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Historically, the definition of the
University is inevitably dynamically changed by the theories, culture and
social perspectives of different times. The university in the 21st century has an
obvious tendency to much more flexible, integrated and most importantly, civic.
This paper firstly clarifies the definition of the university; then the
relationships between the university and the city are discussed. Thirdly, the
civic university in U.K and U.S are separately reviewed. Lastly, the trend of
the university—civic—is summarised and the future work on how to make high
density university in 21st century increasingly civic is proposed.
In recent years, many
Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) have experienced a decline
in enrollment and prestige. Several leading scholars attribute this to societal
shifts that have challenged the historical mission of HBCUs. Higher education’s
current environment demands a transformation of how HBCU leadership is
administered if these institutions are to survive. Distributed leadership
focuses primarily on the process of leadership rather than the traditional
perspective of a single, dynamic leader at the top of a hierarchical chain, as
is typically experienced at most HBCUs. This paper will contend that
distributed leadership is an effective leadership strategy for the maintenance,
sustainability, and advancement of HBCUs.
This paper searches for another empirical
evidence supporting positive externalities from higher education. Using state-level
US data on agriculture and IT industries, we find that there are positive
spillover effects from more-knowledge intensive workers in the IT
industry to less-knowledge intensive workers in the agricultural
industry. According to our empirical findings, one well-educated IT worker
generates and contributes $11,000 to the agricultural industry, which implies that
the benefits of higher education are diffused from education beneficiaries to
the other member of society.