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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3730 matches for " impact "
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Testing the Use of Coconut Fiber as a Cushioning Material for Transport Packaging  [PDF]
Clívia D. Pinho da Costa Castro, José de Assis Fonseca Faria, Tiago Bassani Hellmeister Dantas
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2012.33023
Abstract: In spite of being a raw material of virtually unlimited availability due to the massive consumption of the highly popular coconut water, fiber produced from green coconut is much less used than the dried coconut fiber. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of green (white) coconut fiber as a cushioning material for use in packaging systems. The mechanical performance of both green coconut fibers in their natural state as well as those molded into the shape of cushioning pads were evaluated by shock absorption tests. The results showed that the fibers without agglutination agents exhibited the best performance when submitted to increasing static loads by presenting the greatest capacity to reduce impact acceleration. In addition, green coconut fiber presented behavior similar to that of cellulosic cushioning materials and in certain situations can be considered effective in protecting products that are considered fragile.
The Impact of Strategy Training on Vocabulary Comprehension  [PDF]
Yougen Lou, Pei Xu
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.43014
Abstract: This article focuses on a study of the effect of strategy training on vocabulary comprehension. 112 sophomore English-majored students at Yangtze University were chosen as participants in a strategies-based instructional treatment or comparison group students receiving the regular vocabulary course. Data were gained through the performance of a set of two vocabulary tasks on a prepost basis by both groups and were analyzed by the tool SPSS17.0. The subsample of 24 students also provided verbal report data to show their cognitive insights into strategy use and the instruction itself. The findings showed that 1) Chinese English-majors used a variety of English vocabulary learning strategies in vocabulary learning, including metacognitive, cognitive and social/affective strategies. 2) The increased use of vocabulary strategies contributed positively to vocabulary and article comprehension.
Strategic Environmental Assessment of Towns in Ecuador with Tourism Potential  [PDF]
Lourdes Ruiz
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research (JBCPR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbcpr.2016.41005
Abstract: The aim of this study is to apply the methodology for assessment of environmental impact whether of a physicochemical nature and on the biodiversity and ecosystems, or whether sociocultural and economic aspects of the historic towns with tourism interest that are assessed. The automated method of the RIAM software is used which requires a baseline study of the environment of different towns to be prepared. In addition, the analysis of the social perception on tourism of the local people from the course work of students at the UIDE shall be applied. The conclusions of the case studies undertaken allow for strategic proposals and recommendations to be prepared so that they can be incorporated into the management plans for tourism in the historic towns with heritage value.
Circular Natural Geoforms, Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina  [PDF]
Adolfo Antonio Gutiérrez, Ricardo Mon, Clara Eugenia Cisterna
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2017.79086
Abstract: We describe two circular morphological features representing depressed areas. This preliminary work is based on visual interpretations from Landsat ETM satellite images and SRTM Radar scans. The two geoforms are located at the north of the Sierras Pampeanas in Argentina. The La Ciénaga circular indentation is 15 km in diameter and Las Cejas is 34 km in diameter. Until now rings of these characteristics, magnitudes and diameters are unknown and unheard of in Argentina.
Transverse Impact Response Analysis of Graphene Panels: Impact Limits  [PDF]
Muhammed Burak Sonmez, Hessam Ghasemnejad, Hamad Kamran, Philip Webb
Open Journal of Composite Materials (OJCM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojcm.2019.92006
Abstract: Explicit numerical studies were conducted to determine the transverse impact response of graphene panels. Although the mechanical properties of graphene are well documented in both quasi-static and dynamic conditions via nano- and microscopic studies, the impact behaviour of the material at the macroscale has not yet been studied and would provide interesting and crucial insight in to the performance of the material on a more widely recognizable scale. Firstly, a numerical impact model was validated against an analytical impact model based on continuum mechanics which showed good correlation between contact-force histories. The performance of graphene panels subjected to impact was compared to the performance of panels composed of aerospace-grade aluminium and carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite. The graphene panel was found to exhibit lower specific energy than aluminium and CFRP at the low-energy range due to its inherently superior stiffness and intrinsic strength. On the other hand, the ballistic limit of 3 mm thick graphene panels was found to be 3375 m/s, resulting in an impact resistance 100 times greater than for aluminium or CFRP, making graphene the most suitable material for high-velocity impact protection.
Myth and Momentum: A Critique of Environmental Impact Assessments  [PDF]
Andrew J. Wright, Sarah J. Dolman, Michael Jasny, E. C. M. Parsons, Doris Schiedek, Sharon B. Young
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.48A2009

Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are designed to evaluate all reasonably foreseeable environmental consequences of human activities. Appropriate governmental scientists traditionally produced EIAs for management agencies in many countries. However, many EIAs are now contracted out, often to the lowest bidder without due consideration of expertise. Others suffer from limited agency resources. Consequently, many EIAs have become insufficiently researched documents that draw heavily from previous EIAs while being rushed to completion to meet legislative deadlines or avoid delaying projects. Habitual treatment of topics often ignores recent scientific literature, perpetuating previous misconceptions and analytical flaws. Common problems in EIAs discussing wildlife include: a focus on lethal takes, with little consideration of non-lethal impacts or habitat degradation; a general dismissal of the possibility that non-significant (to the resource) impacts can, when combined, become significant; and the assumption that behavioral habituation in animals represents an end of impact. Incentive to break the cycle is somewhat lacking in this now often commercially competitive environment, where contracts are increasingly awarded by industry, generating potential conflict of interest. We believe investment in thorough, impartially written, scientifically-based and up-to-date EIAs is important for appropriately representing and managing ecosystems and their resources and avoiding potentially expensive litigation.

Development of an Indicator Scheme for the Environment Impact Assessment in the Federal District, Mexico  [PDF]
Maria Perevochtchikova, Iskra Alejandra Rojo Negrete
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.43027

In this work is developed a proposal of environment indicators needed for the Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) process in Mexico’s Federal District (FD); through which are authorized the construction and realization of different work actions and activities. The methodology is based on the combination of cabinet and field work, performed in three stages. In the first, a documental review was carried out within the topic of Environment Impact (EI), the EIA and the study area, with a subsequent analysis of the environment indicators at an international, national and regional scale. In the second, the systematization of information was performed for the sixteen study cases at a local scale and the organization and analysis of a data base with the allotted information. And in the last stage, a field work was realized with participative observations in three verification sites and interview applications to the principal actors of the EIA process. These results allowed: to determine the main limitations within the EIA process (methodological, technical and operational), to propose an indicators scheme, and to formulate recommendations focused on the improvement of this Environment Public Policy instrument.

Isli and Tislit: The First Dual Impact Crater Discovered in Morocco  [PDF]
Abderrahmane Ibhi, Hassane Nachit, El Hassan Abia, Ahmed Ait Touchnt, Carmela Vaccaro
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.32A001

Isli and Tislit, the Moroccan “Romeo and Juliette” according to a popular legend gave their name to a twin lakes in Imilchil. There we show evidences that these two lakes are impact craters. The proof as follow: 1) the fragments of iron meteorites found on both sides of Isli and Tislit lakes belong to the same parent meteorite and siderite type; 2) the sedimentary formations which are almost tabular in the area of the lakes become tilted with a centripetal sloping all around and towards Isli lake; 3) the circular shape of the Tislit lake is similar to that of the Isli lake; 4) the impact breccias found on the south of the Isli lake contain shocked quartz crystals; 5) the radial fractures of high pressure affect some sedimentary beds. All these observations give evidence of the presence of an impact crater due to the fall of meteorites.

Experimental Investigation of Woven E-Glass Epoxy Composite Laminates Subjected to Low-Velocity Impact at Different Energy Levels  [PDF]
N. Rajesh Mathivanan, J. Jerald
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2010.97046
Abstract: This work presents the results of an experimental investigation concerning the low-velocity impact response of woven glass fiber epoxy matrix composite laminates. Experimental tests were performed according to ASTM standards using an instrumented falling weight impact testing machine. Impact tests were conducted to characterize the type and extent of the damages observed in laminate subjected to different impact velocities: 2 to 4.5 m/sec. The response of these laminates to drop-weight low velocity impact at energy levels ranging from 3 to 15 J was investigated. At impact velocity of 4.429 m/sec, there is clearly a catastrophic failure of laminates. It was found that the laminates exhibited two types of failure modes viz., crack initiation and perforation of the laminate.
Assessment of the Acoustic Impact of Wind Farm Projects: Methodology and Case  [PDF]
Jose Molina-Ruiz, Mari Luz García-Lorenzo, María José Martínez-Sánchez, Diego Gallego
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2018.61007
Abstract: Wind energy is a clean renewable and its benefits are considered greater than the disadvantages. However, even though wind farms represent environmentally friendly projects, they frequently generate public resistance. Wind turbines are socially controversial because of their visual and acoustic impacts. The aim of this work was to design a methodology for the preliminary evaluation of potential acoustic impact of wind farms. Three steps have been proposed: identification, characterization and assessment of the acoustic impact during the construction, operation and decommissioning phase. Obtained results in the studied area suggested that at a maximum power, at 500 meters of wind turbines, noise level is lower than the reference level established in the legislation. In summary, proposed methodology could help to determine and to evaluate the best location for new wind farm projects. Proposed methodology could help to determine and to evaluate the best location for new wind farm projects. Moreover, this method could be used as a consulting tool for public organizations and private institutions, being quick, concise and clear. Obtained results for the studied wind farm project suggested that almost all the area showed noise levels lower than established background noise level.
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