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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 13815 matches for " hypoglycemic effect and phytochemical screening "
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Effect of Aqueous-Methanolic Stem Bark Extract of Acacia polyacantha on Blood Glucose Levels on Normoglycemic Wistar Rats
A.O. Okpanachi,A.D.T. Goji,I. Ezekiel,K.Y. Musa
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the blood glucose reducing effect (hypoglycemic effect) of stem bark extract of Acacia polyacantha on normal wistar rats over a 24 h period. Three groups of previously fasted wistar rats, with each group made up of 5 rats each were administered with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o of aqueous methanolic stem bark extract of A. polyacantha. The hypoglycemic effect of A . polyacantha stem bark aqueous methanolic extract was compared with that of Metformin (250 mg/kg) in fasted normal rats. Following treatment, relatively moderate to high doses of A. polyacantha (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) produced a dose-dependent, significant reduction (p<0.05) in blood glucose levels of fasted normal rats. The three doses of the extract did not significantly alter the blood glucose levels after 2 h of extract administration. After 8 and 16 h of extract administration at a dose of 200 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05) decreased the blood glucose levels when compared to control, while the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly decreased the blood glucose levels after 4, 8 and 16 h of extract administration when compared with the control group. The Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, anthraquinones, steroids and saponins. The median lethal dose (LD50) in rats was calculated to be 3807.9 mg/kg body weight. In conclusion the aqueous methanolic extract of Acacia polyacantha possesses hypoglycemic activity in normoglycemic rats.
Evaluation of Picralima nitida: Hypoglycemic Activity, Toxicity and Analytical Standards
S.I. Inya-Agha,S.C. Ezea,O.A. Odukoya
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2006,
Abstract: Hypoglycemic activity in Picralima nitida Stapf (Apocynaceae), recorded as an index of blood glucose was confirmed in normal and intraperitonially induced alloxan diabetic albino rats with glibenclamide as reference standard and normal saline as control. Toxicity study was evaluation of acute (15 days) tests. 100, 300 and 900 mg kg-1 of the extracts to normal rats resulted in significant (p<0.01) lowering of fasting blood sugar after 8 h. Extract maintained hypoglycemic action throughout the 24 h of study indicating a long duration of action. In normal rats, pulp extract (100 mg kg-1) produced a maximum percentage reduction of 38.35%, rind extract (900 mg kg-1) 46.19% and seed extract (100 mg kg-1) 36.81%. Alloxan induced rats were pulp 85.85% (300 mg kg-1), seed 83.26% (300 mg kg-1) and rind 80.25% (900 mg kg-1), respectively. Order of activity recorded as pulp > seed > rind. Acute toxicities (LD50) of pulp, seed and rind were 7071.06, 948.68 and 1364.91 mg kg-1, respectively. Analytical standards were moisture content, ash and extractive values for quality assurance.
Tamizaje fitoquímico del Malvaviscus penduliflorus que crece en Cuba
Sierra Pérez,Roxana de la C; Gónzález Canavaciolo,Victor L; Rodríguez Leyes,Eduardo A; Marrero Delange,David;
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales , 2010,
Abstract: introduction: the malvaviscus penduliflorus cav species flowers popularly known in cuba as "pasiflora" are used as sedative in the brew form. until now, however, there isn't any study on its chemical composition. objective: to perform a phytochemical screening of aqueous extracts from the flowers and leaves of m. penduliflorus species. methods: the dry fresh leaves and flowers were washed, disinfected to extract with water reflow (1:10) during 2 h in an independent way. extracts were filtered and underwent the phytochemical identification tests. results: among the compounds identified in the two groups were included the saponines, sugars, alkaloids and flavonoids. conclusions: taking into account the presence of compounds like the flavonoids and the alkaloids in aerial parts of m. penduliflorus, as well as the pharmacological effects reported for the extracts of this species, it will be interesting to perform new studies providing evidences on its effectiveness and safety, as a way to assess its traditional uses.
Phytochemical screening, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Chrysopogon zizanioides essential oil
Lima, Gabrielle M.;Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J.;Thomazzi, Sara M.;Almeida, Emyle M. S. A.;Melo, M?nica S.;Serafini, Mairim R.;Cavalcanti, Sócrates C. H.;Gelain, Daniel P.;Santos, Jo?o Paulo A.;Blank, Arie F.;Alves, Péricles B.;Oliveira Neta, Paulina M.;Lima, Julianeli T.;Rocha, Ricardo F.;Moreira, José Claúdio F.;Araújo, Adriano A. S.;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2012005000002
Abstract: chrysopogon zizanioides (l.) roberty, poaceae, is a plant widely used in northeast brazil in folk medicine for the treatment of various pathological conditions, including inflammatory pain. the present study evaluated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of c. zizanioides essential oil (eo) in rodents. eo was further characterized by gc/ms. the major components of eo were identified as khusimol (19.57%), e-isovalencenol (13.24%), α-vetivone (5.25%), β-vetivone (4.87%) and hydroxy-valencene (4.64%). following intraperitoneal injection (i.p.), eo at 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of writhes (51.9 and 64.9%, respectively) and the number of paw licks during phase 2 (56.7 and 86.2%, respectively) of a formalin model when compared to control group animals. however, eo-treated mice were ineffective at all doses in hot-plate and rota-rod tests. the eo inhibited the carrageenan-induced leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity in a dose-dependent manner (34.7, 35.4, and 62.5% at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively). in the paw edema test, the eo (100 mg/kg) inhibited all three phases of the edema equally well, suggesting that the eo has a non-selective inhibitory effect on the release or actions of these mediators. our results suggest possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the eo.
Phytochemical screening, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Chrysopogon zizanioides essential oil
Gabrielle M. Lima,Lucindo J. Quintans-Júnior,Sara M. Thomazzi,Emyle M. S. A. Almeida
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2012,
Abstract: Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, Poaceae, is a plant widely used in northeast Brazil in folk medicine for the treatment of various pathological conditions, including inflammatory pain. The present study evaluated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of C. zizanioides essential oil (EO) in rodents. EO was further characterized by GC/MS. The major components of EO were identified as khusimol (19.57%), E-isovalencenol (13.24%), α-vetivone (5.25%), β-vetivone (4.87%) and hydroxy-valencene (4.64%). Following intraperitoneal injection (i.p.), EO at 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of writhes (51.9 and 64.9%, respectively) and the number of paw licks during phase 2 (56.7 and 86.2%, respectively) of a formalin model when compared to control group animals. However, EO-treated mice were ineffective at all doses in hot-plate and rota-rod tests. The EO inhibited the carrageenan-induced leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity in a dose-dependent manner (34.7, 35.4, and 62.5% at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively). In the paw edema test, the EO (100 mg/kg) inhibited all three phases of the edema equally well, suggesting that the EO has a non-selective inhibitory effect on the release or actions of these mediators. Our results suggest possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the EO.
Antinociceptive activity and toxicological study of aqueous extract of Egletes viscosa Less (Asteraceae)
Araújo, Adriano Antunes S.;Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi;Mota, érica M.;Albuquerque-Júnior, Ricardo Luiz C.;Estevam, Charles dos Santos;Cordeiro, Luzia;Seixas, Sérgio Ricardo S.;Batista, Josemar Sena;Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José;
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Farmacêuticas , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-93322008000400018
Abstract: egletes viscosa less (asteraceae), popularly known as "macela" or "macela-da-terra", is a plant widely used in popular medicine due to its anti-inflammatory, bactericidal, antidiarrhoea, mio-relaxant, antispasmodic, antinociceptive, digestive, and anti-viral properties. phytochemical screening of aqueous extract of egletes viscosa (aeev) revealed the high presence of flavonoids. this study examined the oral antinociceptive potential of aeev in rodents using different concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.). the results showed significant antinociceptive action when tested in writhing (200 and 400 mg/kg-p<0.05) and in the second phase of formalin tests (200 mg/kg-p<0.01 and 400 mg/kg-p<0.001). the inhibition (%) of extract in the writhing test was 63.4, 56.7, and 79.2% respectively for 200, 400, and acetyl salicylic acid (300 mg/kg); for the formalin test (second phase) results were 66.1, 84.7, and 96.2% respectively for 200, 400, and acetyl salicylic acid (300 mg/kg). collectively, these observations suggest that aeev is effective against continuous inflammatory pain. aeev was well tolerated. in an acute toxicity test, oral administration of 5 g/kg of aeev was performed and no mortality rate was observed. similarly, in a subchronic toxicity study, no mortality was observed after 30 days of daily oral administration of 100 mg/kg of aeev. there was no significant difference in the body and organ weights between control and experimental animals in both acute and subchronic toxicity tests. pathological assays did not reveal any evidence of detectable differences in the gross appearance, as well as in the architectural or cellular pattern characteristics of the internal organs of the animals in both acute and subchronic tests. nevertheless, significant differences were verified between males of the experimental and control groups regarding the levels of hemoglobin and leukocytes. in conclusion, aeev did not induce any hazardous effects on the majority of the param
Cytotoxic and Growth Inhibitory Effects of the Methanol Extract of Tridax procumbens Linn (Asteraceae)
Ikpefan, E.O,Fajana A,Olowojoba J
Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry , 2013,
Abstract: Research into medicinal plants used in treating tumor-related ailments has become imperative due to the emergence of various forms of cancer diseases. Tridax procubens is one of such medicinal plants indicated in traditional herbal medicine as one of the plants used in treating tumor-related ailments. This claim was examined using bench-top assay methods involving the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of the plant to tadpoles of Raniceps ranninus for a period of 24 hr at concentrations between 10-400 μg/ml and the growth inhibitory assay between 1-30 μg/ml. After 24 h, the crude methanol extract and the chloroform fraction produced the highest cytotoxicity of 63.33 ± 1.33 and 100 % respectively at 400 μg/ml. On the growth inhibitory assay, after 96 h, the controls had an average length of 58.12 ± 5.68 mm, whereas the seeds treated with 30mg/ml of the crude extract had an average length of 1.63 ± 0.32 mm, indicating 97.19 % reduction in length. At the same concentration, the chloroform and the aqueous fractions showed 86.58 and 100 % inhibitions. The plant material was observed to contain tannins, saponins and flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and anthraquinone. The result of this work supports the ethno-medicinal use of the plant in preparing recipes for tumor-related ailments.
Tamizaje fitoquímico del Malvaviscus penduliflorus que crece en Cuba Phytochemical screening of Malvaviscus penduliflorus growing in Cuba
Roxana de la C Sierra Pérez,Victor L Gónzález Canavaciolo,Eduardo A Rodríguez Leyes,David Marrero Delange
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales , 2010,
Abstract: INTRODUCCIóN: las flores de la especie Malvaviscus penduliflorus Cav., conocida popularmente en Cuba como "pasiflora", se emplean como sedante en forma de decocción. Hasta el momento, sin embargo, no ha sido publicado ningún estudio sobre su composición química. OBJETIVO: realizar un tamizaje fitoquímico de los extractos acuosos de las flores y hojas de la especie M. penduliflorus. MéTODOS: se recolectaron las hojas y las flores frescas, se lavaron, desinfectaron y extrajeron a reflujo con agua (1:10) durante 2 h, de forma independiente. Los extractos se filtraron y se les hicieron las pruebas fitoquímicas de identificación. RESULTADOS: entre los grupos de compuestos identificados en los 2 extractos se encontraron saponinas, azúcares, alcaloides y flavonoides. CONCLUSIONES: teniendo en cuenta la presencia de compuestos como flavonoides y alcaloides en las partes aéreas del M. penduliflorus, así como los efectos farmacológicos reportados para extractos de esta especie, sería interesante realizar nuevos estudios que aporten evidencias sobre su eficacia y seguridad, como forma de avalar sus usos tradicionales. INTRODUCTION: the Malvaviscus penduliflorus Cav species flowers popularly known in Cuba as "pasiflora" are used as sedative in the brew form. Until now, however, there isn't any study on its chemical composition. OBJECTIVE: to perform a phytochemical screening of aqueous extracts from the flowers and leaves of M. penduliflorus species. METHODS: the dry fresh leaves and flowers were washed, disinfected to extract with water reflow (1:10) during 2 h in an independent way. Extracts were filtered and underwent the phytochemical identification tests. RESULTS: among the compounds identified in the two groups were included the saponines, sugars, alkaloids and flavonoids. CONCLUSIONS: taking into account the presence of compounds like the flavonoids and the alkaloids in aerial parts of M. penduliflorus, as well as the pharmacological effects reported for the extracts of this species, it will be interesting to perform new studies providing evidences on its effectiveness and safety, as a way to assess its traditional uses.
Prospección química del bosque de galería del río Uruguay
Bertucci, Ana;Haretche, Federico;Olivaro, Cristina;Vázquez, Alvaro;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2008000100006
Abstract: biodiversity prospecting is the exploration of an ecosystem for information regarding possible innovative uses in different human production processes. examples of the kind of information sought are the scientific data contained in the genetic material of living organisms, the chemical compounds they produce and their interactions or in the knowledge of people that have interacted with them in various ways. one of the tools of biodiversity prospecting is searching for chemical information. this information is contained in the compounds produced by many living beings to communicate, to defend themselves and exchange information, and they are known as secondary metabolites. in this project, we propose the botanical, chemical and biological biodiversity prospecting of the gallery forest of the uruguay river basin near the guaviyú stream. this particular ecosystem presents a substantial biodiversity of approximately 200 species with an unusual subtropical profile.
Research: PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING ON BARK & PODS OF Albizzia lebbeck Linn
Varun Chaddha*,S Nayak,Sarita Solanki
Pharmacie Globale : International Journal of Comprehensive Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: In the current research work phytochemical screening of Albizzia lebbeck bark and pods were performed. The bark and pods were collected from the station road Sipri bazaar Jhansi. The bark and pods were shade dried and powdered. The powdered bark and pods were defatted with Petroleum Ether in Soxhlet apparatus and then extracted with absolute ethanol for 24 hours separately in Soxhlet apparatus. The percentage yield of bark was calculated as 8.38% w/w and the percentage yield of pods was 9.7% w/w. The results of preliminary phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract of Albizzia lebbeck (L) bark revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavanoids, saponins, tannins, carbohydrates & reducing sugar. The results of preliminary phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract of Albizzia lebbeck (L) pods revealed the presence of proteins, glycosides, flavanoids, saponins, tannins, carbohydrates & reducing sugar. The total Ash value, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash was calculated for bark and pods of Albizzia lebbeck. The moisture content of bark was calculated as 10.04±0.178 and of pods it was 5.65±0.654. The ethanol and water soluble extractive value was also determined for barks and pods.
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