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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7937 matches for " immunodeficiency virus "
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Smoking behavior of HIV-infected patients  [PDF]
Till Neumann, Nico Reinsch, Stefan Esser, Peter Krings, Thomas Konorza, Tanja Woiwoid, Michael Miller, Norbert Brockmeyer, Raimund Erbel
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.28135
Abstract: Recent reports describe an increased rate of cardiovascular events in smoking HIV-infected subjects. However, a lot is still unknown about smoking in this patient population. The purpose of the study was to analyze smoking behavior in HIV-infected subjects as a risk factor of coro-nary atherosclerosis and determine its effect on the probability of coronary events. We analyzed the cardiovascular risk factors of 294 HIV-infected adults (age: 42.1 ? 10.1 years; 77% males). An elevated tobacco abuse was observed in 63.6% of the HIV-infected patients. Tobacco use was much more common in HIV-infected males than in females (67.8% vs. 49.2%; p < 0.01). Even elderly HIV-infected subjects had elevated rates of pack-years, the daily tobacco consumption does not seem to change at different ages (p > 0.2). Analysing the way of infection and the status of smoking, patients with HIV-infection acquired by heterosexual contact exhibited sig-nificantly lower rates of smoking compared with patients with HIV-infection acquired by MSM (man having sex with man) or by intravenous drug abuse (52.7% vs. 67.4%/82.1%, p < 0.01). The effect of smoking on the 10yrs. probability of coronary events determined by Framingham- equation was superior compared with all other classic cardiovascular risk factors. HIV-infected patients exhibited an increased tobacco use. Knowledge about smoking behavior in this pa-tient population is essential to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular events and to implicate prevention strategies for HIV-infected subjects.
The Relationship between the Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Executive Functions in School Age Children  [PDF]
Mariana M. Pino Melgarejo, Jorge A. Herrera Pino, Norella S. Jubiz Bassi
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.65057
Abstract: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affects not only adults, but also children, many of whom are infected in the perinatal period and suffer the consequences throughout their development. One of the areas of cognition frequently adversely affected by the presence of HIV is intellectual functioning. However, although conceptually akin to intelligence, executive functions encompass a wider range of abilities and skills. The purpose of this study was to determine if executive functions, as such, are impaired in children who are HIV infected. A sample of 60 children between the ages of 6 and 12 years participated in this study. The performance of 30 HIV infected children in an instrument designed for the assessment of executive functions in school age children (ENFEN) was compared with the performance of a group of 30 healthy controls, matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status. The results revealed impairments in HIV infected children across all executive functions assessed.
Resistant Tremors and Unexplained Weight Loss Could Also Be a Sign of HIV  [PDF]
Mohammed Hamdy Ibrahim, Shivram Kumar, Janhavi Sirsat, Mohamed Khalid, Kiran Kumar
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2015.63014
Abstract: This case study is done to show a different type of presentation of a HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) patient. Neurological symptoms in HIV are normally due to Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) which is a reactivated infection caused by John Cunningham virus (JC virus). The disease causes fatal demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS). This case presented a 51-year-old Nigerian man who complained of resistant tremors and unexplained weight loss. The patient was suspected to have HIV when a MRI scan revealed T2/FLAIR hyper intensity of white matter which was a sign of PML. HIV ELISA was done and came back with a positive result. PML presenting in the form of tremors is very rare and more research is required to focus on the neurological presentation of HIV.
Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus Infection and Associated Risk Factors among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patients Attending Thika Level 5 Hospital, Kenya  [PDF]
Nchagwa Edward Mangare, Margaret W. Muturi, George Gachara
Open Journal of Immunology (OJI) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oji.2018.81001
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. Coupled with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), it causes end organ diseases leading to increased morbidity and mortality in the population. The prevalence of Cytomegalovirus infection is above 93% in HIV infected children in Kenya. Despite, a high Cytomegalovirus seroprevalence found in children, few studies have documented CMV in adults. This study was done to determine the seroprevalence of CMV infection and its associated risk factors among HIV patients attending Thika level 5 Hospital in Kiambu County, Kenya. The study also evaluated the effect CMV infection on the immunity of HIV infected patients. A cross-sectional study involving 163 HIV positive participants from different age groups was carried out. A questionnaire was used to assess the socio-demographic and specific risk factors associated with cytomegalovirus. Blood was collected and analyzed for CD4 counts, CMV IgG and IgM. The seroprevalence of CMV was found to be 89% (CMV IgG) while the incidence was 10.4% (CMV IgM). The study found that CMV infection leads to more suppression of the immunity among the HIV infected patients. In addition, education, economic status, having other sexual transmitted infections, sharing drinks, immune status and blood transfusion were associated with CMV infection (p < 0.05). The study recommends adoption of CMV screening services and education on CMV risk factors as CMV infection preventive strategies.
Infección por Mycobacterium Tuberculosis en pacientes infectados por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana
Morales Aguirre, José Juan;Ornelas Carsolio, María Elena;Gómez Barreto, Demóstenes;
Boletín médico del Hospital Infantil de México , 2004,
Abstract: tuberculosis (tb) is one of the most common infection observed in patients infected or not infected by hiv; hiv infected patients have a 50-fold risk than non-infected patients to develop tb; it is worldwide estimated that 8 millions of persons are co-infected with tb and hiv. infected hiv patients with cd4 cells over 15% presents a clinical picture similar to non-infected cases; in severe inmunodeficient patients, clinical manifestations are hidden by the poor inflammatory response. on the other hand, patients co-infected with tb and hiv have a higher risk to develop diseminated tb forms, relapses, to be affected by multi-drug resistant tb, and to present adverse anti-fimic reactions. early prophylactic management are useful to prevent tb in hiv infected patients.
HIV: Past, present and future
Harindra V
Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases , 2008,
Abstract: The origin of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has puzzled scientists ever since the illness first came to light in the early 1980s. For over 25 years it has been the subject of fierce debate and the cause of countless arguments. It is now generally accepted that HIV is a descendant of a simian immunodeficiency virus and there are many theories about how this ′zoonosis′ originated and how SIV became HIV in humans. Advances in treatment have steadily reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection. However, in the low-income, high-prevalence countries, antiretroviral medication has taken a long time to reach the people who actually need it. Access to medication must greatly improve if millions of deaths are to be avoided. HIV is a preventable disease. Unless great progress is made in prevention, the number of people living with HIV will outstrip the resources available for treatment. The search for effective vaccines and microbicides must therefore be one of the very highest priorities. HIV is a global threat. Action needs to be taken to prevent it killing many more millions than those who have already died. This action needs not only to continue, but to be speeded up considerably.
Neuroinmunological response in HIV-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome: A case report  [PDF]
Ivonne M. Iglesias-González, Alberto J. Dorta-Contreras, Bárbara Padilla-Docal, Maylin Victoria-Garcia, Ricardo Junco-Calzadilla
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2012.21005
Abstract: Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus infec- tion is associated with several different types of peripheral neuropathy: distal predominantly sensory axonal polyneuropathy, like Guillain Barre syndrome. Case presentation: A 55-year-old Caucasian woman with Human immunodeficiency virus infection, diag- nosed with Guillain Barre syndrome was studied. Serum and CSF immunoglobulin G and Albumin levels were quantified by using an immunodiffusion technique. She had preceding viral symptoms. The clinical diagnosis of the illness in this patient was pa-resthesias or sensory loss, tendon reflexes. It was also observed cranial nerves abnormalities, acute mo- tor and sensory axonal neuropathy and ophthalmoplegia. The mean CD4 count was 367/mm3, CSF white blood cell 25 wbc/mm3. The serum sodium concentration was significantly low (133 mmol/L). She had a respiratory compromise as a result of their neuropa- thy and developed congestive heart failure and hy- potension and died of a cardiac arrest. The neuro-immunological response described by our patient was a blood/CSF barrier dysfunction without IgG intra-thecal synthesis. Conclusion: There is no doubt that this study is of great importance because will help clinicians increase their knowledge of the immune response in patients with this autoimmune disorder on the basis of this case report, in which, for first time, could be seen the neuroimmunological response through the reibergram in a patient with HIV- asso-ciated Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Ethambutol Induced Optic Neuritis Associated with Tenofovir Nephrotoxicity  [PDF]
Sonia Vibhakar, Diana Yu, Romina Kee, Blake Max
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2012.22006
Abstract: Morbidity and mortality associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has decreased with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Tenofovir is a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) that is preferred by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) HIV treatment guidelines and is widely used for the initial treatment of HIV. Although tenofovir is generally well-tolerated, it has been associated with rare cases of acute nephrotoxicity. HIV-infected patients frequently have co-morbidities that require treatment, thus adding another level of complexity due to drug interactions and medication adverse effects with antiretrovirals. We present a patient who suffered an acute deterioration in renal function from tenofovir, leading to an accumulation of co-administered ethambutol, thus resulting in optic neuritis.
HIV Infection among Under-Five Malnourished Children in Kano State  [PDF]
A. Sudawa, A. A. Ahmad, S. Adeleke, L. Umar, L. D. Rogo
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2013.34045

Objective: Human Immunodeficiency Viral infection and Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) are highly prevalent in Nigeria and when they occur together, the outcome is usually severe as both conditions lead to immune suppression. HIV alone accounts for 14.0% of childhood mortality even though children constitute only 6% of global HIV infection burden. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of HIV infection among malnourished children below 5 years in Kano State, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 400 malnourished children were randomly selected and tested for the presence of HIV I & II using parallel ELISA rapid test kits, Stat park and Determine (both immunochromatographic techniques). Findings: Thirty-one samples were found to be positive to HIV 1 giving a prevalence of 7.8%. There was no statistically significant difference between sexes when male to female ratio was 1:1.3 and peak age of presentation was 2 -3 years. Sixty-four percent (64.0%) were presented with severe form of HIV infection (stage 4) according to WHO paediatric HIV clinical stage and about half of them came with marasmus by the Wellcome classification of malnutrition. There was no significant association between the type of malnutrition and the severity of HIV infection at present, (p value >

Disclosing Parental Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Status to Children in Ghana: Reasons for and against Disclosure and Effects of Decision  [PDF]
Raphael Avornyo, John Amoah
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2014.49025
Abstract: There is limited data regarding HIV disclosure in Ghana. This study sought to examine parental disclosure of HIV status to children, ascertain reasons for disclosure and nondisclosure and also the effects of parents’ decision. 26 parents living with HIV and 21 children were selected in Accra and Cape Coast purposively and conveniently and interviewed. Out of a total of 26 parents living with HIV, the majority numbering 18, made up of two males and 16 females had not disclosed their status. Reasons for nondisclosure included: fear of stigmatization and discrimination; children being too young; not wanting the children to get worried; and children thinking their parents would die. The majority of those, who had done the disclosure, were young. One effect was that most children became sad, after the status of their parents had been disclosed to them. They, however, readjusted and provided support to their parents. Another effect was that the children became knowledgeable or more knowledgeable about HIV and AIDS. In a country, where HIV is seen as a shameful disease, Persons Living with HIV (PLHIV) experience massive stigmatization and discrimination. Intensification of the fight against stigmatization and discrimination and equipping of PLHIV with skills necessary for disclosure are critical.
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