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Evolution and the Prevention of Violent Crime  [PDF]
Jason Roach, Ken Pease
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.24062
Abstract: This paper suggests how violence prevention can be better informed by embracing an evolutionary approach to understanding and preventing violent crime. Here, ethical crime control through an evolutionary lens is considered and speculation is offered as to what an evolution-evidenced crime reduction programme might look like. The paper begins with an outline of the current landscape of crime prevention scholarship within criminology and presents some possible points of contact with actual or possible violence reduction practice, including child homicide and violence against women. The paper concludes with suggestions for an ethical research agenda for reducing violence, whereby it is hoped that an audience of open-minded criminologists and diverse students of evolution may lend a hand in increasing the sophistication of the criminological study of violence prevention.
Homicide in southern India—A five-year retrospective study  [PDF]
Sachidananda Mohanty, Sujan Kumar Mohanty, Kiran Kumar Patnaik
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research (FMAR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fmar.2013.12004
Abstract: Homicide has become a common practice reflecting anger in southern India. The purpose of this study was to identify the potential risk factors and susceptible victims. This retrospective study analyses the data of 590 cases. Our study revealed that the victims were mostly males of 21 - 30 years, married (63.56%), illiterates (44.07%), low socioeconomic status and belong to rural areas. The laborers and farmers were almost equally affected in males and housewives in females. Outdoor incidents were more (61.86%). Majority of victims were innocent (82.20%) with no previous history of cognizable offence. Blood alcohol was found positive in 30.23% of victims. Sharp cutting weapons were mostly used, with hemorrhage and shock being the most common cause of death. Previous enmity and familial disharmony were the two common causes behind such heinous crime. Most victims had injuries over multiple body parts. Some potential risk factors and their preventive measures pointed at the end.
Book review - Recension - Recensione
Bisi R.
Rivista di Criminologia, Vittimologia e Sicurezza , 2009,
Abstract: L. Mucchielli et P. Spierenburg (sous la direction de), Histoire de l’homicide en Europe. De la fin du Moyen ge à nos jours, La Découverte, Paris, 2009
Homicídio seguido de suicídio na cidade de Porto Alegre
, Samantha Dubugras;Werlang, Blanca Susana Guevara;
Estudos de Psicologia (Campinas) , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-166X2007000200005
Abstract: this paper intended to characterize the profile of individuals who have committed homicide followed by suicide in porto alegre, during an 8-year period. the information about the events were gotten by newspaper articles and police inquiries researches, and through informants' interviews. in the 14 cases located, the event seems to be a gender-related phenomenon, as men were the killers, while women and children were the victims. the most used method for both the homicide and suicide was gunshot. the victim's home was the place where most homicides and suicides were committed, usually during the morning. in five cases, the event triggers were jealousy, threats or end of a relationship. the aggressor had problems in his primary support group, signs of impulsiveness , aggressiveness, alcohol abuse and criminal records, especially due to violence against his own family.
Universitas Psychologica , 2007,
Abstract: homicide followed by suicide (h/s) is a complex and poorly studied phenomenon. this research aims at identifying h/s cases occurred in porto alegre from 1996 throughout 2004. information on h/s was extracted from newspapers, police reports and interviews with the informants. from the 14 identified cases, men were the killers/suicides and women and children their victims. the most frequently used weapons were firearms. in general, the aggressor was an impulsive, aggressive individual showing problems within its primary supporting group, possibly suffering depression and alcohol-addicted with criminal backgrounds (violence against the family). events were mainly triggered by jealousy, threats or the end of a love relationship.
Universitas Psychologica , 2007,
Abstract: Homicide followed by suicide (H/S) is a complex and poorly studied phenomenon. This research aims at identifyingH/S cases occurred in Porto Alegre from 1996 throughout 2004. Information on H/S was extracted from newspapers,police reports and interviews with the informants. From the 14 identified cases, men were the killers/suicides andwomen and children their victims. The most frequently used weapons were firearms. In general, the aggressor was animpulsive, aggressive individual showing problems within its primary supporting group, possibly suffering depressionand alcohol-addicted with criminal backgrounds (violence against the family). Events were mainly triggered by jealousy,threats or the end of a love relationship.
Female Infanticide in 19th-Century India: A Genocide?  [PDF]
Pramod Kumar Srivastava
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2014.35022
Abstract: In post-colonial India the female foeticide, a practice evolved from customary female infanticide of pre-colonial and colonial period, committed though in separate incidents, has made it almost a unified wave of mass murder. It does not fulfil the widely accepted existing definition of genocide but the high rate of abortion of legitimate girl-foetus by Indian parents makes their crime a kind of group killing or genocide. The female foeticide in post-colonial India is not a modern phenomenon but was also prevalent in pre-colonial India since antiquity as female infanticide and the custom continued in the 19th century in many communities of colonial India, documentation of which are widely available in various archives. In spite of the Act of 1870 passed by the Colonial Government to suppress the practice, treating it a murder and punishing the perpetrators of the crime with sentence of death or transportation for life, the crime of murdering their girl children did not stop. During a period of five to ten years after the promulgation of the Act around 333 cases of female infanticide were tried and 16 mothers were sentenced to death, 133 to transportation for life and others for various terms of rigorous imprisonment in colonial India excluding British Burma and Assam where no such crime was reported. The present paper, on the basis of unpublished proceedings and files of Judicial and Criminal department of nineteenth century and published documents, presents a critical discussion on consideration of such unified wave of customary criminality as a sexually selective genocide, its concepts and location of female infanticide in selective areas dominated by specific patriarchal ethos of Hinduism alone, the religious and economic causes behind formation of a historically reliant peculiar Indian mind set, its nineteenth century encounter with legislative measures of astounded colonial state still responsible for continuation of such criminality in more sophisticated way with the help of modern technology, and historically reliant patriarchal mind set of post-colonial Indian state.
Violência urbana: um desafio para o pediatra
Phebo, Luciana;Moura, Anna Tereza M. S. de;
Jornal de Pediatria , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0021-75572005000700009
Abstract: objectives: to present the main aspects of an approach to urban violence among children and adolescents and to point out the social and educational role of pediatricians. sources of data: a literature review based on medline, lilacs and scielo was carried out for the years 1993 to 2005, using the following keywords: urban violence, children and adolescents. in addition to the review, policies and institutional reports on violence were also analyzed. summary of the findings: the causal relationship of violence is presented in a range of different ways, from personal points of view to broader structural aspects. the literature suggests that urban violence results from varied actions, and also from specific risk behaviors. it is a worrying and complex phenomenon that results in high levels of morbidity and mortality, affecting children and adolescents. special attention was given to homicide and to the psychological results of violent acts. firearms are the most lethal instruments among adolescents and young males when compared to all other causes of death. conclusions: urban violence is one of the main social problems in brazil. violence prevention requires intersectoral and multiprofessional actions with the participation of the government and of the organized civil society. children, and above all adolescents, are the groups that are most widely exposed to the consequences of urban violence. pediatricians can have an important role in the process of prevention, diagnosis and treatment. through their wide-ranging abilities, pediatricians are well-positioned to help victims and their families to establish a healthy and dynamic relationship with their environment and with themselves.
Social inequalities and the rise in violent deaths in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil: 2000-2006
Viana, Luiz Antonio Chaves;Costa, Maria da Concei??o Nascimento;Paim, Jairnilson Silva;Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2011001400016
Abstract: an ecological study was carried out using information zones as units of analysis in order to assess the evolution of socio-spatial inequalities in mortality due to external causes and homicides in salvador, bahia state, brazil, in 2000 and 2006. the brazilian institute of geography and statistics (instituto brasileiro de geografia e estatística - ibge) and the city health department (secretaria municipal de saúde) provided the data sources, and causes of death were reviewed and reclassified based on reports from the institute of legal medicine (instituto médico legal). the information zones were classified into four social strata according to income and schooling. the ratio between mortality rates (inequality ratio) was calculated and confirmed a rise of 98.5% in the homicide rate. in 2000, the risk of death due to external causes and murders in the stratum with the worst living conditions was respectively 1.40 and 1.94 times greater than in the reference stratum. in 2006 these figures were 2.02 and 2.24. the authors discuss the implications for inter-sectoral public policies, based on evidence from the study's findings.
O aumento no encarceramento e a redu??o nos homicídios em S?o Paulo, Brasil, entre 1996 e 2005
Nadanovsky, Paulo;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2009000800022
Abstract: the social development of brazilian states has generally not been followed by a reduction in homicide rates. a positive exception is the state of s?o paulo, which experienced a clear reduction in its homicide rate from 1999 to 2005. there was a marked increase in the incarceration rate that preceded and then coincided with an equally important decline in the homicide rate. a bivariate granger causality test showed that past incarceration rates helped predict homicide in the state of s?o paulo from 1999 to 2005. although it was not possible to conclude that this relationship is causal, a clear temporal association was observed, consistent with the interpretation that the increase in the incarceration of criminals had the effect of disabling or deterring crime in s?o paulo. other factors not assessed in this study may have caused the reduction in homicides in the state of s?o paulo from 1999 to 2005.
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