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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 30 matches for " immunopathogenesis "
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Porcine Circovirus 2: Immunopathogenesis and Recent Developments in Vaccines  [PDF]
Abelardo Silva Júnior, Otávio Valério de Carvalho, Luiz Henrique Silva Bulos, Juliana Lopes Rangel Fietto, Mauro Pires Moraes, Márcia Rogéria de Almeida
World Journal of Vaccines (WJV) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2012.22013
Abstract: Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is currently considered an important etiologic agent of swine and its infection has potentially serious economic impact on the swine industry worldwide. This virus is frequently associated with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), and also with other clinical conditions such as porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS), late-term abortions, reproductive failure in sows, proliferative and necrotizing pneumonia and congenital tremors. The term porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD) is currently used to refer to any of these diseases when they are associated with PCV2 infection. The PCV2 was recognized as a pathogen in 1997, and many questions regarding its biology and pathogenesis remain unanswered. Currently, some studies have shown the production of new vaccine candidates and field efficacy testing of commercial vaccines. This review discusses some major points concerned with immunopathogenesis and vaccines for PCV2 infection.
M. Sattari,M. Asna-Ashari,M. Ilejazi
Iranian Journal Of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology , 2000,
Abstract: The presence of immune factors in inflamed dental pulps, suggests that immune responses could participate in disease process. With regard to the presence of significant number of mast cells in pulpitis cases, the purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between concentration and presence of IgE in supernatant fluids of explants cultures of different states of dental pulps.For this purpose, a total of forty-eight pulpal samples were evaluated. They were 10, 10, 8, 11, and 9 pulpal samples from impacted teeth, normal erupted teeth, teeth with carious lesions, irreversible symptomatic pulpitis and irreversible asymptomatic pulpitis, respectively. The samples were maintained in explants cultures for 72 hours. Sandwich ELISA was used to detect and quantitate IgE in supernatant fluids.It was shown that in impacted and carious samples, there were not any IgE. The presence of IgE in normal, symptomatic and asymptomatic samples were 30%, 45.5% and 55.6%, with average concentration of 0.063+0.02, 0.24±0.148 and 0.235 + 20.17 IU/ml, respectively.Statistical analysis showed significant differences between different states of pulps with regard to presence of IgE ( P=0.0324). With regard to concentration of IgE, there were significant differences between impacted and symptomatic (P=0.0325); and carious and symptomatic (P=0.0397).It is concluded that with increase in antigenic stimuli, there is a proper condition for production of IgE, as the highest presence of IgE was related to irreversible asymptomatic pulpitis. Bacterial by-products are possible allergens, which can induce the production of IgE.
Virus del dengue: estructura y ciclo viral
Velandia,Myriam L; Castellanos,Jaime E;
Infectio , 2011,
Abstract: dengue virus (denv) is responsible for the clinical entity known as dengue that is a great concern for economy and public health of tropical countries. this flavivirus is a single strand rna virus that after their translation and replication in host cells produces three structural and seven non-structural proteins with specific function in replication or cell binding process that we will describe here. intracellular viral cycle has begun to be described and this knowledge will impact the rational design of new antiviral drugs. patients suffering dengue can have an undifferentiated fever or in the severe cases, show an aberrant immunological activation process that lead to soluble inflammatory mediators secretion, affecting tissue function, mainly endothelium. this organ dysfunction is associated with plasma leakage and coagulatory imbalance. despite it has been recently described some host factors associated with severity of infection, it remains unknown some aspects of viral biology or the role of denv proteins in disease pathogenesis. this article pretends to make an updated revision about denv structure, cell viral cycle and introduce some concepts about dengue immunopathogenesis.
The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Immunopathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis
Abbas Mirshafiey,Monireh Mohsenzadegan
Iranian Journal Of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology , 2008,
Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease associated with painful joints that affects approximately 1% of the population worldwide, and for which no effective cure is available. It is characterized by chronic joint inflammation and variable degrees of bone and cartilage erosion. Oxygen metabolism has an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in many normal and abnormal processes in humans, including atheroma, asthma, joint diseases, aging, and cancer. TNF-α overproduction is thought to be the main contributor to increased ROS release in patients with RA. Increased ROS production leads to tissue damage associated with inflammation. The prevailing hypothesis that ROS promote inflammation was recently challenged when polymorphisms in Neutrophil cytosolic factor 1(Ncf1), that decrease oxidative burst, were shown to increase disease severity in mouse and rat arthritis models. It has been shown that oxygen radicals might also be important in controlling disease severity and reducing joint inflammation and connective tissue damage. In this review article, our aim is to clarify the role of ROS in immunopathogenesis of Rheumatoid arthritis.
Cytokines: their pathogenic and therapeutic role in chronic viral hepatitis
Larrubia,J. R.; Benito-Martínez,S.; Miquel-Plaza,J.; Sanz-de-Villalobos,E.; González-Mateos,F.; Parra,T.;
Revista Espa?ola de Enfermedades Digestivas , 2009, DOI: 10.4321/S1130-01082009000500006
Abstract: cytokines make up a network of molecules involved in the regulation of immune response and organ functional homeostasis. cytokines coordinate both physiological and pathological processes occurring in the liver during viral infection, including infection control, inflammation, regeneration, and fibrosis. hepatitis b and hepatitis c viruses interfere with the complex cytokine network brought about by the immune system and liver cells in order to prevent an effective immune response, capable of viral control. this situation leads to intrahepatic sequestration of nonspecific inflammatory infiltrates that release proinflammatory cytokines, which in turn favor chronic inflammation and fibrosis. the therapeutical administration of cytokines such as interferon alpha may result in viral clearance during persistent infection, and revert this process.
Immunoactivation and immunopathogeny during active visceral leishmaniasis
Goto, Hiro;Prianti, Maria das Gra?as;
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-46652009000500002
Abstract: visceral leishmaniasis is caused by protozoan parasites of the leishmania donovani complex. during active disease in humans, high levels of ifn-γ and tnf-α detected in blood serum, and high expression of ifn-γ mrna in samples of the lymphoid organs suggest that the immune system is highly activated. however, studies using peripheral blood mononuclear cells have found immunosuppression specific to leishmania antigens; this poor immune response probably results from leishmania antigen-engaged lymphocytes being trapped in the lymphoid organs. to allow the parasites to multiply, deactivating cytokines il-10 and tgf-β may be acting on macrophages as well as anti-leishmania antibodies that opsonize amastigotes and induce il-10 production in macrophages. these high activation and deactivation processes are likely to occur mainly in the spleen and liver and can be confirmed through the examination of organ samples. however, an analysis of sequential data from studies of visceral leishmaniasis in hamsters suggests that factors outside of the immune system are responsible for the early inactivation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, which occurs before the expression of deactivating cytokines. in active visceral leishmaniasis, the immune system actively participates in non-lymphoid organ lesioning. while current views only consider immunocomplex deposition, macrophages, t cells, cytokines, and immunoglobulins by diverse mechanism also play important roles in the pathogenesis.
Role of T-cell-mediated inflammation in psoriasis: pathogenesis and targeted therapy
Flatz L, Conrad C
Psoriasis: Targets and Therapy , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PTT.S26339
Abstract: le of T-cell-mediated inflammation in psoriasis: pathogenesis and targeted therapy Review (490) Total Article Views Authors: Flatz L, Conrad C Published Date February 2013 Volume 2013:3 Pages 1 - 10 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PTT.S26339 Received: 21 August 2012 Accepted: 18 December 2012 Published: 27 February 2013 Lukas Flatz, Curdin Conrad Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland Abstract: Psoriasis is one of the most common chronic, inflammatory, T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. Over the past decade, increased knowledge of disease pathogenesis has fundamentally changed psoriasis treatment, with the introduction of biologics, and this has led to a multitude of improved selective targets providing potential therapeutic options. Indeed, numerous pathogenesis-based treatments are currently in development, as psoriasis has also become increasingly relevant for proof-of-concept studies. The purpose of this review was to summarize current knowledge of psoriasis immunopathogenesis, focusing on the T-cell-mediated immune response and its initiation. The authors describe recent advances in psoriasis treatment and discuss pathogenesis-based therapies that are currently in development or which could be envisioned for the future. Although current biologics are well tolerated, several issues such as long-term efficacy, long-term safety, and high costs keep driving the search for new and better therapies. With further advances in understanding disease pathogenesis, more genomic data from psoriasis patients becoming available, and potentially the identification of autoantigens in psoriasis, current research should lead to the development of a growing arsenal of improved targeted treatments and to further breakthrough immunotherapies.
Etiopathogenesis of Psoriasis
Tülin Ergun
Turkderm , 2008,
Abstract: Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory disease affecting the skin, joints and also having association with metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease. Although recent progress has helped in elucidating the immunologic pathways and genetic basis of the disease, the etiology remains unknown. This review focuses on the role of cells involved in pathogenesis; T-lymphocytes, dendritic cell subgroups, macrophages, neutrophils, mast cells and keratinocytes and summarizes the immunopathogenesis.
ELISA for the Diagnosis of Autoimmune Bullous Disorders Sürekli E itim
Ay?e Akman Karaka?
Turkderm , 2011,
Abstract: ELISA has been phrased as Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The ELISA provide to detect autoantigens in autoimmune bullous disorders. Therefore, it is assited understanding of the immunopathogenesis of these diseases. Recently, commercial test systems has been developed for the diagnosis and course. The aim of this paper is to review applying investigation of the ELISA for autoimmune bullous disorders. (Turkderm 2011; 45 Suppl 1: 36-8)
ELISA for the Diagnosis of Autoimmune Bullous Disorders
Ay?e Akman Karaka?
Turkderm , 2011,
Abstract: ELISA has been phrased as Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The ELISA provide to detect autoantigens in autoimmune bullous disorders. Therefore, it is assited understanding of the immunopathogenesis of these diseases. Recently, commercial test systems has been developed for the diagnosis and course. The aim of this paper is to review applying investigation of the ELISA for autoimmune bullous disorders.
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