve, an extension of the diencephalon of the central nervous system, has a very specific function in the visual perception and transduction phenomena. The eye has special attributes that allow local drug delivery and non-invasive clinical assessment of disease, but it is also a highly complex and unique organ, which makes understanding disease pathogenesis and ocular drug delivery challenging. The specific aim of designing a therapeutic system is to achieve the optimal concentration of a drug entity at the active site for the appropriate duration. Ocular disposition and elimination of a therapeutic agent is dependent upon its physicochemical properties as well as the relevant ocular anatomy and physiology. The primitive ophthalmic solutions, suspension, and ointment dosage forms are no longer sufficient to combat these diseases. "The primary focus of this text is to give an insight of the current research and development efforts to design better therapeutic systems. The methods that evaluate the ocular drug delivery systems are presented." Keywords : Ocular drug delivery ; In vitro studies ; In vivo studies.
Photoperiodical studies on Cuscuta reflexa
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 1967,
Abstract: Cuscuta reflexa presents some advantages for photoperiodical studies, it has a critical day length of 12 hours and flowers "in vitro" by induction of stem tips with buds. Being a parasite plant it is a good object studying the role of nutrition in flowering process. The questions studied here are: the length of minimal induction, the persistence of induction and the existence of endogenous rhythm (using cycles longer than 24 hours).
Producción y evaluación in vitro de IgY contra Streptococcus mutans
Moreno,Luz; Moreno,Claudia; Bilbao,Valentina; Acevedo,Alejandra; Felizzola,Ornella; Zerpa,Noraida; Malavé,Caridad;
Revista de la Sociedad Venezolana de Microbiología , 2011,
Abstract: dental caries is a worldwide infectious disease produce by streptococcus mutants. a strategy to combat this bacterium consists in preventing its adherence to tooth enamel through the use egg yolk immunoglobulin (igy). in this study we developed anti-s.mutans igy and determined its reactivity to evaluate its potential for preventing dental caries. the antibodies were produced by immunizing hens with lyophilized bacteria. pre and post immunization eggs were collected and their igy was purified by precipitation with peg 6000-chloroform. the highest igy level was obtained on the 42nd day post-immunization, as measured by an elisa test. reactivity was determined by western blot, showing the recognition of specific bands between 41 and 150 kda, which correspond to proteins involved in the adherence to dental surfaces. a maba test showed cross-reactivity with s. salivarum. igy activity was shown by in vitro agglutination and growth inhibition (mic) of s. mutans. these results show the potential of these antibodies for application in passive immunization trials as an alternative to prevent dental caries
Formulation and characterization of mucoadhesive buccal films of glipizide
Semalty Mona,Semalty A,Kumar G
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: Mucoadhesive buccal films of glipizide were prepared by solvent casting technique using hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, carbopol-934P and Eudragit RL-100. Prepared films were evaluated for weight, thickness, surface pH, swelling index, in vitro residence time, folding endurance, in vitro release, permeation studies and drug content uniformity. The films exhibited controlled release over more than 6 h. From the study it was concluded that the films containing 5 mg glipizide in 4.9% w/v hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and 1.5% w/v sodium carboxymethylcellulose exhibited satisfactory swelling, an optimum residence time and promising drug release. The formulation was found to be suitable candidate for the development of buccal films for therapeutic use.
Formulation strategy for low absorption window antihypertensive agent
Qureshi M,Ali J,Ahuja Alka,Baboota Sanjula
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: In the present study a hydrodynamically balanced system of celiprolol hydrochloride was developed as single unit floating capsule. Various grades of low density polymers were used for formulation of this system. They were prepared by physical blending of celiprolol hydrochloride and the polymer in varying ratios. The formulation was optimized on the basis of in vitro buoyancy and in vitro release in citrate phosphate buffer at pH 3.0. Effect of various release modifiers was studied to ensure the delivery of drug from the hydrodynamically balanced system capsule over a period of 12 h. Capsule prepared with HPMC K4 M and liquid paraffin gave the best in vitro percentage release and was taken as optimized formulation. By fitting the data in zero order, first order and Higuchi model it could be concluded that the release followed zero order release, as the correlation coefficient was higher for zero order release. It could be concluded from R 2 value for Higuchi model and K-Peppas model that drug release followed fickian diffusion mechanism.
Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal films of enalapril maleate
Semalty A,Semalty Mona,Nautiyal U
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Enalapril maleate is used in the treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris. It shows low bioavailability due to high hepatic first pass metabolism. Hence the present work was undertaken to formulate mucoadhesive buccal films of enalapril maleate with an objective to improve therapeutic efficacy, patient compliance and the bioavailability. In the present study ten formulations of mucoadhesive drug delivery system of enalapril maleate were prepared as buccal films, by solvent casting technique. Sodium carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxylpropylmethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose and polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-90 were used as mucoadhesive polymers. Prepared films were evaluated for their weight, thickness, surface pH, swelling index, drug content uniformity, in vitro residence time, folding endurance in vitro release and permeation studies. Films exhibited controlled release over more than 10 h in permeation studies. It was concluded that the films containing 20 mg of enalapril maleate in sodium carboxymethylcellulose 2% w/v and hydroxyethyl cellulose 2% w/v (formulation F5), showed good swelling, a convenient residence time and promising controlled drug release, thus can be selected for the development of buccal film for effective therapeutic uses.
Radiation Induced Bystander Effect: From in Vitro Studies to Clinical Application  [PDF]
Maria Widel
International Journal of Medical Physics,Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology (IJMPCERO) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2016.51001
Abstract: In the past 20 years, the classic paradigm in radiobiology recognizing DNA as the main target for the action of radiation has changed. The new paradigm assumes that both targeted and non-targeted effects of radiation determine the final outcome of irradiation. Radiotherapy is one of the main modality treatments of neoplastic diseases with intent to cure, or sometimes to palliate only, thus radiation-induced non-targeted effect, commonly referred to as the radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) may have a share in cancer treatment. RIBE is mediated by molecular signaling from radiation targeted cells to their non-irradiated neighbors, and comprises such phenomena as bystander effect, genomic instability, adaptive response and abscopal effect. Whereas first three phenomena may appear both in vitro and in vivo, an abscopal effect is closely related to partial body irradiation and is a systemic effect mediated by immunologic system which synergizes with radiotherapy. From the clinical point of view abscopal effect is particularly interesting due to both its possible valuable contribution to the treatment of metastases, and the potential harmful effects as induction of genetic instability and carcinogenesis. This review summarized the main results of investigations of non-targeted effects coming from in vitro monolayer cultures, 3-dimentional models of tissues, preclinical studies on rodents and clinically observed beneficial abscopal effects with particular emphasis on participation of immunotherapy in the creation of abscopal effects.
Antimicrobial Activity of Some Thiourea Derivatives and Their Nickel and Copper Complexes
Hakan Arslan,Nizami Duran,Gulay Borekci,Cemal Koray Ozer,Cevdet Akbay
Molecules , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/molecules14010519
Abstract: Five thiourea derivative ligands and their Ni2+ and Cu2+ complexes have been synthesized. The compounds were screened for their in vitro anti-bacterial activity using Gram-positive bacteria (two different standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Esherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter aerogenes) and in vitro anti-yeast activity (Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis). The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for all ligands and their complexes. In vitro anti-yeast activity of both ligands and their metal complexes is greater than their in vitro anti-bacterial activity. The effect of the structure of the investigated compounds on the antimicrobial activity is discussed.
Inhaladores de polvo seco para el tratamiento de las enfermedades respiratorias: Parte II
Mu?oz Cernada,Adriana;
Revista Cubana de Farmacia , 2006,
Abstract: the dry powder inhalers (dpi) are devices that allow the aerosolization and delivery of medications for the treatment of respiratory diseases, without the use of propellants. they are easy handling, portable and durable. according to their fluidization mechanism they can be divided into two kinds: active and passive. the characteristics of the design of some of the most commercially used passive devices for the administration of powder formulations for inhalation are described in this paper. the techniques applied to conduct the in vitro studies, as well as the results of some studies undertaken with these devices are also mentioned
Film forming gel for treatment of oral mucositis: In vitro studies
Mohamed A. Attia,Heba Y. El Badawy
International Journal of Drug Delivery , 2011,
Abstract: Oral mucositis is one of the main complications of non-surgical cancer treatments. The present work focuses on the treatment or reduction of oral mucositis by using combined mechanism by formation of physical barrier by forming a film to cover the oral ulcer and use of therapeutic agents, such as diclofenac sodium and ofloxacin separately or in combination. The selected polymers for film forming gel formulations are Hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na CMC) and carbopol 940 (CP). The residence time in simulated buccal saliva was between 5.5 to 6 hours for all formulations. The in-vitro release data of the investigated drugs from the prepared formulations followed zero-order and diffusion mechanism. The permeability studies data revealed that diclofenac sodium showed higher permeability from Na CMC/CP (2:0.3%) than from HPMC 4%, while in case of ofloxacin higher permeability was shown from Na CMC/CP (2:0.3%) than from HPMC/HPC (2:3%). The permeation parameters for diclofenac sodium and ofloxacin in their combination do not depend on either viscosity or pH, they depend on the type of polymers used. Keywords: Mucositis; Film-forming gel; Rheology; In vitro studies.
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