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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5233 matches for " hydro-meteorological parameters "
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Hydro-information system for drought monitoring
Goci? Milan,Trajkovi? Slavisa
Facta Universitatis Series : Architecture and Civil Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/fuace1202209g
Abstract: Drought is a natural hazard caused by the variability in climate, which cannot be prevented. However, its effects can be reduced through management systems incorporating drought monitoring. The main aim of this paper is the presentation of information system for monitoring drought warning based on the model with optimal set of hydro-meteorological parameters: minimal number, availability of gauge data and spatial distribution of measuring locations. Monitoring the relevant hydro-meteorological parameters and creation of suitable forecast tools within a hydro-information system for monitoring drought warning would serve as a platform for decision making in drought effects reduction. Significance of this idea is in the substitution of complex climatological models. It requires time and maintenance investments with a practical method for estimation of drought duration and intensity which will satisfy the users' needs and will not require considerable economic investment. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 37003: Development of hydro-information system for monitoring and early drought warning]
The residence time of the water in Lago Maggiore (N. Italy): first results from an Eulerian-Lagrangian approach
Leonardo CASTELLANO,Walter AMBROSETTI,Luigi BARBANTI,Angelo ROLLA
Journal of Limnology , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/jlimnol.2010.15
Abstract: The paper describes a numerical study for estimating the spatial distribution of the hydraulic residence time in Lago Maggiore. A 3D eulerian time-dependent CFD code has been applied under real conditions, taking into account the effects of the monthly mean values of the mass flow rates and temperatures of all the tributaries, mass flow rate of the Ticino effluent and meteorological, hydrogeological and limnological parameters available from the rich data-base of CNR-ISE (Pallanza). The velocity distributions from these simulations were used to compute the paths of a number of massless markers with different initial positions and so evaluate their residence times within the lake. The results presented here follow a two-year simulation and show encouraging agreement with the mechanisms of mixing and of deep water oxygenation revealed by recent limnological studies carried out at CNR-ISE. Further studies are in progress to improve the results and extend the research over a time period of at least four years.
EXTREME HYDRO-METEOROLOGICAL PHENOMENA ON THE HYDROGRAPHICAL BASIN OF TIMI RIVER (1965-2009)
ANDREEA MIHAELA ARBA
Riscuri ?i Catastrofe , 2013,
Abstract: Extreme hydro-meteorological phenomena on the hydrographical basin of Timi river (1965-2009). The study of extreme hydro-meteorological phenomena or of the climatic and hydrological risks involve a wide range of issues, which should start with the climatic and hydrological data and should end with the monitoring of the risk factors, in order to pass from the diagnosis analysis to the prognosis one. We intended to draw up such a comprehensive study as well because it combines the classical methodology (field research, deductive, inductive, historical methods) with the specific methodology of the Geographical Informational Systems (G.I.S.). To analyse the hydro-meteorological phenomena on the basin, we used the climatic and hydrological data collected on the field from 6 meteorological stations and from 5 hydrometric stations, during a common period of 45 years (1965-2009). The extreme hydro-meteorological phenomena which were identified on the basin and which were analysed in the study herein are: the extreme temperatures, the periods with pluviometric surplus, the heavy rains, the drought and dryness phenomena, as well as the floods.
A Preliminary Study on Rainfall Interception Loss and Water Yield Analysis on Arabica Coffee Plants in Central Aceh Regency, Indonesia
B.C. Alfiansyah Yulianur,Maimun Rizalihadi,Reza Benara
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Rainfall interception loss from plants or trees can reduce a net rainfall as source of water yield. The amount of rainfall interception loss depends on kinds of plants and hydro-meteorological characteristics. Therefore, it is important to study rainfall interception loss such as from Arabica Coffee plantation which is as main agricultural commodity for Central Aceh Regency. In this study, rainfall interception loss from Arabica Coffee plants was studied in Kebet Village of Central Aceh Regency, Indonesia from January 20 to March 9, 2011. Arabica coffee plants used in this study was 15 years old, height of 1.5 m and canopy of 4.567 m2. Rainfall interception loss was determined based on water balance approach of daily rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow data. Empirical regression equation between rainfall interception loss and rainfall were adopted as a model to estimate rainfall interception loss from Arabica Coffee plantation, which the coefficient of correlation, r is 0.98. In water yield analysis, this formula was applied and founded that Arabica Coffee plants intercept 76% of annual rainfall or it leaved over annual net rainfall 24% of annual rainfall. Using this net rainfall, water yield produced from Paya Bener River which is the catchment area covered by Arabica Coffee plantation was analyzed in a planning of water supply project for water needs domestic of 3 sub-districts in Central Aceh Regency. Based on increasing population until year of 2025, the results showed that the water yield will be not enough from year of 2015. However, if the catchment area is covered by forest, the water yield is still enough until year of 2025
Water quality protection in the coastal artificial water areas
I.G. Kantardgi,V.S. Maderich
Magazine of Civil Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: The method based on the numerical modeling of the processes, forecasting and sea water quality assurance at the design stage of the coastal hydraulic constructions like ports, recreational and bank protection structures is presented. The half-closed coastal water areas are the object of the intensive pollution and in the same time have the limited water exchange with the main basin. The research objective was the development of forecasting method of the water quality in the harborage and the guidelines on the required water quality supply. The study was carried out for the conditions of the yacht port “Grand-Marina Sochi”, which is being designed for placing in the area of seaport Sochi. The oil spill and the failures at the wastewater treatment facilities are considered like the sources of the pollution. The numerical modeling of flow fields has been applied to forecast the spreading of the pollution under the determined hydro-meteorological scenarios. On the basis of the study there were made recommendations on the program of the environmental monitoring of the sea water quality in the harborage.
Influence of hydro-meteorological factors on the work of port complexes of the astrakhan region
Novikov Vladimir Ivanovich,Bukharitsin Peter Ivanovich
Vestnik of Astrakhan State Technical University. Series: Marine Engineering and Technologies , 2009,
Abstract: Unsteadiness of climatic and hydrological factors badly influences the work of port complexes of the Astrakhan region, on the activity of all branches of the national economy of the whole North-Caspian region. It causes significant additional material expenses, both in warm and cold seasons. The results of eco-nomic, management and other decisions, taken on the grounds of hydro-meteorological information, are expressed not only by economic, but also social, ecological, organizing, scientific and technological effect, and it is particularly actual during the current financial-economic crisis.
Correlations of Stream Flow and Climatic Variables for a Large Glacierized Himalayan Basin  [PDF]
Manohar Arora, Rakesh Kumar, Jatin Malhotra, Naresh Kumar
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.614122
Abstract: Streamflow represents the integrated response of a watershed to climatic variables, particularly precipitation and air temperature. In this study, relationships between discharge and hydro meteorological parameters near the snout of Gangotri Glacier were investigated. The auto correlations and multi day influence of temperature and rainfall on discharge can provide valuable information about the Glacier response which can be helpful for estimating discharge in data scarce regions. The data for eight continuous ablation seasons (2000-2007) were used investigating correlations, lag cross correlations and multivariate regression analysis between daily mean discharge, daily mean temperature and daily rainfall, whereas last four years data (2008-2011) was used to simulate the daily discharge from the established relations. Snowmelt discharge varies during the rise in the annual temperature cycle in response to the combination of temperature variation and the amount of water held in the evolving snowpack. The discharge and temperature is highly auto correlated. It was found that discharge of a particular day (Qi) is well represented by the regression equation having Qi-1, Ti, and Ri. Such developed regression equation can be used for computing discharge once its input variables are available. The regression equation developed using the eight year data i.e. Qi = 2.962 + 1.011Qi-1 - 0.422Ti + 0.203Ri is used for forecasting of discharge. For all the years discharge was computed with high accuracy (R2 - 0.93).
Spectral Variations of AOD and Its Validation Using MODIS: First Cut Results from Kannur, India  [PDF]
K. M. Praseed, T. Nishanth, M. K. Satheesh Kumar
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2012.21011
Abstract: The properties of aerosols present in the atmosphere are often influenced by the environment in which they are being disbursed. Subsequently, the variation in the environmental conditions may severely affect the aerosol size and distribution. Thus it is quite exciting to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of AOD that are being affected by the significant changes in the environment to a large extent. This paper presents preliminary observations of diurnal variation of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over two distinct locations in Kannur, India. The AOD over a location which has strong marine influence shows the presence of coarse particles while that on a valley of Western Ghats reveals the combined influences of both land and the ocean. The correlation between AOD measured from the ground and that retrieved from MODIS is fairly good. The AODs retrieved from ground based observation is validated with that estimated from MODIS in the context of meteorological parameters observed during the period of this observation.
Investigation of the Effect of Ambient Temperature and Geomagnetic Activity on the Vascular Parameters of Healthy Volunteers  [PDF]
Yury Gurfinkel, Tamara Breus, Tatyana Zenchenko, Vadim Ozheredov
Open Journal of Biophysics (OJBIPHY) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2012.22007
Abstract: Aim of this paper is to reveal whether the geomagnetic activity (GMA) and meteorological factors (MFs) affect vascular parameters of healthy volunteers. As a trial study we used new device “Tonocard,” and new vascular parameters for study—a pulse wave velocity (PWV) and an endothelial function (EnF) in addition to blood pressure measurements. These parameters never investigated before in such aspects. As far as novelty of device itself and investigated parameters we limited ourselves by monitoring only four healthy volunteers (without cardiovascular pathology). To analyze the sensitivity of their aforementioned medical indices to GMA and MFs two independent mathematical approaches were used, one of whom is based on traditional methods of mathematical statistics and the other on the theory of pattern recognition Dependence of physiological characteristics on the atmospheric temperature, revealed by both applied mathematical approaches, showed complex non-linear character of biological replies: the reaction has a different form in different temperature ranges and is manifested in the form of synchronization of slow variations of physiological and atmospheric parameters (trends) with a period of several days, while the daily variations were virtually independent. The systolic blood pressure (SBP), PWV and a difference between two specially selected values of PWV (DPWV) are approximately equally depending on atmospheric temperature, which accounts for an average of 26% to 28% of their variations. Sensitivity to the GMA for this test was found only for PWV.
A Preliminary Study on Rainfall Pattern before and after the January 26, 2001 Bhuj Earthquake (Mw 7.7) over Kachchh Region of Western Peninsular, India  [PDF]
Parul C. Trivedi, H. P. Joshi, Imtiyaz A. Parvez
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.510092
Abstract: Under the influence of great debate on relation between earthquake and rainfall, some scientists have carried out detailed study and now commonly accepted that heavy rainfall can trigger earthquake at the faults or fractures depending upon the local geology. Here, an attempt is made to check relation between earthquake and rainfall with different scientific approaches. We have attempted to critically examine the relation between the Bhuj earthquake-aftershocks sequence and the rainfall pattern over the region as large earthquake (Mw 7.7) has occurred on January 26, 2001 in Kachchh region of western peninsular shield of India and the aftershocks are being reported till the date. We have analyzed rainfall data for 20 years, i.e. 10 years before and 10 years after the main shock of January 26, 2001, recorded by three meteorological observatories in the Kachchh region. We have studied annual total rainfall for two decades, annual rainfall departures from the climate normals, number of rainy days and number of heavy rainfall days during the period for all the three meteorological observatories of Kachchh region. We have found significant increase in all the measured rainfall parameters i.e. annual total rainfall, number of rainy days and number of heavy rainfall days over the Kachchh region during last decade i.e., from 2001 to 2010 after the main shock. Numbers of negative departures have been decreased during the last decade compared to previous decade. Thus rainfall pattern over Kachchh region is being changed. This increase in rainfall activity over Kachchh region may have been influenced by large earthquake and continuing aftershock activities over the region.
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