oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Any time

2018 ( 14 )

2017 ( 14 )

2016 ( 11 )

2015 ( 22 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 713 matches for " hypothalamic neurons "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /713
Display every page Item
Neurogenin 3 Mediates Sex Chromosome Effects on the Generation of Sex Differences in Hypothalamic Neuronal Development
Maria J. Scerbo,Alejandra Freire-Regatillo,Carla D. Cisternas,Mabel Brunotto,Maria Angeles Arevalo,Luis M. Garcia-Segura,Maria J. Cambiasso
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2014.00188
Abstract: The organizational action of testosterone during critical periods of development is the cause of numerous sex differences in the brain. However, sex differences in neuritogenesis have been detected in primary neuronal hypothalamic cultures prepared before the peak of testosterone production by fetal testis. In the present study we assessed the hypothesis of that cell-autonomous action of sex chromosomes can differentially regulate the expression of the neuritogenic gene neurogenin 3 (Ngn3) in male and female hypothalamic neurons, generating sex differences in neuronal development. Neuronal cultures were prepared from male and female E14 mouse hypothalami, before the fetal peak of testosterone. Female neurons showed enhanced neuritogenesis and higher expression of Ngn3 than male neurons. The silencing of Ngn3 abolished sex differences in neuritogenesis, decreasing the differentiation of female neurons. The sex difference in Ngn3 expression was determined by sex chromosomes, as demonstrated using the four core genotypes mouse model, in which a spontaneous deletion of the testis-determining gene Sry from the Y chromosome was combined with the insertion of the Sry gene onto an autosome. In addition, the expression of Ngn3, which is also known to mediate the neuritogenic actions of estradiol, was increased in the cultures treated with the hormone, but only in those from male embryos. Furthermore, the hormone reversed the sex differences in neuritogenesis promoting the differentiation of male neurons. These findings indicate that Ngn3 mediates both cell-autonomous actions of sex chromosomes and hormonal effects on neuritogenesis.
CHARACTERISTICS OF BURST OPENING OF Kv IN HYPOTHALAMIC NEURONS WITH TEMPERATURE RAISING
温度诱导的下丘脑神经元Kv簇状开放的特性

CAI Chun-qing,ZOU Fei,
蔡春青
,邹飞

生物物理学报 , 2002,
Abstract: 采用膜片钳细胞贴附式技术 ,观察和记录了32℃、37℃和39℃时下丘脑神经元电压依赖性K +单离子通道 (Kv)的活动 ,探讨Kv簇状开放 (Burstopening)与开放概率的关系。结果表明 ,温度升高时 ,单位时间内记录到的Burst开放明显增多 ,开放概率NPo从37℃时的0.175±0.124升至39℃时的0.696±0.187(P<0.01)。明显影响NPo的Burst开放有关参数包括Burst内部的开放数目和两个Burst开放的间期。温度升高 ,Burst开放内部开放数目增多 ,两个Burst开放间期明显缩短 ,39℃时出现较多的近Burst开放
Primary amenorrhea with transverse vaginal septum and scant hematocolpos: A case report  [PDF]
Lori Homa, Semara Thomas, Joseph Sanfilippo
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2012.21015
Abstract: Background: A genital outflow tract obstruction is an uncommon cause of primary amenorrhea. If ovulation occurs, menstrual bleeding is prevented. Patients typically present with abdominal/pelvic pain due to hematocolpos. Absence of significant hematocolpos could indicate a secondary source of primary amenorrhea and be challenging to the clinical diagnosis. Case: 17 year-old patient with primary amenorrhea, appropriate Tanner staging secondary sex characteristics, and transverse vaginal septum presents with virtual absence of hematocolpos. After vaginal septum resection, the patient began menstruating, although only evidenced by two cycles of vaginal spotting. Conclusion: Significant hematocolpos is an expected sequella of distal outlet obstruction when collated with secondary sexual characteristics. Absence of such along with suboptimal return of menstruation reflects pathophysiology which may be attributed to a coexistent disorder of the hypothalamus or higher central nervous system function.
Morphological and Quantitative Study of Neurons in the Gracile Nucleus of the Camel Brain Stem  [PDF]
Saleh M. Al-Hussain, Raith A. Al-Saffar, Sami I. Zaqout
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2012.21005
Abstract: Neurons in the gracile nucleus of the camel brain stem were studied by Golgi method. Neurons were classified based on soma size and shape, density of dendritic tree, morphology and distribution of appendages. Six types of neurons were identified. Type I neurons had very large somata with appendages on their somata and distal dendrites. Type II neurons had large somata and almost smooth dendrites. Type III neurons displayed medium size somata with dendritic appendages of different forms. Type IV neurons were small to medium spheroidal or triangular neurons. Somata and dendrites of these neurons had appendages of different forms. Type V medium-size neurons had bipolar, round or fusiform somata and poorly branching dendritic tree. Some spines and appendages were seen on somata and dendrites of these neurons. Neurons of type VI were medium-size unipolar, round or fusiform with spines on their dendrites. The radiating branching pattern was more common than the tufted for all types of neurons. Wide overlap between widths of dendrites of different orders was found for all neuronal types. Hopefully, this study will improve our understanding of the role of the gracile nucleus as major center for sensory information processing and contribute to our understanding of comparative neuroanatomy and neurophysiology.
Evolución menstrual y reproductiva favorable en mujeres adultas, que presentaron en la adolescencia trastornos menstruales por disfunción hipotalámica con respuesta alterada al clomifeno
Devoto C,Enzo; Aravena C,Lucía;
Revista médica de Chile , 2002, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872002000700005
Abstract: background: hypothalamic dysfunction is a cause of menstrual disturbances in women, in whom other diseases have been discarded. this condition is characterized by a failure of the gnrh pulse generation system and is associated to psychological and environmental factors. a lack of ovulatory response to the administration of clomiphene can be a sign of bad prognosis in hypothalamic dysfunction. aim: to report the natural history of patients with hypothalamic dysfunction and a bad or deficient response to the administration of clomiphene. patients and methods: fifty patients with hypothalamic dysfunction, that consulted for menstrual disturbances at the age of 15 to 20 years old, were studied. all received clomiphene and 31 had an ovulatory response, 12 had menses without ovulation and 7 did not menstruate. of these 19 women eleven were interviewed again about their menstrual and reproductive history, after a lapse of 9 to 17 years of loss from follow up. results: eight of the eleven women had stressful events during adolescence (going away from family house in 3, starting university studies in 3, migration out of the natal country in one and non competitive physical activity in one). all restarted their menses and eight with active sexual life had spontaneous pregnancies, giving birth from two to five children. ovulatory cycles were documented in women without active sexual life. conclusions: in teenagers with hypothalamic dysfunction and menstrual disturbances, a deficient or bad response to clomiphene does not necessarily indicate a bad prognosis in terms of menses or fertility (rev méd chile 2002; 130: 745-52)
Evolución menstrual y reproductiva favorable en mujeres adultas, que presentaron en la adolescencia trastornos menstruales por disfunción hipotalámica con respuesta alterada al clomifeno Favorable reproductive and menstrual evolution in women with hypothalamic dysfunction and lack of response to clomiphene
Enzo Devoto C,Lucía Aravena C
Revista médica de Chile , 2002,
Abstract: Background: Hypothalamic dysfunction is a cause of menstrual disturbances in women, in whom other diseases have been discarded. This condition is characterized by a failure of the GNRH pulse generation system and is associated to psychological and environmental factors. A lack of ovulatory response to the administration of clomiphene can be a sign of bad prognosis in hypothalamic dysfunction. Aim: To report the natural history of patients with hypothalamic dysfunction and a bad or deficient response to the administration of clomiphene. Patients and methods: Fifty patients with hypothalamic dysfunction, that consulted for menstrual disturbances at the age of 15 to 20 years old, were studied. All received clomiphene and 31 had an ovulatory response, 12 had menses without ovulation and 7 did not menstruate. Of these 19 women eleven were interviewed again about their menstrual and reproductive history, after a lapse of 9 to 17 years of loss from follow up. Results: Eight of the eleven women had stressful events during adolescence (going away from family house in 3, starting university studies in 3, migration out of the natal country in one and non competitive physical activity in one). All restarted their menses and eight with active sexual life had spontaneous pregnancies, giving birth from two to five children. Ovulatory cycles were documented in women without active sexual life. Conclusions: In teenagers with hypothalamic dysfunction and menstrual disturbances, a deficient or bad response to clomiphene does not necessarily indicate a bad prognosis in terms of menses or fertility (Rev Méd Chile 2002; 130: 745-52)
Hormonally modulated migraine is associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms within genes involved in dopamine metabolism  [PDF]
Amy K. Sullivan, Elizabeth J. Atkinson, F. Michael Cutrer
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2013.32A3006
Abstract: Migraine is a complex trait in which multiple genetic loci, as well as environmental factors, likely contribute to its clinical manifestation. Many genetic associations reported in previous studies either have not been replicated to date or showed only marginal statistical significance, possibly due to the genetic heterogeneity of the common forms of migraine. One major phenotypic and possibly genetically identifiable migraine subgroup consists of women whose attacks are influenced by fluctuation in gonadal hormones. We hypothesized that for these women, the association between migraine attacks and the menstrual cycle might be attributable to an increased prevalence of genetic polymorphisms in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. We selected 21 such polymerphisms previously reported to be associated with the common forms of migraine and genotyped 1740 individuals (1132 migraineurs) to determine whether any of these selected polymorphisms occurred more frequently in females with hormonally modulated migraine. We were able to confirm the association of migraine with 3 genetic polymorphisms seen in previous studies (rs4680 [COMT], rs2283265 [DRD2], and rs7131056 [DRD2]). Interestingly, we found 2 additional genetic polymorphisms (rs2070762 [TH] and rs6356 [TH]) to be associated with migraine when defining the phenotype as hormonally modulated migraine.

HAMARTOMA HIPOTALAMICO ASOCIADO A DOS QUISTES ARACNOIDEOS: A PROPOSITO DE UN CASO
Martín H,Diana; Prieto M,Pablo; Paniagua E,Juan Carlos; Benito D,Joaquin; Prieto V,Jesús;
Revista chilena de radiología , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-93082008000200011
Abstract: hypothalamic hamartomas are heterotopias of the nervous tissue which are similar to the grey mat-ter of the hypothalamus. they may cause precocious puberty and/or gelastic seizures. we present the case of a patient who began her pubertal development at the age of 9 months. cranial magnetic resonance ima-ging showed a hypothalamic hamartoma associated with middle cranial fossa and pineal región arachnoid cysts, a very rare association.
Challenges in the surgical treatment of epilepsy: hypothalamic hamartoma in infancy - case report
Mehl, Larissa Alessandra;Liberalesso, Paulo Breno Noronha;Spinosa, M?nica Jaques;Machado, Sílvio;L?hr Júnior, Alfredo;
Journal of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1676-26492012000100004
Abstract: introduction: hypothalamic hamartoma is a rare congenital malformation, characterized by epilepsy, especially gelastic seizures, psychomotor developmental delay, mental retardation, behavioral disorders and precocious puberty. epilepsy has early onset and is usually medically refractory. etiology and pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. the eeg can present disorganization and slowing of background activity and multifocal and/or generalized epileptogenic discharges. objective: to report the difficulties and challenges of neurosurgical treatment of a hypothalamic hamartoma in an infant. case report: infant with seizures since eight months old of age. the neurological investigation revealed a lesion in tuber cinereum suggestive of hamartoma. the epilepsy evolved with resistance to antiepileptic drugs, requiring neurosurgical procedure. the endoscopic resection could not be performed because the hamartoma was firmly attached to the hypothalamus. currently, the child remains with tonic, clonic and atonic seizures. discussion: lesionectomy performed by microsurgery or radiosurgery seems to be the most effective treatment for seizure control in patients with hypothalamic hamartomas who do not respond to clinical treatment. callosotomy may be effective in selected cases, and lobectomy/cortical resections are not related to seizure control. in some patients, particularly in infants, lesionectomy and radiosurgery may be technically unfeasible.
The Conductor of the Autonomic Orchestra
Aaron I. Vinik
Frontiers in Endocrinology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2012.00071
Abstract: Bad bedfellows – autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, and diabetes! Are they related? How? Evidence suggests the activation of inflammatory cytokines like IL-6 and TNFα in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and that the inflammatory change correlates with abnormalities in sympathovagal balance. Dysfunction of the autonomic system predicts cardiovascular risk and sudden death in patients with type 2 diabetes. It occurs in prediabetes, providing opportunities for early intervention. The importance of recognizing autonomic dysfunction as a predictor of morbidity and mortality with intensification of treatment suggests that all patients with type 2 diabetes at onset, and those with type 1 diabetes after 5 years should be screened for autonomic imbalance. These tests can be performed at the bedside with real time output of information – within the scope of the practicing physician – facilitates diagnosis and allows the application of sound strategies for management. The window of opportunity for aggressive control of all the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular events or sudden death with intensification of therapy is with short duration diabetes, the absence of cardiovascular disease, and a history of severe hypoglycemic events. To this list we can now add autonomic dysfunction and neuropathy, which have become the most powerful predictors of risk for mortality. It seems prudent that practitioners should be encouraged to become familiar with this information and apply risk stratification in clinical practice. After all, how difficult is it to ask patients “do you have numb feet?” and to determine their heart rate variability – it could be lifesaving. Ultimately methods to reset the hypothalamus and the inflammatory cascade are needed if we are to impact the care of patients with this compendium of conditions.
Page 1 /713
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.