oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 212 matches for " hypothalamus "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /212
Display every page Item
Effects of Kolaviron, the Major Constituent of Garcinia kola, on the Histology of the Hypothalamus, Pituitary, and Testes Using Adult Male Wistar Rats as a Model Organism  [PDF]
A. U. Obi, P. U. Nwoha
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research (FMAR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fmar.2014.23014
Abstract: This study determined the effects of kolaviron on the histology of organs of the hypothalamic-pi- tuitary-gonadal axis, mainly the hypothalamus, pituitary and testis. The aim was to ascertain if its consumption has deleterious effects on these organs. Thirty six adult Wistar rats divided into six groups of six animals each were used and kolaviron administered at 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight. The results showed that gross cellular depletion and desquamation of cells of testis significantly reduced number of cells in the hypothalamus and pituitary (P < 0.05). It significantly reduced the relative brain weight (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that kolaviron can alter the histology of the axis which may impair its reproductive function.
Hypothalamic Hamartomas: Two Cases  [PDF]
Tushar Kalekar
Open Journal of Medical Imaging (OJMI) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojmi.2015.51003
Abstract: This is a MRI study of two patients presented with history of gelastic seizures since many years ago. Plain and post intravenous gadolinium multiplanar MRI imaging of the brain is performed. It showed well-defined non-enhancing mass lesions in the region of hypothalamus and tuber cinereum. It showed signal intensity similar to the gray matter and imaging diagnosis of hypothalamic hamartoma is made.
Mood Disorders: Protection of the Hyper-Excited Brain, or a Risk Factor?  [PDF]
Zakaria I. Nanobashvili, Irine G. Bilanishvili, Maia G. Barbakadze, Nadejda A. Khizanishvili
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2019.92005
Abstract: Emotional disturbances such as anxiety, fear, depression and aggression are often experienced by patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. These psychiatric symptoms may occur during or just after (postictal) a seizure; however, in some patients, they occur interictally (i.e. between seizures) and may profoundly change the individual’s personality. Aside from confirming that a significant proportion of temporal lobe epileptics do suffer from interictal abnormal emotionality, there has been little progress to date in identifying the fundamental nature of these disturbances. There is a lack of evidences regarding the influence of activation of emotiogenic structures and emotional behavior on development of seizures. Kindling is a commonly used animal model for study of interictal emotionality and the effects of kindling and human epilepsy on emotional behavior are the primary focus of investigators and not vice versa. Respectively, the interrelation between emotional and seizure reactions was studied in Wistar albino rats. In our study we tried to elucidate: can emotional behavior evoked by stimulation of the emotiogenic zones of the hypothalamus or of induction of acute pain stress modify manifestations of generalized seizures within the period where a “full” epileptic syndrom has been stable formed earlier? Our leading hypothesis is as follow: the emotional disturbances can be considered as the emergence of instinctive behavior with an adaptive significance of defense and as a by-product of the inhibitory processes that build up to protect against the future occurrence of seizures.
The cerebellum, the hypothalamus and behavior  [PDF]
Ivana Gritti
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.57100
Abstract:

The cerebellum has been classically considered as the subcortical center for motor control. However, accumulating experimental evidence has revealed that it also plays an important role in cognition, for instance, in learning and memory, as well as in emotional behavior and nonsomatic activities, such as visceral and immunological responses.

Gabaergic mechanisms of anterior and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei in the expression of freezing in response to a light-conditioned stimulus
Santos, Julia Maria dos;Brand?o, Marcus Lira;
Psychology & Neuroscience , 2011, DOI: 10.3922/j.psns.2011.2.006
Abstract: the amygdala, dorsal periaqueductal gray (dpag), and medial hypothalamus have long been recognized to comprise a neural system responsible for the generation and elaboration of unconditioned fear in the brain. this neural substrate is well known to be under tonic inhibitory control exerted by γ-aminobutyric acid (gaba) mechanisms. some evidence also suggests that these structures integrate conditioned fear. a recent study using the fear-potentiated startle paradigm showed that gabaergic mechanisms in the anterior hypothalamic nucleus (ahn) and dorsomedial part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (vmhdm) regulate conditioned fear. the present study examined the extent to which gabaergic mechanisms in these brain regions are involved in conditioned fear by measuring freezing in response to a light used as a conditioned stimulus (cs). the gabaa receptor agonist muscimol and the gaba-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase inhibitor semicarbazide were used as an enhancer and inhibitor of gaba mechanisms, respectively. muscimol and semicarbazide were injected into the ahn or vmhdm of rats before fear conditioning. muscimol injections into the ahn and vmhdm significantly reduced conditioned freezing, whereas inhibition of gaba transmission increased this conditioned response in the ahn. the present study further supports the hypothesis that gabaergic mechanisms in the ahn and vmhdm exert inhibitory control on the neural substrates of conditioned fear in the hypothalamus.
GABAergic mechanisms of anterior and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei in the expression of freezing in response to a light-conditioned stimulus
Julia Maria dos Santos,Marcus Lira Brand?o
Psychology & Neuroscience , 2011,
Abstract: The amygdala, dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG), and medial hypothalamus have long been recognized to comprise a neural system responsible for the generation and elaboration of unconditioned fear in the brain. This neural substrate is well known to be under tonic inhibitory control exerted by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mechanisms. Some evidence also suggests that these structures integrate conditioned fear. A recent study using the fear-potentiated startle paradigm showed that GABAergic mechanisms in the anterior hypothalamic nucleus (AHN) and dorsomedial part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMHDM) regulate conditioned fear. The present study examined the extent to which GABAergic mechanisms in these brain regions are involved in conditioned fear by measuring freezing in response to a light used as a conditioned stimulus (CS). The GABAA receptor agonist muscimol and the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase inhibitor semicarbazide were used as an enhancer and inhibitor of GABA mechanisms, respectively. Muscimol and semicarbazide were injected into the AHN or VMHDM of rats before fear conditioning. Muscimol injections into the AHN and VMHDM signifcantly reduced conditioned freezing, whereas inhibition of GABA transmission increased this conditioned response in the AHN. The present study further supports the hypothesis that GABAergic mechanisms in the AHN and VMHDM exert inhibitory control on the neural substrates of conditioned fear in the hypothalamus.
Máxima Fase estável de lactato em ratos obesos de ambos os gêneros
Araujo, Gustavo Gomes de;Araújo, Michel Barbosa de;DAngelo, Ricardo Antonio;Manchado, Fúlvia de Barros;Mota, Clécia Soares de Alencar;Ribeiro, Carla;Mello, Maria Alice Rostom de;
Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-86922009000100010
Abstract: the purpose of this study was to identify the exercise intensity equivalent to the aerobic/anaerobic metabolic transition in obese rats of both genders using the maximal lactate steady state (mlss) protocol. four groups of rats were tested on mlss protocol (swimming exercise): male control n=10, female control n=10, male obese n=10 and female obese n=10, after suitable adaptation to exercise in liquid medium and obesity induction by monossodic glutamate (msg) administration. the obese groups had significant increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue as well as mesenteric and retroperitoneal fat depots comparing to the control groups. the lee index was higher in the obese animals in comparison to their respective controls. it was possible to identify the mlss at 6.0% of body weight for both obese groups. concerning the female control group, the mlss was determined at the intensity of 5.0% of body weight, whereas for the male control at 4.5% of body weight. it was concluded that obesity induced by msg interferes in lactate kinetics during exercise and alters the effort intensity corresponding to the metabolic transition in both genders.
Fever is associated with third ventricular shift after intracerebral hemorrhage: Pathophysiologic implications
Deogaonkar Anupa,Georgia Michael,Bae Charles,Abou-Chebl Alex
Neurology India , 2005,
Abstract: Background: Studies have shown the detrimental effect of increased temperature on brain injury. Fever is common after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The term ′central fever′ ? is often used when no cause is identified. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the correlation of fever with third ventricular shift in 61 patients with ICH and hypothesize about the mechanism of fever. Setting: Neurointensive Care Unit Design: Prospective observational study. Materials and Methods: From August 1999 to April 2000, data from 61 patients with ICH were prospectively collected including maximum temperature (Tmax) and fever (T >37.5° C) at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, ICH volume, and third ventricular shift. Outcome measures included discharge mortality, 3-month National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and Barthel Index (BI). Statistical Analysis: Spearman correlation coefficient, Mann-Whitney test, and logistic regression were used to assess relationships. Results: Fifty-six per cent of patients had fever in the first 24 hours and 53% for at least two consecutive days. There was a correlation between ICH volume and Tmax at 24 hours ( P =0.04) and 72 hours ( P =0.03) and fever at 24 hours ( P =0.039) and 72 hours ( P =0.036). Tmax at 72 hours correlated with third ventricular shift ( P =0.01). Those with shift were more likely to have fever within the first 72 hours ( P =0.049) and worse outcome. Fever at 72 hours was associated with a higher discharge mortality ( P =0.046) and trend of a worse 3-month NIHSS score ( P =0.06). Conclusion: Fever is common after ICH and correlates with ICH volume and third ventricular shift suggesting a role of hypothalamic compression in "central fever." There was a trend towards a worse outcome with fever.
HYPOTHALAMIC HAMARTOMA REPORT OF ONE CASE TO PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY.
Silvia Massetta
Cuadernos de Neuropsicologia , 2008,
Abstract: The Hypothalamic Hamartomas (HH) are masses with low frequency of appearance that usually appear in nodes united to Tuber Cinereum or to the Mamillary Bodies. Since the development of the computerized tomography, hipotalamic hamartoma is considered as one of the the most common cause of precocious puberty, representing the 16% of the subjects in girls and up to 50% in boys. Despite the studies, little it is known about hipotalamic hamartoma natural history. It is considered of interest to present the case of a6 year old child, Patricia, who was diagnosed with (HH) that induced precocious puberty ; reviewing part of the clinical manifestations followed by the realised evaluation as well as the therapeutic strategy and its results after a year from the initial diagnosis.
Narcolepsy and Orexins: An Example of Progress in Sleep Research
Alberto K. De la Herrán-Arita,René Drucker-Colín
Frontiers in Neurology , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2011.00026
Abstract: Narcolepsy is a chronic neurodegenerative disease caused by a deficiency of orexin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. It is clinically characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and by intrusions into wakefulness of physiological aspects of rapid eye movement sleep such as cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucinations. The major pathophysiology of narcolepsy has been recently described on the bases of the discovery of the neuropeptides named orexins (hypocretins) in 1998; considerable evidence, summarized below, demonstrates that narcolepsy is the result of alterations in the genes involved in the pathology of the orexin ligand or its receptor. Deficient orexin transmission is sufficient to produce narcolepsy, as we describe here, animal models with dysregulated orexin signaling exhibit a narcolepsy-like phenotype. Remarkably, these narcoleptic models have different alterations of the orexinergic circuit, this diversity provide us with the means for making comparison, and have a better understanding of orexin-cell physiology. It is of particular interest that the most remarkable findings regarding this sleep disorder were fortuitous and due to keen observations. Sleep is a highly intricate and regulated state, and narcolepsy is a disorder that still remains as one of the unsolved mysteries in science. Nevertheless, advances and development of technology in neuroscience will provide us with the necessary tools to unravel the narcolepsy puzzle in the near future. Through an evaluation of the scientific literature we traced an updated picture of narcolepsy and orexins in order to provide insight into the means by which neurobiological knowledge is constructed.
Page 1 /212
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.