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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 17307 matches for " human rights abuses "
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Faces da juventude brasileira: entre o ideal e o real
Souza, Candida de;Paiva, Ilana Lemos de;
Estudos de Psicologia (Natal) , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-294X2012000300002
Abstract: the study of youth has been gradually conquering space in public agenda and in the scientific field. permeated by historical contradictions, either in the way the society conceives it, or how the young population realize themselves as subjects, youth consists of a heterogeneous social category, built in accordance with different eras and societies. the aim of this paper is to develop a concept of youth from the rescue of this social construction. boundaries that delimitate this concept are pointed out, as well paradoxal contexts in which it is inserted, where different faces in which this phenomenon presents itself in society are elucidated, specially from the perspective of present day society, in contrast to reality of rights violation that ravages a large part of brazilian youth.
Dos derechos al revés: reflexiones sobre los derechos a la vida y a la paz en el mundo actual
Franco,Saúl;
Salud Colectiva , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1851-82652007000300008
Abstract: this document addresses the concepts of life and peace, as well as the understanding of these two concepts as human rights. it also analyzes how both rights are being severely and systematically violated within and among countries, in the present state of world affairs. departing from the contributions of different fields towards the concept of life, this article focuses on the recognition of life as the essential right and as the basis for all other rights. the author then presents a realistic and worrisome view of the current state of life and peace as human rights. statements are backed by data on homicides, forceful displacements, kidnappings and refugees in some of the most representative armed conflicts of today, including the invasion and subsequent war in iraq and the armed conflicts of sudan, afghanistan, israel-palestine and colombia. the article concludes with the author's view of possible mechanisms and actions whereby individuals could contribute to the promotion of life and peace, and to a reduction in the violation of these two human rights.
Homicídios, desenvolvimento socioecon?mico e violência policial no Município de S?o Paulo, Brasil
Peres,Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Cardia,Nancy; Mesquita Neto,Paulo de; Santos,Patrícia Carla dos; Adorno,Sérgio;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892008000400007
Abstract: objective: to analyze the association between police violence and homicide mortality rates taking into consideration the effect of contextual variables. methods: this was an environmental, cross-sectional study that included the 96 census districts in the city of s?o paulo. the association between the variables was analyzed using spearman's rank correlation and simple and multiple regression analysis. results: univariate analysis revealed a strong and significant association between homicide mortality coefficients and all the indicators of socioeconomic development and police violence. after controlling for potential confounding factors, the association between police violence and homicide mortality coefficients remained strong and significant. this significance was lost only after control for the size of the resident population. conclusion: the results indicate that police action that violates basic human rights is not the right answer to urban violence. the combination of homicides from interpersonal violence and deaths from police violence results in negative socialization and promotes further violence.
Graves viola??es de direitos humanos e desigualdade no município de S?o Paulo
Ruotti,Caren; Freitas,Taís Viudes de; Almeida,Juliana Feliciano de; Peres,Maria Fernanda Tourinho;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102009005000027
Abstract: objective:to analyze the profile of gross human rights violations, and the relationship between these violations and socioeconomic and demographic indicators. methods:cross-sectional ecological study of 96 census districts of the city of s?o paulo (southeastern brazil) in the year 2000. the data used came from the gross human rights violations database maintained by the núcleo de estudos de violência (center for the study of violence) at the universidade de s?o paulo. this database contains information on all the cases of summary executions, lynching and police violence reported on the written press. socioeconomic and demographic data were obtained from the 2000 census carried out by the instituto brasileiro de geografia e estatística (brazilian institute of geography and statistics). a descriptive analysis of the data was carried out, and the association between the dependent variable - gross human rights violations (number of police violence victims, lynching episodes and summary executions) -, and different socioeconomic and demographic variables was tested. in order to test this association the spearman's correlation test was used. results: the correlations between gross human rights violations and the socioeconomic and demographic indicators were statistically significant, except for the urbanization rate and the hospital beds per 1000 inhabitants. the strongest correlations were found between the dependent variable and the following variables: size of the resident population (r=0,693), proportion of youths aged from 15 to 24 years (r=0,621), and proportion of household heads with no education or with up to three years of schooling (r=0,590). conclusions: gross human rights violations more markedly occur in the population with the worst living conditions. therefore, in a scenario in which inequality in attaining social and economic rights is directly superposed to the violation of civil rights, the violence cycle is intensified and perpetuated.
La seguridad jurídica frente a sentencias definitivas: Tutela contra sentencias
Quinche-Ramírez,Manuel-Fernando;
Estudios Socio-Jurídicos , 2010,
Abstract: this article works with the themes of judicial security and the tutela action against decisions. it seeks to demonstrate two things: the first is that judicial insecurity that seems to occur in colombia does not have its origins in the decisions emanating from the tutela deciding judges, but in the irregular normative practices of the congress and the presidency of the republic. the second is to examine decisions issued by local judges, from the point of view of the practices of the inter-american system for the protection of human rights, of which colombia forms a part and to which, as a result, conforms itself to the american convention on human rights.
Is the outcome of schizophrenia really better in developing countries?
Patel, Vikram;Cohen, Alex;Thara, Rangaswamy;Gureje, Oye;
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-44462006000200014
Abstract: that schizophrenia has a better prognosis in non-industrialized societies has become an axiom in international psychiatry; the evidence most often cited comes from three world health organization (who) cross-national studies. although a host of socio-cultural factors have been considered as contributing to variation in the course of schizophrenia in different settings, we have little evidence from low-income countries that clearly demonstrates the beneficial influence of these variables. in this article, we suggest that the finding of better outcomes in developing countries needs re-examination for five reasons: methodological limitations of the world health organization studies; the lack of evidence on the specific socio-cultural factors which apparently contribute to the better outcomes; increasing anecdotal evidence describing the abuse of basic human rights of people with schizophrenia in developing countries; new evidence from cohorts in developing countries depicting a much gloomier picture than originally believed; and, rapid social and economic changes are undermining family care systems for people with schizophrenia in developing countries. we argue that the study of the long-term course of this mental disorder in developing countries is a major research question and believe it is time to thoroughly and systematically explore cross-cultural variation in the course and outcome of schizophrenia.
Faces da juventude brasileira: entre o ideal e o real Faces of Brazilian youth: between the ideal and the real
Candida de Souza,Ilana Lemos de Paiva
Estudos de Psicologia (Natal) , 2012,
Abstract: O estudo da temática da juventude vem, paulatinamente, ganhando espa o no meio científico e na agenda pública. Permeada por históricas contradi es, seja na forma como a sociedade a concebe, seja como os próprios jovens se percebem enquanto sujeitos, a juventude consiste em uma categoria social heterogênea, construída de acordo com épocas e sociedades distintas. O objetivo deste artigo é fazer uma conceitua o da juventude a partir do resgate dessa constru o social. S o apontadas as fronteiras que a delimitam, bem como os contextos paradoxais nos quais está inserida, em que s o elucidadas as diferentes faces com as quais esse fen meno se apresenta na sociedade, especialmente a partir da perspectiva da sociedade atual a seu respeito, em contraponto à realidade de viola es de direitos que assola grande parte da juventude brasileira. The study of youth has been gradually conquering space in public agenda and in the scientific field. Permeated by historical contradictions, either in the way the society conceives it, or how the young population realize themselves as subjects, youth consists of a heterogeneous social category, built in accordance with different eras and societies. The aim of this paper is to develop a concept of youth from the rescue of this social construction. Boundaries that delimitate this concept are pointed out, as well paradoxal contexts in which it is inserted, where different faces in which this phenomenon presents itself in society are elucidated, specially from the perspective of present day society, in contrast to reality of rights violation that ravages a large part of brazilian youth.
Mexico's northern border conflict: collateral damage to health and human rights of vulnerable groups
Beletsky,Leo; Martinez,Gustavo; Gaines,Tommi; Nguyen,Lucie; Lozada,Remedios; Rangel,Gudelia; Vera,Alicia; McCauley,Heather L.; Sorensen,Andrea; Strathdee,Steffanie A.;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892012000500008
Abstract: objective: to compare distributions of human rights violations and disease risk; to juxtapose these patterns against demographic and structural environmental variables, and to formulate implications for structural interventions. methods: female sex workers who inject drugs were surveyed in tijuana and ciudad juarez, mexico. structured interviews and testing for sexually transmitted infections (stis) were conducted (october 2008 to october 2009). frequencies of individual and environmental factors, including police abuse, risk of hiv infection, and protective behaviors, were compared between sites using univariate logistic regression. results: of 624 women, almost half reported police syringe confiscation despite syringes being legal; 55.6% reported extortion (past 6 months), with significantly higher proportions in ciudad juarez (p < 0.001). reports of recent solicitation of sexual favors (28.5% in tijuana, 36.5% in ciudad juarez, p = 0.04) and sexual abuse (15.7% in tijuana, 18.3% in ciudad juarez) by police were commonplace. prevalence of stis was significantly lower in tijuana than in ciudad juarez (64.2% and 83.4%, p < 0.001), paralleling the lower prevalence of sexual risk behaviors there. ciudad juarez respondents reported significantly higher median number of monthly clients (6.8 versus 1.5, p < 0.001) and lower median pay per sex act (us$ 10 versus us$ 20, p < 0.001) (in the past month). relative to tijuana, security deployment, especially the army's presence, was perceived to have increased more in ciudad juarez in the past year (72.1% versus 59.2%, p = 0.001). conclusions: collateral damage from police practices in the context of mexico's drug conflict may affect public health in the northern border region. itinerant officers may facilitate disease spread beyond the region. the urgency for mounting structural interventions is discussed.
Traumatic experiences, psychophysical consequences and needs of human trafficking victims
Banovi? Bo?idar,Bjelajac ?eljko
Vojnosanitetski Pregled , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/vsp1201094b
Abstract: nema
Enforcement of Fundamental Rights in National Constitutions: Resolving the Conflict of Jurisdiction between the Federal High Court and State High Court in Nigeria  [PDF]
Odike Felix, Alero Akujobi
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2018.91004
Abstract: Fundamental human rights are those natural or human rights that are guaranteed to individuals as a citizen of a free and civilized state. They are incorporated in the supreme or basic law of a country as fundamental human rights. This paper examines the conflict of jurisdictions between the federal high court and the state high courts in the enforcement of fundamental human rights with particular emphasis on how the Nigerian case law has contributed to the confusion. To resolve the issue, the paper surveyed the position of enforcement of fundamental human rights in few other common law jurisdictions such as India, Pakistan and Ghana, and concluded that in Nigeria, the federal high court only has jurisdiction to enforce fundamental human rights arising from a cause of action that falls within its limited exclusive jurisdiction.
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