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Neuroimmune interaction between multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease  [PDF]
Basilio Vagner Ramirez, Catalina Rojas Acosta
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2013.34025
Abstract:

Inflammatory bowel disease is represented by two well-known diseases: ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. These two entities have been found on multiple sclerosis patients. Although the location and clinical manifestations of these diseases are very different, their immune response patterns present many similarities. This article examines the immune pathology of inflammatory bowel disease and its relationship to the immunological behavior of multiple sclerosis.

Comparative Immune Response Pattern of Commercial Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccines Against Field Isolates in Pakistan
Zaheer Ahmed,S. Inayat,K. Naeem,S.A. Malik
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2003,
Abstract: A comparative study was undertaken to evaluate immune response against four types of infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccines in broilers. The decline pattern of maternal antibody titres in unvaccinated chicks was compared with those given IBD vaccines, following different vaccination schedules. Indirect ELISA as well as challenge with field virus evaluated the immune response of these vaccines. The results indicated that immune response against different vaccines varied in accordance with the vaccine schedule and levels of maternal antibody against IBDV in the chicks. The challenge studies indicated that only those birds stayed refractory to the challenge in which either sufficient IBDV maternal antibody titres were present or the birds were challenged at least 2 weeks post IBDV vaccination, providing sufficient time for developing an effective immune response. So it is suggested to devise IBD vaccination schedule in the light of prevailing maternal antibody tires in day-old chicks of each flock.
Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease among an indigent multi-ethnic population in the United States
Hoda M Malaty, Jason K Hou, Selvi Thirumurthi
Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CEG.S14586
Abstract: emiology of inflammatory bowel disease among an indigent multi-ethnic population in the United States Original Research (3231) Total Article Views Authors: Hoda M Malaty, Jason K Hou, Selvi Thirumurthi Published Date December 2010 Volume 2010:3 Pages 165 - 170 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CEG.S14586 Hoda M Malaty1,2, Jason K Hou1,2, Selvi Thirumurthi1 1Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, Texas , USA; 2Michael E DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, Texas, USA Background: Environmental factors, including socioeconomic status, may affect inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There is a paucity of data on the epidemiology of IBD among patients of low socioeconomic status. Aim: To examine the epidemiologic features of IBD among African-American, Hispanic, and Caucasian patients from a county hospital, where the majority of the patients are socioeconomically disadvantaged. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on a cohort of patients diagnosed with IBD based on clinical, radiologic, endoscopic, and histological data. We reviewed charts of adults aged 20–70 years diagnosed with IBD between 2000 and 2006. Demographic data, disease subtype, and phenotypic features of IBD were recorded based on the Montreal Classification. The data were analyzed using the chi-square, Fisher exact, Wilcoxon rank-sum, and Student's t-tests. Results: The study cohort included 273 patients, with 54% female, 30% Caucasian, 44% African-American, and 26% Hispanic. Over half (54%) of the patients had Crohn's disease (CD), and 46% had ulcerative colitis (UC). The mean age at diagnosis was 40 ± 14 years with no significant difference between CD and UC (age 43 ± 13 versus 44.5 ± 14, respectively; P = 0.5). Females were diagnosed at a significantly later age than males (46 ± 13 years versus 40 ± 13, respectively; P = 0.001). This trend remained significant for females with CD and UC, and across each racial/ethnic group. Hispanic patients were diagnosed with UC more often than Caucasian patients (64% versus 34%; odds ratio [OR] 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8–6.5, P = 0.0003) or African-Americans (64% versus 43%; OR 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3–4.3, P = 0.005). Among the 147 patients with CD, 54% had fistulizing and/or stricturing disease. The prevalence of fistulizing, stricturing, and inflammatory CD was similar across all age, gender, and racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions: Within an indigent population, UC was diagnosed more often in Hispanics than CD. Females were diagnosed at a significantly older age than males across all racial/ethnic groups. There was no difference in the CD phenotypes between the three ethnic groups. Understanding the epidemiology of IBD will require examination of the interactions between gender, race/ethnicity, and environmental factors.
AN UPDATE ON NOVEL APPROACHES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE
Sidana Astha,Sharma Nidhi,Sharma Ramica
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Although many types of treatment have been proposed and clinically proven, additional therapeutic approaches are needed because many patients do not satisfactory respond to the currently available options or shows significant side effects due to their prolonged use. Therefore there is need to develop safe and effective alternative therapeutic agents for treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Plants have played a significant role in maintaining human health and improving the quality of human life for thousands of years and have served humans well as valuable components of medicines, seasonings, beverages, cosmetics and dyes. Herbal medicine is based on the premise that plants contain natural substances that can promote health and alleviate illness. The future of higher plants as sources of medicinal agents for use in investigation, prevention, and treatment of diseases is also very promising as they do not produce any significant harm to the living beings. Thus the review aimed to securitize herbal drugs effective in the management of IBD.
Kidney Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases  [PDF]
Kawthar Braysh, Alice Gerges Geagea, Charbel Matar, Manfredi Rizzo, Assaad Eid, Liliane Massaad-Massade, Samir Mallat, Abdo Jurjus
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2018.85020
Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is profoundly associated with extraintestinal manifestations (EIM) that can involve almost every organ in our body. Although the exact etiology of IBD is still poorly understood, it is generally characterized by an overly aggressive inflammatory response in the intestinal mucosa. Renal damage is one of the manifestations encountered in Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) and it accounts for 4% - 23% of IBD patients. The common renal complications of IBD include: glomerulonephritis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, nephrolithiasis, amyloidosis and iatrogenic complications of IBD treatment. Several hypotheses have emerged to explain the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the prevalence of IBD-induced kidney injuries. The present work aims to elucidate the pathological principles that drive secondary renal injury in individuals with IBD and highlight the currently used therapeutic strategies for evaluating, monitoring and treating kidney complications-related IBD.
Infectious bursal disease virus: case report and experimental studies in vaccinated and unvaccinated SPF chickens and commercial broiler chicks
Scanavini Neto, H;Ito, NMK;Miyaji, CI;Lima, E de A;Okabayashi, S;Corrêa, ARA;Eleutério, GC;Zuanaze, MA;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2004000100006
Abstract: ibdv gm 11 (simbios eleven-molecular group) has been detected since 1997 in many farms of commercial broilers and layers causing high mortality (2 to 15%) and severe macro and microscopic damage in cloacal bursae, spleen, thymus, kidney and liver. five serial passages of 2050/97-gm 11 ibdv sample by cam route in spf chicken's embryonated eggs did not elicit increased embryo mortality. high mortality (100%) of 21 day-old spf leghorn chickens and severe bursal and splenic lesions were seen from 24 up to 48 hours after eye-drop inoculation of 2050/97 strain (50 ml of 10-2 dilution of 10% bursae homogenate). mortality was not detected when vaccinated spf and broiler chickens were inoculated. one dead bird was found among ten challenged unvaccinated broilers. variations in the intensity of cloacal bursae injury and spleen response were found between unvaccinated and vaccinated broiler chickens. ibdv antibodies were detected by elisa test in almost all vaccinated spf chickens before challenge while low number of commercial vaccinated and unvaccinated broilers were serologically positive (0 to 3 birds in 18). increasing ibdv antibody titers were detected after challenge with 2050/97 strain and highest gmts were found in broilers. it was concluded that 2050/97 strain is a highly virulent ibdv and spf leghorn chickens immunized with bv8 intermediate vaccine strain were resistant to the challenge. increasing susceptibility was found from experimental groups of unvaccinated broilers to vaccinated broilers and to unvaccinated spf birds. it is discussed that passive immunity was involved in the rate of protection of challenged unvaccinated broiler and in the immune response impairment after vaccination of broilers chicks. the use of a constant virus suspension with known potency to challenge the experimental birds was suitable to evaluate vaccination efficacy. evaluation of bursal and splenic responses at early and delayed time after challenge were useful to estimate vaccination
Role of Administration Routes of Anti - Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (Gumboro) Vaccine on Immunization of Chicken
M.A.A. Babiker,E. Tawfeeg
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2008,
Abstract: The aim of the present work was to study the effect of the route of anti-IBDV vaccine administration on elevation of antibody titre and protective efficacy against Gumboro disease in addition the maternally derived antibodies titre (MDA) declining pattern was also studied. For this purpose 125 one day old progeny chicks from a known vaccinated dams were reared at an isolated pens and tested to determine anti IBDV antibody titre at day one (MDA) and day 17. At day 17 birds were divided into 5 groups; A , B, C and D based on the administration route of anti-IBDV vaccine while group E was not vaccinated and acted as negative control. Group A was vaccinated via intranasal (I/N) route. Group B was vaccinated via drinking water (oral) route. Group C was vaccinated via subcutaneous route. Group D was vaccinated via spraying (Inhalation) route. Each group was vaccinated twice at day 17 (Primary) and at day 24 (booster). Fifteen days post booster dose, sera samples were tested and birds were challenged to study the protective efficacy of the vaccine in each group. The mean antibody titre and coefficient of variation of group B were found to be superior to other groups. The protective efficacy parameters including mortality rate, gross lesions grading, bursa to body weight X 10-3 ratio and histopathologic changes grading were found to be better in group B than in other groups.
不同IBD疫苗对SPF鸡的免疫抑制作用
华南农业大学学报 , 1997,
Abstract: 用A、B、C、D4种IBD毒性型疫苗对6日龄SPF鸡进行免疫接种,根据免疫5d后法氏囊的病理变化、囊/体比、囊指数以及免疫12d后对ND疫苗的免疫应答情况等,综合评定这4种疫苗的免疫抑制作用。结果发现,雏鸡早期免疫IBD毒性型疫苗对法氏囊有明显的损害,其中对囊损伤最轻的是A苗,最严重的是B苗。这4种IBD疫苗均对新城疫疫苗免疫产生免疫抑制作用,其中A苗引起的最轻、最短暂,D苗次之,最严重的是B苗。
Znaczenie kliniczne CARD15 i nowe geny podatno ci na chorob Le niowskiego-Crohna
Katarzyna Neubauer,Anna Sadakierska-Chudy,El?bieta Poniewierka
Polish Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: Odkrycie genu CARD15 zapocz tkowa o poszukiwania innych genów, które mog by zwi zane z podatno ci na nieswoiste zapalenia jelit i przyczyni o si do odkrycia kolejnych genów opisanych jako IBD2, IBD3, IBD4, IBD5, IBD6 oraz innych. Konsekwencj odkry genetycznych s badania próbuj ce ustali ich znaczenie kliniczne, np. zwi zek genotypu z fenotypem choroby Le niowskiego-Crohna (ch. L-C) oraz prognostyczne, np. przewidywanie odpowiedzi na leczenie. Najwi cej badań dotycz cych znaczenia pod o a genetycznego w ch. L-C jest zwi zanych oczywi cie z genem CARD15. Artyku omawia znaczenie kliniczne genu CARD15 oraz inne geny podatno ci na ch. L-C.
Histopathological changes in anatomical distribution of inflammatory bowel disease in children: a retrospective cohort study
Jessica Tsang, Sheena Sikora, Donald Spady, Wael El-Matary
BMC Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-162
Abstract: In a retrospective cohort study, the medical records of children with inflammatory bowel disease were examined. Patients who had at least 2 endoscopic/colonoscopic examinations were included. Primary outcome was histopathological progression based on histopathological examination of biopsies taken during endoscopic and colonoscopic bowel examination. Factors predictive of disease progression were also examined.A total of 98 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria (49 female, 54 with ulcerative colitis, range 2 – 17 years, mean age at diagnosis was 10.6 years, SD ± 3.67), the mean duration of follow up was 32.9 months (range 0.1 – 60 months, SD ± 8.54). In the ulcerative colitis group, 41% had disease progression and none of the examined variables (age, gender, laboratory markers, growth and disease activity at diagnosis) appeared to effect disease progression. In the Crohn’s disease group, 75% had disease progression. Girls (OR = 0.13, 95% CI 0.02 – 0.79) and patients with high erythrocytic sedimentation rate (OR=0.942, 95% CI 0.894 – 0.99) were predictive for disease progression.Despite maximum therapy, the majority of children with Crohn’s disease appeared to have histopathological disease progression. Female sex and high erythrocytic sedimentation rate seemed to be predictive for disease progression. None of the factors analyzed seemed predictive of disease progression in ulcerative colitis.Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), mainly ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are chronic, lifelong illnesses with young age of onset and a great potential for morbidity. The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in the pediatric population is increasing [1,2]. About 20% of patients with IBD present before the age of 18 years old [1-7]. The natural history of these diseases is influenced by multiple factors of environmental and genetic origin. IBD showing colonic involvement has been reported to be more frequent in younger children when compared to older children [5]. Child
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