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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 921 matches for " hidden sugars "
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An analysis of concentration of sucrose, endogenous pH, and alteration in the plaque pH on consumption of commonly used liquid pediatric medicines
Sunitha S,Prashanth G,Shanmukhappa,Chandu G
Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Many parents are often unaware of the hidden, added sugars in many foods and drinks including pediatric liquid medicines; thus, hidden sugar in the form of pediatric medications has not been focused upon as cariogenic agents. Objective: (i) assess concentration of sucrose in six pediatric drugs, (ii) determine endogenous pH of these drugs, and (iii) estimate drop in the plaque pH in the oral cavity in first 30 minutes after consumption of the drugs. Materials and Methods: Ten adult volunteers with mean age of 22 years were double blinded for the study. Concentration of sucrose was assessed by volumetric method at Department of Chemical Branch of Engineering. Endogenous pH and drop in the plaque pH after consumption of the drugs were assessed using digital pH meter. Statistical analysis: SPSS software was used to assess the pH level at different time intervals and expressed as mean ± SD. Changes in pH were assessed by one-way ANOVA followed by Wilcoxons signed rank test. P-value was set at 0.05. Result: There were varying amounts of fermentable sucrose detected in the drugs; all the drugs were acidic. There is a significant drop of plaque pH after consumption of the drug. Conclusion: These sweeteners along with their low endogenic pH form a high cariogenic formulation. Thus, nonsucrose (noncariogenic) or sugar-free medications are needed to be prescribed along with proper oral hygiene care to the children under medication.
Physiological Traits and Metabolites of Cacao Seedlings Influenced by Potassium in Growth Medium  [PDF]
Yan-Mei Li, Marshall Elson, Dapeng Zhang, Richard C. Sicher, Hang Liang, Lyndel W. Meinhardt, Virupax Baligar
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.45133

Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is of significant economic importance in several tropical countries but its yield potentials are low mainly because of poor soil fertility especially low levels of potassium (K). Cacao has a high demand for K to maintain healthy growth and production. Knowledge of K use in cacao will help the development of suitable crop management practices and will aid breeding varieties adapted to environments with a limited soil K supply. Using a plant growth chamber, we investigated the growth and physiological traits among three cacao varieties at three levels of growth medium K (52, 156, and 469 mg·plant-1). Significant K effects were observed on growth traits including stem diameter, root length, chlorophyll b, and the ratio of chlorophyll a/b. Significant K effect was also found on carbohydrate metabolites, such as fructose, glucose, myo-inositol, raffinose and starch. However, no K effect was observed in other growth and physiological indicators, including biomass of seedling and net photosynthetic rate. There were significant genotype differences on seedling growth indicators, including stem diameter, stem height, total biomass, leaf biomass, leaf area, root length, chlorophyll a + b and carotenoids. Genotype difference was also found on all measured carbohydrate and starch metabolites, except maltose and raffinose. Results of this study indicate that although K plays a critical role in cacao tree growth and productivity, cacao may be less sensitive to K deficiency during the seedling stage. The present results improved our understanding about K and plants interaction in cacao seedlings, which is useful for crop management and germplasm utilization.

Exploring the Hidden Curriculum in Physical Education  [PDF]
Jinhong Jung, James Ressler, Amy Linder
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2018.82023
Abstract: The term hidden curriculum is not new to education or physical education. It is difficult to explain, sometimes hard to identify, but undoubtedly influential to student learning. This paper differentiates the hidden curriculum from an official curriculum. Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) students (n=35) in an undergraduate Curriculum Design course were asked to recall their experiences with the hidden curriculum in their formal primary and secondary school physical education experiences, identifying negative and positive outcomes veiled at the time. Eight themes emerged from participant responses and are described with specific examples. Five practices are noted for educators to manage the hidden curriculum.
Improvement on the Synthesis of Primary Amino Sugar Derivatives via N-Benzyl Intermediates  [PDF]
Massimo Corsi, Marco Bonanni, Giorgio Catelani, Felicia D’Andrea, Tiziana Gragnani, Roberto Bianchini
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2013.33A005
Abstract: Primary tosylates 1a-d were converted to the corresponding amino species 3a-d. Benzylamine was proved effective for the substitution of tosylates, using acetonitrile (MeCN) as the solvent of choice and citric acid to remove excess of the reagent from crude products 2a-d. Debenzylation was carried out at circa (ca.) atmospheric pressure of hydrogen gas in the presence of acetic acid (AcOH). The method was also demonstrated in a demo batch experiment for the synthesis of compound 3a on a 50 g scale of 1a.
Soybean Seed Nutrition as Affected by Cotton, Wheat, and Fallow Rotation  [PDF]
Nacer Bellaloui, Salliana R. Stetina, William T. Molin
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.516173

Limited information is available on the effects of crop rotation on seed nutrition. Therefore, the objective of the current research was to determine whether crop rotations are beneficial to soybean seed nutrition for the first two complete rotation cycles in an experiment conducted from 2007 through 2012. The first complete rotation cycle (experiment one) was conducted in 2009, then repeated in 2010, and the second complete rotation cycle (experiment two) was conducted in 2011, and then repeated in 2012. The rotation sequences were: wheat-late cotton-fallow-soybean (WCFS), fallow-cotton-wheat-soybean (FCWS), and fallow-cotton-fallow-soybean (FCFS). The results showed that WCFS and FCFS resulted in higher seed oil, palmitic and stearic acids, glucose, sucrose, fructose, Fe, P, and B. No consistent effects on seed protein, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, raffinose, stachyose, and Mn contents were observed. These changes were accompanied by higher P, K, B, Fe in soil and N, K, and B in leaves, indicating that soil and leaf nutrients may result in continuous supply and mobility of nutrients from leaves to seed during seed fill. Our research demonstrated that crop rotation management can result in seed nutrient changes, affecting seed quality.

Nutritional Composition of Orange Juice: A Comparative Study between French Commercial and Home-Made Juices  [PDF]
Aurelie Chanson-Rolle, Veronique Braesco, Julien Chupin, Laurence Bouillot
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.74027
Abstract: The study aimed to compare the nutritional composition of commercial and home-made orange juices with a fruit content of 100%, i.e., without dilution with water and without addition of sugars or any other sweeteners. Orange juice samples (n = 12 for both types of juice) were representative of the French market and of French consumers’ habits as determined by a consumer survey. The results showed that both types of juices contained the same concentrations in total sugars and polyphenols and had low levels of dietary fiber (P > 0.05 for all parameters). Commercial orange juice contained less vitamin C (P = 0.035) and folate (P = 0.002) than home-made juice (15% and 27% less, respectively), probably owing to the vitamin degradation that may occur during industrial production (e.g., during pasteurization) and storage of commercial orange juice. The observed differences were of relatively small magnitude overall, however, and within the expected ranges for vitamin loss due to pasteurization and storage at ambient temperature. Indeed, commercial orange juice contained 85% of the vitamin C concentration measured in home-made juice, showing that vitamin C was well preserved in commercial juice. Another study with a larger number of samples would be needed to confirm these observations.
Identification and Quantification of Monosaccharides in Aloe vera Gel by Acid and Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Wet Heat Treatment  [PDF]
Dianeli Madera Pi?a, Carlos Hernán Herrera Méndez, Lourdes Vargas y Vargas, Herbert Loria Sunza, Jorge Tamayo Cortez
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.88060
Abstract: Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) possesses curative and therapeutic properties attributed to the polysaccharides found in its tissue. This work aimed to study hydrolyzed (chemical and enzymatical) Aloe vera gel extracts using ultrafiltration membranes with a pore size of 0.22 micron (μm). Nine chemical treatments were achieved with H2SO4 and three wet heat treatments were carried out at a pressure of 1.2 lbf/in2 for 15 minutes; in both cases, three different concentrations of Aloe vera gel juice (AGJ) were used: 1.5%, 2.5% and 3.5% w/w. The concentrations of H2SO4 were 0.10%, 0.25% and 0.40% w/w. Chemical experiments are performed over a factorial 32 design and results were analyzed using SPSS software (version 17, SPSS Inc.), finding the one labeled T7 (15 ml of AGJ 3.5% with 15 ml of H2SO4 0.10% added) the best of them, as it leaded to 0.0446 mg/ml of liberated glucose. Among the three wet heat treatments, the one labeled TC3 (15 ml of AGJ 3.5% with 15 ml of H2O added) was the best-performing one, as it leaded to 0.292 mg/ml of liberated glucose. Furthermore, an enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out using Novozymes’ Pectinex? AR and Viscozyme?. Hydrolisis with both enzymes yield to better results than acid hydrolysis: in the treatment with Pectinex? AR, 3.282 mg/ml of liberated glucose were obtained and 3.302 mg/ml in the treatment with Viscozyme?. The hydrolyzed substances obtained by acid and enzymatic hydrolysis, as well as by wet heat treatment, were subsequently analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC), using glucose, galactose and arabinose 1000 ppm solutions as reference patterns. Among the treatments by H2SO4, the one labeled T4 obtained an Rf value of 50, the same as on the galactose reference pattern.
Investigating the Effect of Supplementary Feeding on Carbohydrate Composition and Quantity of Royal Jelly  [PDF]
Dimitrios Kanelis, Chrysoula Tananaki, Vasilios Liolios, Maria-Anna Rodopoulou, Georgios Goras, Nikolia Argena, Andreas Thrasyvoulou
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2018.84011
Abstract: One of the main practices followed by beekeepers during the production of royal jelly (RJ) is the artificial sugar feeding. In this study, the effect of carbohydrate supplementary feeding on the composition of the three main sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose) and on the final quantity of the product was explored using one-way ANOVA and non-parametric tests. Also, the correlations among the parameters were examined. The average yield per colony for non-supplemented colonies (Group A) was 12.8 g, while the average content of fructose, glucose and sucrose was 4.32%, 3.78%, and 0.04%, respectively. For the colonies fed at the grafting day one time (Group B), these values were 12.76 g, 3.11%, 3.19% and 3.71%, and for the colonies fed from the insertion until the collection day (Group C), 12.81 g, 3.05%, 3.12% and 3.54% respectively. It should also be noted that the sucrose content in all samples from supplemented colonies was found greater than 1.97%. The statistical tests highlighted the impact of artificial feeding on fructose and glucose contents, while the produced quantity remained uninfluenced. Finally, the Spearman (rho) coefficient test showed statistically significantly negative correlation between the monosaccharides (fructose, glucose) and sucrose.
Hidden Information, Energy Dispersion and Disorder: Does Entropy Really Measure Disorder?  [PDF]
Driss Soubane, Mohamed El Garah, Mohamed Bouhassoune, Ahmed Tirbiyine, Abdelaziz Ramzi, Said Laasri
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2018.84014
Abstract: Despite its appearance in physics around the 1850th, the second law of thermodynamics is still attracting more efforts to be clarified. More specifically, fifteen years later (1865) after its definition and introduction, entropy has been the subject of various interpretations. Hence, in physical sciences and notably in different education levels, its concept seems to be relatively tough to unambiguous decipher. In this work, we re-introduce the notion of entropy from classical, quantum and information theories viewpoints. The controversial over entropy and a measure of disorder misconception, stated by many scientists, is addressed as well to come up with less confusing physical interpretation of entropy. Hence, over time, an increase of entropy, a quantitative quantity, is most often associated to a rising of disorder, a non-quantitative quantity and no value-returning mathematical equation, rather than a continuously increasing of hidden data. In other words, linking disorder to hidden data is typically raising more confusion than clarification. Here, we shed more light on both concepts to find out an acceptable interpretation of entropy.
Effect of Time of Planting on Cane Yield and Quality Characters in Sweet Sorghum  [PDF]
Chamarthy Venkata Ratnavathi, Sivanuri Ravi Kumar, Bathula Swaroop Vijay Kumar, Dasari Gopala Krishna, Jagannath Vishnu Patil
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2012.21001
Abstract: Sweet sorghum unlike grain sorghum has potential to accumulate sugars in stalks similar to sugarcane. Short duration and lower water requirements of sweet sorghum are other advantages over sugarcane. Sorghum is usually grown in kharif and rabi seasons. As an energy crop, industry demands supply of green cane as raw material through out the year. Hence this agronomic study was conducted to determine suitable time of planting of sweet sorghum under the agro climatic conditions prevailing in India, so that continuous supply of raw material is assured for factory operations through out the year, especially during the lean period of sugarcane crushing. Various physical and chemical characters of plant and stem juice were studied by taking up bimonthly plantings at four locations using 12 genotypes of sweet sorghum in the first year and quarterly plantings at four locations using 10 genotypes (8 genotypes common in both years) in the second year. Of the six plantings, planting during August and April were found to be not suitable for good sweet sorghum yields, therefore, in the second year, four plantings were taken up i.e., June, October, December and February at six locations. The various attributes selected for observations include cane yield, percent brix of stem juice, percent juice extractability, percent total soluble sugars and reducing sugars in the stem juice. Highest green cane yield and percent juice extractability was observed in June planting in all genotypes followed by February, and December in both bimonthly and quarterly plantings. Juice extraction percentage was also highest in June plantings followed by October, April and December plantings. June plantings recorded highest percent brix followed by December and February plantings in bimonthly plantings, while in quarterly planting, highest percent brix and total sugars in juice was observed in February planting followed by planting in June.
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